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The desire to possess honorary distinctions has shown 

itself in various shapes, from very remote times, and among 

nations strangely dissimilar ; and to be able to wear them on 

the person as evidence of some particular qualification in the 

individual, or acknowledgment of important service rendered 

by him to his country, has been an object of human ambition, 

almost from time immemorial. The value of these incentives 

to exertion was found out by every government that could 

maintain pretensions to civilization, and as society assumed 

the more regular elements of organization, such personal 

h distinctions multiplied in all the settled States of the Old 

- and New World. Objects, trivial in their nature, when 

V applied to this purpose, assumed a new and absorbing interest, 

and at opposite parts of the globe similar badges of superiority 

were equally prized and coveted. Such were the Button of 

the Mandarin, the Fleece of the Spanish Grandee, and the Garter 

of the English Knight. Other forms were pressed into the 

service, and chains, ribbons, medals and crosses formed part 

of their insignia. In the various Continental Courts, honorable 

decorations have become numerous, extending even to the 


artizan class of the community, among which skilful work- 
manship furnishes a claim to such distinction ; others of a 
purely military character are distributed to private soldiers — 
while civilians may aspire to a recognition of intrepidity in 
the medal given " for saving from danger." Indeed, Merit 
in almost every form, is acknowledged and rewarded. 

In our own country, orders are few, and are sparingly 
distributed, and medals only bestowed by the Sovereign for 
eminent military or naval service ; this renders them more 
prized by their possessors, and more precious in general 
estimation. An addition has recently been made to the very 
limited list, in the shape of a decoration for rewarding parti- 
cular acts of valour; this, however, like the others, belongs 
exclusively to the Military and Naval services. Civil Merit 
has been less considered — the Orders of the Bath and the 
Garter being out of the reach of a very large majority of 
talented civilians, falling occasionally only to some skilful 
diplomatist, or influential statesman. A few private Societies 
to some extent supply the omissions of the State — the Humane 
Society providing the ' Saving from Danger' medal, and more 
than one scientific and learned Association, in a like manner, re- 
cognising superior intelligence and skill. These are decorations, 
however, which not being recognized by the Sovereign, are of 
course not worn at Court. 

Within the last few years, the number of such objects of 
ambition accessible to our countrymen, has been greatly 
increased from foreign sources, particularly from India, France, 


Turkey and Sardinia, which Governments have bestowed 
them liberally, in acknowledgment of merit or daring in 
certain hazardous services. This has drawn greater at- 
tention to the Honorary Decorations and Orders of other 
countries. Hitherto, however, our knowledge of them has been 
extremely imperfect; no English publication existing which 
represented them to the eye, or included the entire series. 
The value of an authority on such a subject, in which the 
reader can ascertain who has been decorated, and what 
is the character of the decoration, must be obvious. To 
supply this desideratum, a full account has been compiled from 
the best authorities, of all the orders, with a description of every 
distinction now worn at home and abroad; and trustworthy 
lists have been appended, brought down to the latest announce- 
ments, of the English recipients of both. The Illustrations will 
speak for themselves. It is only necessary to add, that every 
possible care Jias been taken to render the volume worthy of 
general patronage. 

«£ " 



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The Order common to the three Anhalt Duchies, is ' Albert 
the Bear/ founded by Prince Sigismund I. about 1382, and 
renewed, on the 18th November, 1836, by the Dukes Henry, 
Leopold Frederick, and Alexander Charles, " in honour," as 
the patent says, " of their illustrious ancestors, and for the 
purpose of being presented as a token of honour and 
distinction to their meritorious subjects." The Order consists 
of three classes: Knights of the Grand Cross, Commanders, 
and (simple) Knights. 

The decoration of the Grand Cross (Plate 2. Tab. I. No. 2) 
is worn across the right shoulder, towards the left side, by a 
green watered ribbon with two poppy-coloured stripes, and is 
accompanied by a star (No. 1). The Commanders wear it 
round the neck, suspended by a similar but narrower ribbon 
(No. 3), while the Knights suspend it at the button-hole, by a 
ribbon of a like character, not so broad. 



In connection with the Order is a gold and silver Medal of 
Merit. The impression on it is the same as on the former, 
viz.: 'Albert der Bar, reg. 1123 — 1170/ (Albert the Bear, 
reigned from 1123 to 1170), on the obverse; and " Fiirchte 
Gott und scheue Niemand ' (Fear God and no one besides), on 
the reverse. (Plate 2. Tab. I. Nos. 4 and 5). 

To the branch of Anhalt-Koethen specially, belong — 

1. The Initial Decoration, founded by the late Duke 
Ferdinand. The initial was originally an ' F,' but, since the 
accession of Duke Henry in 1830, it has been changed into 
an ' H.' The decoration is set in brilliants, and is presented 
for long faithful service. It is worn round the neck, suspended 
by a ribbon of white and green colours ; and has only one 

2. Medal of Merit, Loyalty, and Attachment. (PI. 3. Tab. II. 
Nos. 8 and 9.) It was founded in 1835 by Duke Henry, 
and is divided into two classes : Gold and Silver. It is worn 
suspended by a white watered ribbon with a green stripe near 
each edge. 

3. The War Medal for the campaigns of 1813, 1814, and 
1815 (No. 10). It was founded in 1819, by Duke Ferdinand 
Frederick, and distributed amongst the troops who were 
engaged in one or all of the battles of those campaigns. It is 
of iron, with the initial ' L ' (that of ' Louis,' the then reigning 
Duke) on the obverse; and the legend, 'Den Vaterland's 
Vertheidigern 1813, 1814 und 1815 ' (To the defenders of the 
Fatherland, 1813, 1814, and 1815) on the reverse. 

It is worn suspended by a white ribbon with four narrow 
green stripes (No. 7). 

The Anhalt-Dessau branch possesses (besides the one 
common to all three) the ' Cross of Volunteers for the campaigns 
of 1813, 1814 and 1815.' (Tab. II. No. 10). It was 
bestowed in 1823 by Duke Leopold Frederick on all those who 


already in possession of a mark of military distinction in the 
shape of a ribbon, founded and presented by his predecessor, 
Leopold Frederic Francis, in 1816. On the reverse is the 
inscription, ' Anhalt's tapfern Kriegern, 1814 — 1815' (To 
Anhalt's brave warriors, 1814 — 1815). 

The third branch of the ducal house of Anhalt-Bernburg has 
also founded a War Medal for the campaigns of 1814 and 
1815. It is of iron, with the initials of the Duke Alexius 
Frederic Christian on the obverse, and the inscription, 'Den 
Vertheidigern des Vaterlandes, 1814—1815 ' (To the defenders 
of the Fatherland, 1814—1815) on the reverse. It is worn 
suspended by a green watered ribbon with two broad white 
stripes and edgings (No. 6). 

Suspended by a similar ribbon, is also worn a Gold<-a Medal 
of Civil Service, the obverse of which is the same as that of 
No. 6. The inscription on the reverse marks the cause of the 
distinction, which is : ' Flir funfzig-jahrige Diensttreue ' (For fifty 
years' loyal service). 

To the above three classes of the Order ' Albert the Bear,' a 
fourth class was added, on the 24th February, 1850, at Dessau, 
the residence of the present oldest reigning Duke. It possesses 
a second class Commanders. All the four classes wear the 
insignia as given in Table I. Nos. 2 and 3, in addition to the 
old family escutcheon of the Behrings, viz. : on the obverse, a 
bear with a crown and collar placed upon a rising wall towards 
the left ; in the middle scutcheon are seen the Anhalt Arms, 
while the reverse exhibits below the eye or catch, the Ascanian 
Arms. The only distinction of the three classes consists in 
their different sizes. The Knights of the Grand Cross wear it 
across the right shoulder suspended by a broad ribbon of the 
colours given in the Table, accompanied by a star (No. 1) 
fastened to the left side of the breast. The Commanders of the 
1st Class wear it round the neck, accompanied by a star, in the 

b 2 


form of a cross, the rays of which are connected with each 
other by golden wreaths of rue, while the middle is the same 
as that of the star of the Grand Cross. The (simple) Knights 
wear it at the button-hole. 

The oldest member of the ducal family is Grand Master of 
the Order, but he consults the other Dukes on all important 
matters connected with the Order. 


Anhalt's Decoration of Merit, for saving from danger, was 
founded in December, 1850. It consists of a silver medal, and 
contains, on the obverse, the bear, crown, and inscriptions of 
the former insignia, and on the reverse an oak wreath, with the 
legend : ' Fur Rettung von Gefahr ' (For saving from danger). 
It is worn at the button-hole, suspended by a green watered 
ribbon with two narrow red stripes. 

On the 29th October, 1847, a new decoration was created at 
Anhalt-Koethen, for distinguished service by the Anhalt- 
Koethen Contingency to the German Bund. The death of the 
Duke, however, which occurred on the 23rd November, 1847, 
by which the male dynasty became extinct, retarded the 
publication of the patent until the 9th December, when Duke 
Leopold Frederick of Anhalt-Dessau ordered that the decoration 
should contain the initial of the deceased Duke, though he 
postponed the distribution until after a final convention, relating 
to the government, was concluded with Duke Alexander Charles 
of Anhalt Bernburg. 

It is a military decoration bestowed for a certain number 
of years' service ; those spent in campaigns count double, 
while those passed in prison go for nothing. To the third 
class belong sergeants and privates ; the badge consists of a 

A Nil ALT. Tabic I. 


Hurst anil BUrkctt, Loudon. I808. 

A Nil ALT. Table II. 


Ilursrt and IllaHell, London. IKI8. 


black iron buckle mounted in silver : the middle contains the 
Arms of the ducal house, with the initial ' H ' to the right, 
and the cypher 'IX' to the left (indicating nine years' service). 
That of the second class is a silver buckle with a black edge, 
and the cypher ' XV ' (fifteen years' service) on it. That of 
the first class is a similar buckle, but of gold, mounted in 
silver, with the cypher ' XXI ' (twenty-one years' service) 
on it. 

The decoration for officers consists of an octagonal golden 
cross (worn with the same ribbon) ; the round middle scutcheon 
is white enamelled, and contains on the obverse the initial of 
the Duke, with the ducal crown above it, and on the reverse the 
cypher ' XXV ' in gold (indicating twenty-five years' service, 
including the period of subordinate rank). 

Also in Anhalt-Dessau was established, on the 1st of 
February, 1848, a similar decoration of honour: known as the 
Military Distinction for Anhalt-Dessau. 

For sergeants and common soldiers, the badge is a silver 
buckle ; the centre contains the ducal arms, with the initial of 
the Duke to the right, and the cypher ' XII ' (for the second 
class), or ' XX ' (for the first), to the left. It is worn on the 
left side of the breast, suspended by a green ribbon, the half- 
width of which protrudes on each side of the buckle. For 
officers and military surgeons, the decoration is a golden 
octagonal cross, white enamelled in the middle, bearing on the 
obverse the initial of the Duke, with the ducal crown above it, 
and on the reverse the cypher ' XXV,' both in golden letters ; 
it is likewise worn by a green ribbon upon the left side of the 

When the decoration of the higher class is obtained, that of 
the inferior must be returned. 



The ' Order of the Fleece ' was founded by Philip le Bon 
(Duke of Burgundy and the Netherlands), on the 10th January, 
1429, the day of his marriage with the Princess Isabelle of 
Portugal. The number of the members was originally fixed at 
thirty-one, including the sovereign, as the head and chief of the 
institution. They were to be : ' Gentilshommes de nom et 
d'armes sans reproche.' In 1516, Pope Leo X. consented to 
increase the number to fifty-two, including the head. 

After the accession of Charles V., in 1556, the Austro- 
Spanish, or rather, the Spanish-Dutch line of the house of 
Austria, remained in possession of the Order. In 1700, the 
Emperor Charles VI. and King Philip of Spain both laid claim 
to it. The former, however, on leaving Spain — which he could 
not maintain by force of arms — took with him to Vienna the 
archives of the Order, the inauguration of which he solemnized 
there, in 1713, with vast splendour; but Philip V. of Spain 
declared himself Grand Master, and formally protested, at the 
Congress of Cambrai, (1721), against the pretensions of the 
German Emperor. The dispute, though subsequently settled 
by the intercession of France, England and Holland, was 
frequently renewed, until the Order was tacitly introduced into 
both countries, and it now passes by the respective names of the 

AUSTRIA. Table I. 

PLATE 4 . 

Hu-rsi ;md ItlnHeii, London. 18-"S 


Spanish or Austrian ' Order of the Golden Fleece,' according to 
the country where it is issued. 

The principal provisions of the statutes of the Order, now in 
force in Austria, are : 

1. The uncontrolled power of the head to create any number 
of members, from the Catholic and ancient high nobility of the 
realm. (If a Protestant, the consent of the Pope must first be 

2. The duty of the members to assist the head in war and 
other perilous situations. 

3. The prohibition against members entering any foreign 
service without special permission. 

4. By high treason or cowardice in war, the Order to be 

5. All disputes between members to be settled amicably by 
the Chapter. 

The insignia of the Order consist of a Golden Fleece hanging 
on a golden blue-enamelled flint stone, emitting flames of fire, 
and borne, in its turn, by a ray of fire. On the enamelled 
obverse are inscribed the words (from Claudian) ' Pretium 
laborum non vile' (Not a bad reward for labour). (Plate 4. 
Tab. I. No. 1.) 

The members were originally enjoined to wear the deco- 
ration constantly round the neck by a golden chain, the 
links of which were equally to consist of fire-stones and rays 
(Tab. I. No. 8). The chain having, however, been found too 
cumbersome for the wearer, Charles V. allowed the substitution 
of a red ribbon, by which the insignia may be worn either round 
the neck, or at the button-hole. At present, it is usually worn 
round the neck, except on solemn occasions, when the chain is 
worn over the collar round the neck. 

The costume of the Knights on particular solemn occasions 
consists of a long robe of deep red velvet lined with white 


taffetas, over which is thrown a long mantle of purple velvet, 
lined with white satin, and richly trimmed with embroidery, 
containing fire-stones and steels, emitting flames and sparks. 
On the hem, which is equally of white satin, are repeatedly 
embroidered in gold, the words, ' Je l'ay empris ' (I have 
accepted it — the Order). The original inscription was: 'Autre 
n'auray ' (I will have no other — Order), which was, however, 
substituted by the former phrase, by Charles the Bold, son of 
the founder. The head is covered by a cap of purple velvet, 
equally set with gold embroidery, and behind which is attached 
a little hood. The shoes and stockings are red. 

The annual festival of the Order is celebrated at Vienna on 
St. Andrew's Day (30th November), or on the following 
Sunday, when the Emperor and all the Knights, then present 
at Vienna, repair in procession and mil costume to the Court 
Chapel to hear Divine Service, and thence return to the castle 
to dine at open table in the * Knights' Saloon.' 

The Chapter meets in the Court Chapel every year on the 
6th January. 


This is a purely military Order, founded by the Empress 
Maria Theresa in 1757, in acknowledgment of the valour, 
wisdom, and loyalty displayed by her officers in the memorable 
contests of her reign. Her Royal Consort, the Emperor Francis 
I., took upon himself the office of first Grand Master; and that 
high dignity is fixed by the statutes (published 1758) to belong 
to the sovereigns of Austria for ever after. 

The claims to the Order rest chiefly on personal military 
merit, irrespective of birth, duty, favour, family connection, or 
long service. 


The number of members is unlimited ; but it hardly 
amounts, at the present moment, to a hundred. 

All superior officers (including ensigns and cornets), indis- 
criminately, and without regard to religion, rank, or other 
circumstances, are eligible for the Order. 

Originally, there existed only two classes : Knights of the 
Grand Cross, and simple Knights ; but the Emperor Joseph II. 
added (1765) a third class — that of Commanders. 

The badge of the Order (Plate IV. Tab. I. Nos. 3 and 4) 
is an octagonal cross, enamelled white, and set in gold. The 
centre, also in gold, contains the Austrian Arms, surrounded by a 
white margin, in which is inscribed the word : ' Fortitudini ' (For 
valour), in golden letters. The reverse shows, on white ground, 
the initials, in monogram, ' M. T. F. ' (Maria Theresa [and] 
Francis), encompassed by a golden ring and laurel wreath. The 
ribbon has the colours of the Austrian Arms, and is divided 
into three stripes — the middle being white, and the two 
extremes poppy-colour. 

The Knights of the Grand Cross wear the insignia on a 
broad ribbon of the same colour, across the right shoulder 
towards the left hip, while the left side of the breast is adorned 
with a star, the face of which represents the Order, embroi- 
dered in silver, resting on a laurel wreath (No. 2). This 
star was added by the Emperor Joseph II. in 1765. 

The Commanders wear the decoration round the neck, on a 
somewhat smaller ribbon, and without the addition of the star ; 
while the simple Knights suspend it from the button-hole by 
a ribbon about an inch and a half wide. 

The . Order is held in high estimation, on account of the 
rareness of its distribution. It is, according to the injunc- 
tions of the founder, reserved for extraordinary exploits of 
military success and skill. 



St. Stephen, intended originally to be the National Order of 
Hungary, also owes its institution to the Empress Maria Theresa, 
and was designed as a reward for civil distinction and merit. It 
was founded on the 5th May, 1764, on the day when the 
presumptive heir to the throne, the Archduke Joseph (afterwards 
the Emperor Joseph II.), was crowned King of Rome. The name 
was given in honour of the founder of the Hungarian king- 
dom, St. Stephen. By the statutes, the Grand Mastership of 
the Order is vested in the Crown of Hungary, and the College 
is to consist of a hundred noble Knights distinguished by merit. 
They are divided into : Knights of the Grand Cross (to the 
number of twenty), Commanders (to the number of thirty), and 
Knights simple, (to the number of fifty). 

The badge (Plate IV. Tab. I. Nos. 6 and 7) is an octagonal 
cross, green-enamelled, with a golden edge, and containing 
another cross in the red-enamelled centre. On the obverse of the 
middle scutcheon is seen the Apostolic silver cross within a 
golden crown placed on a green mountain, bearing on both 
sides the initials of the founder : ' M. T. ' (Maria Theresa), with 
the legend : ' Publicum Meritorum Prsemium ' (Public reward 
of merit). The white-enamelled reverse of the scutcheon exhibits 
a cross of oak-leaf, with the legend : ' Sto. St. Ri. Ap.' (Sancto 
Stephano, Regi Apostolico). Above the cross is appended the 
Hungarian crown of gold. Green and red are the two national 
colours of Hungary, while the Apostolic cross indicates the 
renewed Apostolic title of the founder of the Order. 

The Order is suspended by a red ribbon with green borders, 
and is worn by the Knights of the Grand Cross — if laymen — 
across the right shoulder, and, if ecclesiastics, round the neck. 


The Grand Cross Knights wear in addition, on the left side of 
the breast, a cross embroidered with silver, in the centre of 
which is seen the obverse of the badge, surrounded by a 
wreath of oak-leaves (No. 5.) 

The Commanders carry the decoration, suspended by a 
narrow ribbon, round the neck, without the star; while the 
Knights wear it, by a small and narrow ribbon, at the button- 

The Grand and Commander-crosses are to be presented only 
to persons of high and ancient nobility, or to high functionaries 
of the State ; while that of the Knights may be conferred upon 
the inferior nobility. 

The annual festival is celebrated on St. Stephen's Day (26th 
December), or on the following Sunday. 

The Costume of all the Knights, at public processions, con- 
sists of a long mantle of green velvet, bordered with ermine, 
and lined with crimson taffetas. The under-garment and the 
cap are of crimson velvet ; the latter is edged with ermine, and 
ornamented with heron-feathers, placed in a red and green 
enamelled sheath. 

The under-garment of the Knights of the Grand Cross is 
richly covered with embroidered oak leaves, while that of 
the Commanders, and simple Knights, has an embroidered 
border, the only distinction being in the size of the 
border, which, in the last, is somewhat smaller. (Plate V. 
Tab. IT. No. 14.) 

The embroidery represents oak leaves closely joined to each 
other, being emblematic of honour for civil services. 

The Knights of the Grand Cross wear, in addition, on the 
festivals, or on any other solemn occasion, a golden collar, the 
links consisting alternately of the initials of St. Stephen and the 
founder of the Order, with the Hungarian crown between 
them. In the centre is the Golden Eagle, the bearing of 


the house of Austria, with the inscription : ' Stringit Amore ' 
(United by love). 

Only the Grand Cross Knights and the presumptive heirs 
to the throne, or other members, by special permission of 
the Grand Master, are free to adorn the insignia with precious 

The most distinguished officers of the Order are, besides the 
Grand Master: 1st, the Prelate appointed by the Grand Master 
from the higher clergy, who performs Divine Service on their 
festival days; and 2nd, the Chancellor, who addresses the 
meeting when the Chapter is held, or when a new Knight is 
created, who reads the oath to be taken, sits at the side of the 
Grand Master on solemn occasions, reports the state of affairs, 
orders the issue of decrees, and is also the keeper of the Seal. 
The Chancellorship of the Order is always vested in the Court- 
Chancellor of Hungary. 

Every Knight of the Grand Cross becomes, on his election, 
a Privy-Counsellor of the State ; and every Commander a titular 
Privy-Counsellor. The simple Knights may, at their desire, be 
created Barons, and even Counts, according to circumstances. 

In decrees, the Grand Master styles the Knights of the 
Grand Cross, ' Cousins.' 

Every aspirant to the Grand Cross must prove his Sieze 
Quartiers, that is, his noble descent through, at least, four 
generations; but the Grand Master may make exceptions in 
favour of individuals of particular merit and distinction. 

At the nomination of candidates, and after the latter have 
taken the oath of the Order (kneeling before a crucifix), the 
Grand Master addresses them in Latin, as follows : 

" Quam juris jurandi religione prompti novistis observantiam 
" et fidem, illam, ut strenuos ac honoratos decet Equites, omni 
"loco ac tempore vos integram servaturos prorsus non ambi- 
"gimus. Recepturi igitur de inanu Nostra per Nos vobis 


" designatum Ordinis Signum, eorum, quoe nunc religionc 
" spopondistis inviolabilem memoriam conservatc. Nos autem 
"gratiam et benevolentiam Nostram vobis confirmamus." 
(We doubt not, for a single moment, that you will steadfastly 
adhere, as becomes brave and honourable knights, to the vow 
of respect and loyalty made by your oath. In receiving, there- 
fore, from our hands the insignia of the Order destined for 
you, keep the contents of your solemn oath inviolably in your 
memory, while, on our part, we assure you of our favour and 

The Grand Master has power to dispense with the oath in 
some particular cases. 

The nomination of a new member usually takes place on St. 
Stephen's Day. At the moment of investiture, the Grand 
Master addresses the candidate in the following words : 
" Accipe Signum Ordinis Equitum S. Stephani, publicum sin- 
gularium" (the last word is only used at the nomination of a 
Grand Cross Knight), " meritorum tuorum testimonium ac 
" prsemium, illudque semper adpensum gerito, ut nempe quid 
" Deo, Nobis Domuique Nostrse, atque Ordinis hujus dignitati 
" debeas, honoris, quem a Nobis, accepisti, magnitudine moni- 
" tus, nunquam ignorare possis." (At the nomination of the 
other Knights — of Commanders and simple Knights — the form 
is : " Honoris, quod a Nobis hodie accepisti, insigni monitus," 
&c.) (Receive the insignia of the Order of St. Stephen as a 
public testimony of your [peculiar] merits, and wear them 
always about you, to remind you constantly of the distinguished 
honour bestowed upon you to-day by us, that you may never 
forget what you owe to God, to ourselves, to our house, and 
to the dignity of the Order). 

The Diploma is given to the Knights of the Grand Cross in 
the form of a book, and to the other Knights in the form of a 




As the Order of St. Stephen was exclusively destined for the 
nobility, the Emperor Francis I. founded, on the 7th January, 
1808 — the day after his marriage with his third wife, Louise of 
Modena — a new Order, named after the Emperor Leopold II., 
and extended it to all meritorious subjects, civil or military, 
without regard to rank or birth. 

The first distribution of the Order took place on the 8th 
January, 1809. 

The Austrian Emperors are the sole Grand Masters, and 
have full power to confer the Order upon any one they 

The badge (Plate II. Nos. 10 and 11) is an octagonal 
red enamelled cross of gold, and white encasement. On the 
obverse of the round red centre are, in monogram, the 
initials ' F. I. A. ' (Franciscus Imperator Austrise), while in the 
white mounting are the words : « Integritate et Merito ' (For 
integrity and merit). The reverse is white, surrounded by a 
golden oak wreath, and containing the motto of the Emperor 
Leopold II. : « Opes regum corda subditorum " (The riches of 
kings are the hearts of their subjects). Between each of the 
four arms of the cross are seen three oak leaves with two 
acorns, while the whole is surmounted by the imperial crown 
of Austria. 

This Order is also divided into three classes. The Knights 
of the Grand Cross wear the decoration across the right 
shoulder, suspended by a red ribbon with white stripes at the 
borders, loosely hanging towards the left hip. Close to it, on 
the left side of the breast, is a silver octagonal star, the centre 
of which contains the obverse of the cross insignia. (Plate V. 

AUSTRIA. Table 11. 

PLATK .'i. 

Hurst anil Blarkctt, l.onrtnn. I808. 


Tab. II., No. 9.) On festival days, the cross is worn upon the 
breast, suspended by a golden neck chain, the links of which 
consist alternately of the monogram initials ' F. L,' (Francis and 
Leopold) with the Austrian crown above them, and of wreaths 
of oak leaves. 

The Commanders wear their cross round the neck, suspended 
by a smaller and rather narrower ribbon (about an inch wide), 
while the Knights (simple) wear the cross of a smaller size, at the 
button-hole of the left breast, by a narrow ribbon of about half 
an inch wide. 

The uniform or costume with the exception of the mantle, 
is for all classes red and white, (the national colours of 
Austria). The coat with an upright collar, breeches, shoes, 
and cap, are all of red velvet. The coat is lined white, and 
edged with golden embroidery four inches deep, representing 
garlands of oak leaves. The shoes are adorned with bows of 
gold lace instead of buckles: The body is girded with a white 
silk sash richly trimmed with golden fringes hanging over 
the sword, which is adorned with gilt bronze, the hilt forming a 
cross. At one side of the pommel are the initials ' F. I. A.' 
and at the other, the foundation year of the Order. The 
scabbard is covered with red velvet. The cap is adorned with 
white feathers, and with a golden cord, which is twisted round 
it three times. The neck-collar, four inches wide, is of cambric 
linen, it falls down the neck, and is trimmed with gold lace. 
The gloves, of white leather, have large gauntlets adorned with 
golden fringes. The white velvet mantle — the symbol or 
knightly purity and virtue — distinguishes the various classes by 
its length and width, as also by the depth of its golden em- 
broidery, and by the trimming of white silk plush in imitation 
of ermine. 

The cross of the Officers is set in a large golden medal, 
encircled by the legend. It is worn round the neck sus- 


pended by the ribbon. The ceremonies of nomination are 
nearly the same as those of the ' Maria Theresa Order,' while 
the Oath is made in German, as follows : 

" I, N. N., swear to God, to observe, at all times, and on 
" all occasions, until the end of my life, inviolably and most 
"strictly, my duty of loyalty and veneration towards His 
"Majesty, the reigning Emperor, as Grand Master of the 
" Sublime Order of Leopold, as also towards his illustrious suc- 
" cessors, and the whole Arch-Ducal House of Austria, and to 
" contribute, to the best of my power, to all and everything 
" that may conduce to the safety, glory, and growth of the 
" Austrian Empire, as also to prevent, on the other hand, as 
" much as lies in my power, everything that might tend to 
" injure the power of the Order, and its legitimate representa- 
" tives. I finally swear, to act up strictly to the laws and 
" statutes of the Order, as well as to the commands of His 
" Majesty, as Grand Master of the Order, and to wear con- 
" stantly about me the insignia of the Order. So help me 
" God." 

The Grand Master has the power to dispense with the oath 
in some individual cases. Candidates unacquainted with the 
German may take the Oath in Latin. In handing over the 
insignia to the candidate, the Grand Master says (in Latin or 
German) : 

" We are convinced that you will, as becomes a valiant and 
" upright knight, always keep faithfully the promises in your 
" oath. Receive, therefore, the badge of the Order of Leopold 
" as a reward of your merits, and which you are bound always 
" to wear about you, that the mark of honour bestowed upon 
" you may always be present to your mind, and remind you of 
" what you owe to God, ourselves, our House, and the dignity 
" of the Order." 

Without special permission (which is, however, never refused) 


no foreign order can be worn at the side of that of Leopold. 
The festival is always held in the Court Chapel on the first 
Sunday after Twelfth-day. 

The rights and privileges of the members are the same as 
those of the Order of St. Stephen. No one can be honoured with 
the latter without previously possessing the corresponding 
degree of the Order of Leopold, so that every class of the 
latter must precede that of St. Stephen. 


The Order of Elizabeth Theresa, the second Military Order of 
Austria, was founded, in 1750, by Elizabeth Christina, relict 
of the Emperor Charles VI. The number of the Knights was 
originally limited to twenty officers, from the rank of Colonel 
up to that of General, who had loyally served the House of 
Austria for a term of thirty years ; but it was increased to 
twenty-one in 1771, by the daughter of the founder, the Empress 
Maria Theresa, at the time when the Order was renewed and 
underwent some modifications. 

The Order consists of three classes, the first of which numbers 
six, the second eight, and the third seven Knights ; it is 
endowed with a revenue of 16,000 fl. (£1,600), out of which 
the members receive pensions of 1000 (£i00), 800 (£80), and 
500 fl. (£50) respectively. When a vacancy occurs, by decease 
or otherwise, the War Department sends in a list of eligible 
candidates, having exclusive regard to merit, without distinction 
of birth, country, religion, or the possession of any other order, 
and from that list the Emperor makes his choice. 

The badge (Plate 5, Tab. II. No. 15) is an octagonal star 
set in gold, the points of which are enamelled partly red and 
partly white ; in the middle is an oval scutcheon with a golden 
edge, round which is inscribed : ' M. Theresa parentis gratiam 




perennem voluit ' (Maria Theresa wished to give perpetual du- 
ration to the gracious favour of her mother), while the centre 
contains, beneath the Imperial crown, the initials in monogram, 
' E. C. and M. T. ' (Elizabeth Christina and Maria Theresa). 
All the Knights wear it, without further distinction, appended 
to an Imperial Crown at the button hole of the left side, sus- 
pended by a black silk ribbon. 

Annually on the 19th November (the feast of St. Elizabeth) 
solemn high mass is held in the Church of the Augustine 
Friars, at Vienna, in the presence of all the Knights, Generals, 
Staff and Sub-Officers of the Vienna garrison. The Catholic 
Knights are bound to say three times every day, a Pater 
Noster and Ave Maria for the deceased founder, and the 
reigning sovereign; while the non-Catholic Knights pay 
annually three ducats by way of alms for the Invalid Insti- 
tution at Vienna. 


On the 1 7th March, 1805, the States-Council of the Italian 
— previously Cis-Alpine — Republics, changed the form of 
government into a Monarchy, electing Napoleon as the first 
hereditary King of Italy. He was crowned as such at Milan, 
on the 20th May of the same year. The crown used, on 
that occasion, was that of the ancient Longobardian Kings, 
which had been preserved in the Treasury of the church 
at Monza, near Milan. It consists of a golden hoop about 
four fingers wide, finely chased, and adorned with precious 
stones in the form of an antique diadem, behind which is 
attached an iron ring of about one finger wide, which, according 
to tradition, had been forged from the nail of Christ's Cross, 
and from which the title is derived. Napoleon founded, in com- 


memoration of his coronation, and at the same time as a reward 
for those who were to distinguish themselves in his new king- 
dom, on the 5th June, 1805, an Order, for the decoration of 
which he adopted the figure of the ' Iron Crown,' and called 
it 'Ordine della Corona di Ferro' (Order of the Iron Crown). 
The reigning Kings of Italy were — hy the statutes — to be Grand 
Masters of the Order. The number of the Knights was origi- 
nally limited to six hundred and twenty, divided into three 
classes : Dignitaries (twenty), Commanders (one hundred), and 
Knights (five hundred), all of whom were to be in the enjoy- 
ment of pensions. By an Imperial decree of the 19th 
December, 1807, the number was increased — owing to the 
increased extent of the kingdom — to thirty-five Dignitaries, 
one hundred and fifty Commanders, and eight hundred Knights, 
exclusive of foreigners and members of the Imperial family. 
Frenchmen, generally, were not to be considered as foreigners. 
The pension of the first class was fixed at 3000, of the second 
at 700, and of the third at 300 lire. 

The badge was the Iron Crown, the middle of which contained 
the French Eagle with raised wings. Round the ring of 
the Crown was the legend : ' Dio me la diede, guai a chi la 
tocca' (God has given it to me, woe to him who dares to touch 
it !) while the front exhibited the effigy of Napoleon. 

The decoration of the first class (Dignitaries) was of gold, 
worn by them across the right shoulder, suspended by a broad 
ribbon of orange colour and green borders, and accompanied 
by a star at the left side of the breast. The Commanders had 
it also of gold, while that of the Knights was only of silver ; 
it was worn by the two latter at the button-hole of the left side, 
suspended by a small ribbon, and without the addition of the 
star. After the fall of Napoleon, the Order was forgotten, 
until 1815 — 16, when the Emperor Francis I., during his visits 
to his new Italian provinces, re-introduced it in a modified form ; 

c 2 


its first distribution took place at Milan on the 12th February, 
181 6 — the birth-day of the Emperor. The order then received 
the name: 'Austrian Order of the Iron Crown,' and by the 
statutes published on the same day, it was provided, that — 

1. The function of Grand Master should be inseparably 
vested in the Imperial Crown of Austria, and the nomination 
of members solely dependent on the will of the Emperor. 

2. No one should be allowed to claim or petition for the 

3. The Knights to be divided into three classes, without 
any further distinction beyond that of the number, which was 
limited for the first class to twenty, the second to thirty, and 
the third to fifty, exclusive of the princes of the Imperial House. 

4. All individuals of merit and distinction to be eligible for 
the Order. 

The decoration of the previous Order was abolished, and 
that of the new one (Plate 5. Tab. II. No. 13) now consists 
of a golden crown (of the same form as the Iron Crown), upon 
which is placed the Austrian eagle on both sides, bearing on 
the obverse a blue scutcheon upon the breast, with the letter F 
(Francis) in it, and on the reverse the year 1816 (the year of 
its foundation). 

The Knights, of the first class, wear the decoration across 
the right shoulder suspended by a broad gold-yellow ribbon with 
dark blue borders, in addition to a star, embroidered in silver, 
on the left side of the breast, the centre of which contains the 
Iron Crown, and round the blue edge are inscribed the words : 
' Avita et Aucta ' (Ancient and extended). (Plate 5. Tab. II. 
No. 12). 

On solemn occasions the decoration is worn bv a gold chain 
round the neck, the links of which consist alternately of the 
letters in monogram ' F. P.,' the Iron Crown, and a wreath of 
oak leaves. (Plate 6. Tab. III. No. 16). 


The second class suspend the order round the neck, and the 
third at the button-hole — each without the star. 

The Knights are not allowed to adorn it with brilliants, 
without special permission of the Grand Master. 

The tri-coloured costume, (yellow, blue, and white) consists of 
a yellow velvet under-garment reaching down to the knees, and 
laced by a silver cord from the right arm down to the hip, while 
the lower part is left open. The whole is lined with white taffetas, 
and edged with silver embroidery. Hose and stockings are of 
one piece, of white silk ; the shoes are. of white velvet, lined 
with yellow satin, while bows of blue satin with silver fringes 
are used instead of buckles. The cap is of blue velvet with 
white lining, to which is attached a collar of blue velvet 
falling and extending over the shoulders, and a flap twisted 
round with silver cords. The costume finishes with a mantle 
of blue velvet, richly embroidered, and fastened by a clasp on 
the right shoulder, while the left part is adorned with a star. 
.Above the mantle is a straight ruff of lace. The mantles 
differ in size. That of the first class has a long train ; 
that of the second barely reaches to the ground, while 
that of the third only extends to the middle of the 
leg. The sword is straight, the handle forms a cross, and 
is adorned with silver mountings, while the scabbard is 
of blue velvet. It is suspended from a sash of similar 
velvet with silver embroidery, and rests in a sword 

The ceremonies of the nomination are the same as with all 
other Austrian Orders. 

The annual festival is held on the first Sunday after the 7th 
April — the day when the Lombardo-Venetian kingdom was 



The House of Austria has always boasted of being in 
possession of a small piece of the genuine Cross of Christ; 
and the Emperors Maximilian and Frederic III. used to wear 
that relic about their persons, enclosed in a cross of gold. After 
the death of the latter, Leopold I. his successor, presented it to 
the widowed Empress Eleonore, daughter of Duke Charles II. 
of Mantua, to comfort her in her widowhood ; she kept 
it very carefully locked in a small box, adorned with crystal 
and enamel, and covered with silk. It happened that in 
the night of the 2nd February, 1668, a fire suddenly 
broke out in the Imperial Castle at Vienna, just below the 
apartments of the Empress Eleonore, and it soon reached the 
Imperial apartments, from which she escaped with considerable 
difficulty, before they were entirely consumed. On the follow- 
ing day search was made for the relic, and it was discovered 
amongst the ruins fortunately untouched by the conflagration, 
with the exception of the metal which was partly melted. 

The Empress was so rejoiced at the incident, that she 
ordered a solemn procession on that occasion, and resolved 
to found a Female Order, not only — as the statutes say — to 
commemorate the miraculous event, but also to induce the 
members to devote themselves to the service and worship 
of the Holy Cross, and lead a virtuous and religious life in the 
exercise of religion and works of charity. **, 

Pope Clement IX. confirmed the new Order and its rights 
in his Bull : ' Redemptoris et Domini nostri ' (28th June, 
1668), confiding to the Prince Bishop of Vienna, its spiritual 
management. The Emperor Leopold I. not only sanctioned its 
statutes, but took the Institution under his special protection ; 

AUSTRIA. Table 111 

PLATE <>. 

Utirsl and BUckctl, LonJon. 18^. 



while the Empress Eleonore declared herself (18th September, 
1668), its founder and chief patroness. The Order received 
the name of ' Community of noble ladies,' under the title 
of ' the Star Cross ;' and the members were styled ' Cross- 
bearers, or ladies of the Star Cross,' (after a constellation of 
that name at the South Pole). 

This Order is only bestowed on Princesses, Countesses, and 
other high-born ladies. 

The Empress, or a Princess of the Austrian House, is head 
patroness, who nominates the members, and selects two from 
amongst them for her assistants. 

Their number is unlimited, and entirely dependent on the 
pleasure of the head patroness. 

The festival of the Order is celebrated twice a year ; on the 
day when the Cross was found (3rd May), and on Holy-rood- 
day (14th September). Mass for the departed souls of the 
patroness and members is usually held on the 6th February. 

The decoration of this Order (Plate 6. Tab. III. No. 22) 
which, by the bye, has been altered four times since the reign of 
Empress' Maria Theresa— has the form of an oval medal with a 
broad blue-enamelled edging; it encompasses the Austrian 
eagle with golden claws, upon which rests a green enamelled 
golden cross, mounted in brown wood. Upon it is, in black 
letters upon white ground, the motto of the Order: ' Salus 
et Gloria ' (Hail and glory). It is worn on the left side of the 
breast, suspended by a bow of black silk ribbon. The festival 
days (3rd May and 14th September), are set apart for the 
nomination of candidates, when the insignia are placed upon 
the altar, ritually consecrated and presented by the patroness, 
who is seated, to the candidate ladies, who are in a kneeling 
position before her. 



In the earlier part of the 1 2th century, about the time when, 
in the East, the Knights of various countries began, after the 
model of the monks, to form themselves into different Orders, 
for the purpose of vanquishing the infidels, and protecting and 
supporting, with all the energy and enthusiasm inspired by vows 
of chastity, poverty and obedience, the numerous pilgrims on 
their way to the Holy Sepulchre ; a pious German, whose name 
is now lost, built at Jerusalem a hospital for the pilgrims of his 
native country — the then existing Orders of the Templars and 
of St. John, having thought fit to devote their care exclusively 
to the comforts of the French and Italian pilgrims. This 
hospital soon counted for its patrons several wealthy merchants 
and Knights, and being consecrated by the Patriarch, a chapel 
was joined to it, devoted to the Blessed Virgin ; it soon became 
an important asylum for German warriors, especially in 1189 
at the siege of Acre, when the founder, assisted by contri- 
butions from German merchants at Liibeck and Hamburg, 
took care of the sick and wounded soldiers, who lay in tents 
before that place. 

In 1191, Frederick of Suabia, on his arrival, after the death of 
Frederick of Barbarossa, with the rest of his army before Acre, 
deemed it advisable to secure to the institution a more 
solid basis. He gave it a constitution, and prescribed to 
the Knights and merchants assembled, regulations, the general 
outlines of which he formed after those of the Order of 
St. Augustine, while the rules and laws concerning the sick 
and poor he borrowed from the Knights of St. John, and 
those relative to war and peace from the Templars. He 
conceded to it all the rights and privileges peculiar to 


these Corporations or Colleges, and gave it, under sanction 
of Pope Coelestin III. the name of: 'the Order of the German 
House of the Holy Virgin at Jerusalem,' choosing for the 
insignia, a black cross with white mountings, worn upon 
a white cloak. 

By the provisions of the original statutes, only native 
Germans of blameless character and nobility were admissible. 
The members were, moreover, to be unmarried and to 
remain single the whole of their lives; they were also to 
give up to the Order all their private property, and to devote 
themselves exclusively to the service of God, the sick and the 
poor, and to the defence of the Holy Land. Their food was 
originally bread and water, and their couch only a sack of straw, 
all of which, together with their garment, were regularly 
distributed amongst them by the Grand Master. 

After a long series of eventful vicissitudes, the Order attained 
its culminating point, and assumed at the same time quite a 
different character under the Grand Master Herman of Salza, 
who well knew how to turn to account the disputes between 
Pope Honorius III. and the Emperor Frederick II., as also 
the warlike events in the provinces which now form a part of 
Eastern Prussia. 

The Duke Conrad of Masovia and Cujavia, having, in his 
religious zeal, attempted to force Christianity upon his pagan 
neighbours the Prussians, was met with such an obstinate re- 
sistance from them, that he was in his turn threatened with an 
invasion of his own dominions. In this dilemma he called to 
his assistance, in 1226, the Teutonic or German Knights, 
offering them in return for their service, the concession of im- 
portant rights and privileges ; while the Pope and the Emperor 
granted them the possession of all the lands they might conquer 
from the heathens during the war. Herman had just returned 
from his third Crusade to Palestine, and settled at Venice after 


the loss of Acre, the head-quarters of his Order. He so adroitly 
managed the opening crusade against the heathen Prussians, that 
thousands from all lands and countries rallied under his flag, 
by which the Order received an immense increase in members 
and property, from Germany, Italy, Sicily and Hungary. The 
war was successfully carried on under his General, Balk, who 
within a few years built the towns of Pulen, Thorn, Marien- 
werder, Elbing, and others. The Order soon possessed large 
districts of land on the Baltic Sea, governed by a Land Master, 
while the Grand Master fixed his residence at Marburg in 

During these complicated but fortunate events, the Order had 
assumed a new form and character. Instead of the original 
names of 'Brothers' and 'Hospitalers/ the Knights were now 
called Masters, and, indeed, acted as such in the strictest sense 
of the term. They became imperious, tyrannical, despotic, and 
led a voluptuous and luxurious life at the expense of their 
Prussian subjects, who figured as the most wretched, oppressed, 
and miserable creatures in Europe. Nowhere in Europe was 
bondage carried to such a cruel extent as under the rule of these 
German Knights, who were intoxicated by war, and plunged 
in sensual enjoyments. Hence the continued insurrections, 
devastations of towns and lands, complaints, treaties, and 
difficulties; hence the despised decrees of the Pope and the 
Emperor, the incessant disputes with the clergy and bishops 
of rank, and the subversion of the rules, statutes and laws 
of the original Constitution, which form the greatest portion 
of the history of the Order, and which finally resulted in 
prostration and an exhaustion of its strength and power, 
especially after the terrible battle near Tannenberg against the 
Poles and Lithuanians, (15th July, 1410), in which the Grand 
Master, Ulrich of Jungingen, and thirty thousand of his followers, 
lost their lives. 


In 1440, the towns of Dantzig, Elbing, Thorn, and the 
nobility of several adjoining provinces concluded a formal treaty 
amongst themselves against these ruthless masters, while in 
1454 the whole of Western Prussia, headed by King Casimir IV., 
rose against them, and after a war of twelve years, which cost 
above three hundred thousand human lives, the Order was 
obliged to sign a treaty which left it in possession of only half 
of Prussia, and placed it under the supreme authority of 
Poland. But having repeatedly violated this treaty, the Order 
was virtually abolished by the peace of Cracow (1525), the 
whole of its landed property having been granted as a fief 
of Poland to the then Grand Master, Albert, Margrave of 

Thenceforth its chief resided at Mergentheim in Fran- 
conia, under the title of Administrator in Prussia, Grand 
Master of the Teutonic Order in Germany and Italy, and 
Spiritual Prince of the Empire and member of the Fran- 
conian district, while his possessions consisted of Mergentheim, 
with fifteen thousand German square miles, and thirty-two 
thousand inhabitants, partly Catholics and partly Protestants. 
By the peace of Liineville, (9th February, 1801), the Order 
lost the bailiwicks, Coblentz, Altenbriesen, and Bourgogne, 
and though it received in return the abbeys and cloisters of 
Austrian Voralberg, and the diocese of Augsburg and Con- 
stance, the peace of Presburg (1805) invested the Emperor 
of Austria with all the rights, dignity, and revenues apper- 
taining to its Grand Master. 

In 1809, Napoleon entirely abolished the Order in the Rhenish 
provinces, and the different European princes appropriated to 
themselves the possessions belonging to their respective terri- 
tories, a spoliation to which Austria was compelled to consent in 
the ensuing treaty of peace. At the Congress of Vienna, the 
Chapter House at Francfort-on-the-Maine, together with the 


domains, revenues, and privileges attached to it, were returned 
to the Order then existing in Austria^and Prussian Silesia. 

It having thus come under the protection of Austria, the 
statutes were modified in accordance with its new relations, 
and by an Imperial decree of the 28th June, 1840, it is pro- 
vided, that — 

1. The German Order is to exist in Austria as an indepen- 
dant spiritual and knightly Order, but shall be considered 
and treated at the same time as a direct fief of the Austrian 

2. The Emperors of Austria are always to be considered as 
its patrons and protectors. 

3. The rights and duties relating to the administration of 
its possessions, are to be the same as those of any private 
property in Austria according to the laws of the land. 

4. The Order and its relations are not to be subject to the 
inspection of the civil authorities, except in special cases where 
his Imperial Majesty should think proper to require from it 
an account of its financial position and internal regula- 

5. The property of the Order, whether moveable orjiot, is 
not to be mortgaged or disposed of, without the special consent 
of the sovereign. 

6. As regards taxes and other state, and provincial, burdens, 
its possessions are to be considered as secular property in 
every respect. 

7. Its head is to bear the title of ' Grand Master of the 
Teutonic Order. ' 

8. At every accession of a new Emperor, or appointment of 
new Grand Masters, the latter are bound to petition for, and 
receive solemnly a renewal of the fief. They are considered 
and treated as Spiritual Vassal Princes of Austria, and enjoy 
the rank and rights of the most ancient Order of the realm 


above all the Secular and Spiritual Princes whose dignity dates 
subsequent to the foundation of the Teutonic Order. 

9. Though by their vows, monks, the .Knights may remain 
in the enjoyment and free disposal of their private property, 
except in gifts amounting to more than 300 ducats, when the 
consent of the head must first be obtained. 

10. No member is to be security or guardian for other 
persons, without special dispensation from the head. 

1 1 . Wills and legacies by the members must bear the sanction 
of the head, without which they are void. 

12. If the head or a member should die intestate, his per- 
sonal property falls to the Order, without its being obliged to 
pay his debts. 

13. Only in matters strictly belonging to the Order, the 
members are to be under the jurisdiction of its legitimate 
authorities, while in every other respect they stand under the 
civil authorities of their local districts or provinces. 

The insignia (Plate 6. Tab. III. No. 20) are worn round the 
neck, or (No. 19) as a cross, with silver embroidery, upon 
the breast. On solemn occasions, the Knights wear a white 
mantle decorated with a similar, or even larger cross. 


This famous Institution, the predecessor of the Teutonic 
Order, occupies in history a far more important page. Its 
origin falls in the time when Jerusalem was still in the hands 
of the Mahometans, a.d. 1048. A number of merchants from 
Amalfi, by consent and gift of the Khalifs, founded, not far from 
the Holy Tomb, a Benedictine cloister, consecrated to the Holy 
Virgin, with a chapel in honour of St. John the Baptist, and a 
hospital for the reception of pilgrims, which they confided to 


the management of the monks. In 1099 Godfrey of Bouillon 
having conquered Jerusalem, gave to the hospital a constitution, 
endowed it with considerable lands and capital, and released 
the monks from the duties of its management, which now 
devolved upon several of the Knights of his army, who soon 
formed themselves into a spiritual order, that was confirmed, 
in 1113, by Pope Paschal II. 

The members, who made the vows of obedience, chastity and 
poverty, divided themselves into three classes. 

1. Knights, warring against the infidels, and protecting the 

2. Priests, managing the spiritual affairs of the Order. 

3. Brother servants entrusted with the care and nursing. of 
the sick in times of peace, who served as inferior warriors in 
times of war. Subsequently, a fourth class was created for 
subordinate menial duties and labours — that of Donatists. 

The original costume of the Order was a black coat, a 
cloak with a pointed hood, adorned on the left side towards 
the heart with a small white cross, (that of the Donatists with 
only half a cross), as also with a golden cross in the middle of 
the breast. In war, the Knights wore splendid armour, and 
a red over-garment adorned with a silver cross. 

The Knights of St. John, in conjunction with the Templars 
and other Knights, (with whom they lived, however, in continual 
conflicts) succeeded for a long time in keeping in their hands the 
totteriDg throne of Jerusalem, for which cause they fought with 
such admirable zeal, that many places in the Holy Land have now 
become monuments of their valour — more especially Jerusalem 
(1152), Ascalon (1153), Balbais (1118), Hittin (1187), &c. ; 
nor did they retire — as the other Knights and secular Princes 
did — from the campaign even after Soliman had, in 1187, 
conquered Jerusalem. They greatly harassed the Turks, first 
from Margat, then from Acca (Ptolemais), in which last place 

A I' STRIA. Tublc IV 

l'LATE 7. 

Hurst and Blackclt, London. 1Sj!>. 


they maintained themselves for nearly a whole century. After 
the loss, however, of Ptolemais, the last refuge of the Christians 
in the Holy Land, Villiers, the Grand Master, saved himself 
with the remnant of the Knights in the island of Cyprus, 
where king Lusignan consigned to them the half demolished 
town of Limisso. 

There they built a fleet, and soon became one of the 
first maritime powers in the Mediterranean. In 1308, their 
power was increased by its union with the Order of St. Samson 
of Jerusalem. The Grand Master, Villaret, now resolved to 
remove his residence to Rhodes, which the Saracens had taken 
from the Greek Emperor Andronicus. The Pope approved 
of the plan, promised support, and vested in him the right of 
appointing the future Archbishop of Rhodes. The knights 
succeeded in conquering (1 5th August, 1309) the island, whence 
they called themselves the 'Knights of Rhodes.' The Council 
of Vienna conceded to them (1311) the greatest part of the 
possessions of the dissolved Order of the Templars, at which 
period their power may be said to have reached its zenith. 

In a glorious battle (1321) Gerard du Pius, the Vicar General 
of the Order, destroyed the great Moslem fleet, and in conjunc- 
tion with the Venetians and the King of Cyprus, the Knights 
conquered (1341) Smyrna; which Timur, however, wrested from 
them after an obstinate resistance. The same Vicar General 
freed the King of Armenia from the Turks (1347), destroyed 
the fleet of the Egyptian pirates in the harbour of Alexandria, 
and conquered that town (1365). He likewise destroyed, near 
the island Longo, the fleet of Sultan Al Nager al Daher (1440), 
and repulsed successfully four years afterwards a second attack 
of the Sultan upon Rhodes. Even Muhamed II. when he 
besieged (1480) Rhodes with one hundred thousand men, 
and one hundred and sixty ships, was compelled to raise 
the siege, after having suffered heavy losses ; and when after 


his death, the fraternal disputes about the crown and empire 
compelled the younger Prince Zizim (1482) to take refuge at 
Rhodes, placing himself under the protection of the Grand 
Master, the latter demanded and received 35,000 ducats from 
the victorious Bajazeth for the annual support of his younger 
brother, besides 10,000 ducats as indemnity for the expenses 
of the last war. 

In 1485, the Order received a further accession of wealth 
and power, by the Pope's grant of the possessions of the 
abrogated Order of the " Sacred Tomb " and " St. Lazarus/' 
In 1501, the Grand Master d'Aubusson was appointed 
Generalissimo of the troops of the combined Princes against 
the Mahometan pirates ; and a few years afterwards, the 
Grand Master, Emmerick of Amboise, fought and won the 
great naval battle against the Egyptians, near the Port 
Lajazzo in Caramania. 

Internal dissensions, however, added to the arbitrary dis- 
positions of the Popes, greatly tended to weaken the power of 
the Order in latter times. Soliman II. attacked Rhodes in 
1522, with a fleet of four hundred sails, and an army of 
one hundred and forty thousand men. That place was 
defended only by six hundred Knights, and four thousand five 
hundred soldiers of the Order. The Sultan would probably 
have raised the siege of a place which was so obstinately 
defended by the brave Knights, who repeatedly inflicted heavy 
losses upon his troops, had it not been betrayed by the 
Chancellor of the Order, Andreas of Amaral, who, out of 
revenge for not having been elected Grand Master, pointed out 
to the enemy a weak point in the fortifications, by which 
the Turks entered, as the head of the traitor was falling 
by the hand of the executioner. The brave Knights, even 
at that critical moment, obtained terms of capitulation and 
free retreat. They left their residence, now a complete ruin, 

MALTA. 33 

which they had gloriously maintained for nearly two hundred 
and twenty years, in fifty vessels which brought them, and- 
four thousand inhabitants of the place to Candia. Thence 
they repaired to Venice, Rome, Viterbo, Nizza, Villafranca, 
and Syracuse; until 1530, when the Emperor Charles V, 
enfeoffed them with the island of Malta, together with Tripolis, 
and the islands of Gozzo and Comino, under the condition that 
they should wage an incessant war against the pirates and 

In this their new residence, they served for a long time for 
Europe, as a strong bulwark against the Turks ; they were 
courted by the monarchs of Protestant Europe, despite the slur 
cast upon their religious principles, ever since the introduction 
of the Reformation in England, Germany, and the Northern 
States of Europe, and notwithstanding the loss of Tripolis (1552) 
which was wrested from them by Dragut, the Saracen General. 
During the whole of the 1 7th century, it was, indeed, by their 
assistance alone that the European powers, each and all, were 
enabled to make head against the powerful Turks, and finally 
succeeded in expelling them from Candia, Prevesa, St. Maura, 
Koron, Navarin, Modon, and Chio. 

Nor are there wanting brilliant pages in their history as late 
even as the middle of the eighteenth century, though the Order 
had then greatly suffered by the moral degeneration of its 
members. The events, however, of 1 76 1, by which Malta and the 
Order were only saved from total destruction by the intercession 
of France, sufficiently testified to the utter decline and fall of 
that gigantic institution, while the Turks, themselves, thence- 
forth began to look at the Knights of Malta no longer as 
dangerous enemies, but as mere troublesome, factious, and 
quarrelsome neighbours, whom they were obliged to spare and 
leave unmolested, simply because they were protected by the 
great powers of Europe. 



The French Revolution deprived the Order of all their 
■privileges and possessions in France, (19th September, 1792) 
while in 1798, Malta fell into the hands of Napoleon by the 
cowardly capitulation of Baron Hompesch, their Grand Master. 
Though the Emperor Paul of Russia declared himself in the 
same year Grand Master, and though Malta was conquered 
by England in 1801, it was never returned to the Order, 
which was deprived, at the same time, of its possessions in 
Germany, by the Princes of the Rhenish Confederation. 

Having thus lost all political importance, the Order was no 
longer headed by a Grand Master, but by a deputy Grand 
Master, who resided from 1805 to 1814 at Catanea and 
afterwards at Ferrara. In more recent times, some of its 
possessions in Lombardy, Parma, Modena, Lucca and Naples, 
were restored. The Order still exists in those states, as also 
in Bohemia, Russia, and Spain, though under a modified 
constitution, and in separate bodies. Since 1831, the Deputy 
Grand Master has resided at Rome. 

The members are divided into professed Knights, i. e. 
Knights who have really sworn to the constitution and made 
the vows prescribed by the statutes, and honorary Knights who 
are merely allowed to wear the dress and insignia without 
strictly belonging to the Order. The favour is granted to 
Catholic noblemen of honourable reputation, and of noble 
descent by both parents. The first class only exists in 
countries where the Order is still in possession of some 
landed property. 

The costume of the Knights of the first class, consists of a 
frock-coat of scarlet cloth, with white lining, facings, collar, hat 
and plume. That of the second class is a similar coat, but 
with black velvet lining, facings and collar, and a black 
hat and plume. Both classes have white hat flaps, epaulettes 
with thick golden tassels, buttons, spurs, and hat string 



equally of gold, pantaloons of white casimir with golden trim- 

The decoration (Plate 7. Tab. IV. Nos. 23 and 24) is a 
white octagonal cross suspended by a black ribbon ; but the 
embellishments attached to it, are different in the different 
countries where the Order exists under royal authority. (See 
Spain and Prussia). 


1. The Civil Cross of Honour. — This, of all the decora- 
tions of honour in Austria, deserves peculiar notice. It was 
founded by the Emperor Francis I. in 1814, and distributed 
personally by him on the 26th May, 1815. It occupies the 
first rank in public estimation next to the Orders of Theresa 
and St. Stephen, and forms a sort of transition from Orders 
to decorations of inferior degree. It was conferred as a civil 
honour for zeal and merit displayed during the critical years 
of 1814 and 1815. 

A committee of several Ministers of State, under the Pre- 
sidency of the Minister of Justice, Count Wallis, had been 
formed to judge of, and enquire into the merits of the candi- 

Only two hundred out of four thousand competent candidates 
were honoured with the Cross. The strict and rigid enquiry 
into the merits of the candidates has caused this distinction to 
be highly prized by the public. 

Upon the obverse of the Cross (Plate 7. Tab. IV. Nos. 25 
and 29) are the words: ' Libertate Europse asserta 1813 — 
14' (Europe's liberty maintained), and upon the reverse: 
' Grati Principes et Patria, Franciscus Imp. Aug. ' (the Prince 
and country are grateful). It was presented in gold and silver, 

d 2 


and is worn at the button-hole, suspended by a black ribbon 
with dark yellow borders. 

2. The Military Medal of Honour, also called Medal of 
Valour or Merit. — It was founded by the Emperor Joseph II. 
as a reward for sub-officers and privates, and is divided into 
gold and silver medals, according to the respective degree of 
merit and distinction. 

To the first is attached an increased pay of fifty per cent ; 
the medals may be worn even after the owners have quitted 
the military service, in which case the possessors of the golden 
one enjoys the additional amount of half-pay connected with it. 

On the obverse (Tab. IV. No. 28) is seen the effigy of 
the Emperor with his name, and on the reverse (No. 27) the 
inscription : ' Der Tapferkeit ' (To valour), surrounded by a 
laurel wreath. It is worn suspended by a ribbon of red and 
white stripes. At the death of the owner it passes to his heirs, 
who have the option of exchanging it for money, in which 
case the War Treasury pays for the golden medal 35 fl. 28 kr. 
(about £3 105.) ; or for the silver, 1 fl. 26 kr. (3s). 

3. Cross of Honour for Military Chaplains, was founded 
by the Emperor Francis I. on the 26th November, 1801, for 
spiritual duties performed on the field of battle under perilous 
circumstances. It is worn suspended by a striped ribbon of 
red and white, has the form of a square cross, and is edged 
with trefoil leaves. Upon the round scutcheon are the words : 
' Piis Meritis ' (For pious services). (Tab. IV. No. 21). 

4. The Civil Medal of Honour is of gold and of three diffe- 
rent sizes, and is conferred on individuals of both sexes. The 
largest exhibits, upon the obverse, the effigy of the founder, 
the Emperor Francis L, with the inscription : ' Franciscus 
Austria? Imperator,' while the reverse represents a temple, 
with the inscription: 'Austria ad imperii dignitatem evecta' 
(Austria raised to Imperial dignity). 


The two smaller medals show on the face the effigy of 
the Emperor, with the inscription: 'Franciscus Aust. Imp. 
Hun. Boh. Gal. Lod. Rex. A. A.' (Tab. IV. No. 31), the 
reverse, the Scales of Justice, Sceptre, and Mercury's staff, 
and above them a crown with the inscription : ' Justitia Regno- 
rum Fundam-entum ' (Justice is the foundation of empires). 
These medals are worn on the left side of the breast, suspended 
by a red ribbon. Of particular distinction is the great medal 
suspended by a golden chain. 

5. The Cross of the Bohemian Nobility. — It was conferred, 
1814, by Francis I. on those of the Bohemian nobility, 
who had formed, during the war of that year, a volunteer 
body guard, which accompanied the person of the Emperor 
throughout the whole campaign. It is bestowed on no one 
else. It is red enamelled, bears in the centre the white 
Bohemian lion, with the inscription : ' Nobilibus Bohemis 
bello gallico fidis corporis custodibus Franciscus Augustus, 
MDCCCXJV.' It is worn on the left side of the breast, 
suspended by a ribbon of three equal stripes, red in the middle 
and white at the two extremes. 

6. The Military Decoration of 1814 (Tab. IV. No. 30), 
is a cross of the same shape as the Civil Cross of Honour, 
but rests, in distinction, on a laurel wreath; is cast from 
the French guns captured in the war, and is worn at the 
button hole suspended by a dark yellow ribbon with black 
borders. It belongs indiscriminately to all uniforms of the 
military who served during the campaigns of 1813 and 
1814, and may be worn by them even after their retiring 
from service. The owners are also allowed to have their 
names engraved on the edge of the Cross. There were 
originally only one hundred thousand of them manufactured,' 
viz. four thousand large, six thousand middling, and nine 


hundred thousand small ones. The number has since, no 
doubt, considerably increased. 

7. The Distinction and Badge of Confidence. — To mark 
the merit of soldiers from the degree of sergeant downwards, 
as also to promote re-engagements in the army, distinction 
plates were introduced, worn on the left side of the breast. 
Native soldiers may receive them when still in service, or 
have re-enlisted after having completed the prescribed term 
of service. The forms are: (Plate 6. Tab. III. No. 18) for 
the first, and form No. 17, for the second re-engagement. 


This Order (Plate 8. Tab. V. Nos. 32 and 33) was founded 
by the present Emperor Francis Joseph I. as a public acknow- 
ledgment of distinguished merit, indiscriminately for all classes 
of society. The first statutes were published on the 2nd 
December, 1849 ; but were modified in the succeeding year 
on the 25th December, 1850. They provide: 1. The annual 
festival of the Order to be held on the anniversary of the 
accession to the throne of the present Emperor. 

2. The Order to bear the name : The Order of Francis 
Joseph, with the motto ' Viribus unitis.' 

3. The Order to be conferred on individuals of distinguished 
merit, without regard to birth, religion or rank. 

4. The members to be nominated by the Emperor himself, 
their number being unlimited. 

5. The dignity of Grand Master to be inseparably vested in 
the Austrian Crown. 

6. The Order to consist of three degrees : Knights of the 
Grand Cross, Commanders, and Knights. 

AUSTRIA, ruble V. 


Hui'Bl and Blacken, Londun. 18o8. 


7. The badge of the Order to be a gold enamelled Cross, 
externally octagonal and bent forward. 

The Cross in itself is red, with a golden ring round it. 
The middle scutcheon is circular and white surrounded by 
a golden stripe, and contains on the obverse the two letters 
F. J. (Franciscus Josephus). Between the four arms of the 
cross is visible the two-headed crowned eagle in gold, partly 
enamelled black, holding in his two beaks a golden chain, in 
the lower links of which is the motto : ' Viribus unitis.' The 
reverse of the cross is the same as above described, with the 
only difference that (the year) 1849 is substituted for the 
letters F. J. 

The Knights of the Grand Cross wear the badge by a deep 
red ribbon, four inches wide, across the right shoulder, and at 
the side of it, on the left breast, an octagonal silver star, the 
centre of which contains the decoration as described above in 
the obverse of the Cross. 

The Commanders wear it round the neck, suspended by a 
similar red ribbon about two inches wide. 

The simple Knights suspend it on the left side at the button 
hole, suspended by a similar ribbon about one and a half 
inches wide. 

On ordinary occasions, the members may wear the Cross 
in a diminished form at the button hole, suspended by a small 
golden chain. 

The form of the chain is described in "Bavaria," (Plate 16. 
Tab. VI. A. B. and C.) Fig. A. exhibits the large chain of the 
Grand Cross Knights ; Fig. B. that of the Commanders ; and 
Fig. D. the smallest one of the Knights. The centre scutcheons 
of the eagles in Fig. B., and the scutcheons with the golden 
crown in Fig. C. are white enamelled, while the letters F. I. 
in Fig. D. are red enamelled. 

Members are not allowed, without special permission, to wear 


the Order adorned with precious stones, though they are at 
liberty to do so with their family crests. 

The grant of the Order does not entitle the wearer to any 
degree of nobility, or any other hereditary distinction. 


was founded on the 16th February, 1850, as a substitution for 
the previous ' Civil Medal of Honour.' The Cross consists 
of four classes. The first is of gold with a crown above it 
(Plate 8, Tab. V. No. 34) ; the second is likewise of gold but 
without crown ; the third is of silver with a crown ; and the 
fourth of silver without a crown. 

The Cross is worn at the button hole, or in a knot, on the 
left breast, suspended by a deep red ribbon. 


The Family Order of Loyalty. — This Order, the highest 
in the Grand Duchy, was founded by Margrave Charles William 
of Baden, Durlach and Hochberg, on the 1 7th June, 1715 
— the day on which he laid the foundation stone of his castle 
at Karlsruhe, and which is still the annual meeting day of the 
Chapter. The Order was renewed on the 8th May, 1803, 
by the Elector, afterwards Grand Duke Charles Frederick, 
Margrave of Baden, on the occasion of the electoral dignity 
being transferred to the reigning house of Baden. It has since 
been divided into two classes: Knights of the Grand Cross 
and Commanders. But by the new statutes of the 1 7th June, 
1840, only the first class was retained, numbering in it, no 
one but reigning Princes, Princes of blood, or such eminent 
men in the Grand Duchy who bear the title ' Excellency,' or 
are already in possession of the Order of the Zahring Lion, or 
have peculiarly distinguished themselves by extraordinary acts 
of loyalty or valour. The class of Commanders has ceased to 
exist ever since 1814. 

The badge (Plate 9. Tab. I. Nos. 1 and 2) is an octagonal 
Cross with the ducal crown above it, enamelled red, and two 
C's in monogram connecting each of the four corners. The 
same initial is seen on the white centre, where it is repre- 
sented leaning on green rocks, surrounded by the motto of the 
Order : ' Fidelitas ' (Loyalty). On the reverse of the Cross are 


the arms of Baden. It is worn by a broad orange-coloured 
ribbon with silver borders, by the Knights of the Grand Cross 
across the right shoulder, and by the Commanders round the 
neck. On the left side of the breast is, in addition, attached 
a silver octogonal star, to which is appended the same Cross 
of the above description, except that the motto and the middle 
scutcheon are of orange colour. 


As the name indicates, the Order was founded for reward of 
military merit, by the Grand Duke Charles Frederick, on the 
4th April, 1807. It is designated as a reward — as the patent 
says — ' for the exploits of officers who might have neglected 
them with impunity, or were performed by them with peculiar 
skill, wisdom, courage, and decision.' It consists of three 
classes : Knights of the Grand Cross (to which only Generals 
are admitted), Commanders, and Knights. The number of the 
members is unlimited. The Grand Duke is Grand Master of the 
Order, and has the right to confer it on whomsoever he pleases 
without consulting the Chapter. The latter meets every year 
on the 20th November, when the claims of the respective 
candidates are examined, and taken into consideration. The 
chairman, on that occasion, is generally the Grand Duke, or 
in his absence the senior Knight of the Grand Cross. The 
three oldest members of the three classes enjoy a pension of 
400, 200, and 100 fl. (£40, 20, and 10) respectively. 

The badge of the Order is the Cross (Plate 9. Tab. I. No. 4) 
suspended by a ribbon of three stripes, yellow in the middle and 
red at the extremes, and with white borders. Both the size of 
the Cross, and the width of the ribbon differ in each of the 
three classes. It is worn by the Knights of the Grand Cross 

HAD LIS. Tabic \ 


Hurst anil Blacked, London. 1 808 . 

IIAUEiN Table II. 

PLATE 10. 

Uurst and Blackcll, London. ISoS. 

BADEN. 43 

across the left shoulder towards the right hip ; by the 
Commanders round the neck, and by the Knights at the button 
hole of the left side. The Cross is accompanied by a silver 
star (Tab. I. No. 3) attached to the left side of the breast, 
and the centre of which resembles the reverse of the Cross ; it 
is presented to the Knights of the Grand Cross at their 
nomination, while the Commanders only receive it when they 
occupy the rank of Generals, or are about to be promoted to 
that rank. 

The Order was last conferred in 1820. 

Equally with the above Order, was founded for sub-officers 
and privates, and under similar qualifications, the Military 
Medal of Merit, which is worn (Plate 10. Tab. II. Nos. 11 
and 1 2) at the button hole of the left breast. It is presented 
either in gold or in silver. To the former is attached an 
increase of double pay, and to the latter of half pay. 


The Grand Duke Charles founded this Order in 1812, on 
the anniversary christening or namesday of his consort, 
Stephanie of Beauharnais (niece of the Empress Josephine). 
He named the Order after the Ducal House of Zahringen, 
the ancestors of the reigning family of Baden. The badge 
is a golden Cross, the intervening spaces of which are joined 
with golden clasps, while the green enamel in the middle 
of the obverse represents the ruins of the original castle of 
Zahringen in a round field with a golden ring (Tab. II. No. 9). 
The reverse shows upon a similar field of red colour a lion 
rampant in gold. 

The Grand Master is the Grand Duke ; the Order has 
four classes : Knights of the Grand Cross, and Commanders of 


first and second classes, and Knights. The Princes of the 
House of Baden are born Knights of the Grand Cross. The 
number of the members is unlimited. 

The Order is worn by the Knights of the Grand Cross across 
the right shoulder by a green ribbon with orange coloured 
borders, accompanied by an octagonal silver star; the round 
red scutcheon in the middle contains a golden lion in a fighting 
position, with the inscription : ' Fur Ehre und Wahrheit ' (For 
honour and truth) (Tab. II. No. 8). Knights who are already 
in possession of the Family Order of Loyalty, wear a Grand 
Cross round the neck. 

The Knights of the first class wear, besides, a square silver 
star with the Cross of the Order upon it, and surrounded by a 
red ring, with the above inscription. 

The simple Knights wear the decoration at the button- 

As a particular distinction, the decoration of the Comman- 
ders and Knights is often adorned with an oak leaf (Tab. II. 
No. 13). This is the case since 1826. 

The first chapter was held three years after its foundation, 
in 1815, at the time of the Vienna Congress. The size of the 
Cross varies with the different classes. 


This Order was founded on 18th February, 1831, by Grand 
Duke Leopold, as a public acknowledgment for long and loyal 
service in the army. 

1. Officers who have served in the line twenty-five years 
(including the years of lower rank) receive the small golden 
Cross (Plate 10. Tab. II. No. 10). 

BADEN. 45 

2. Privates and sub-officers receive a buckle with a red ribbon, 
of yellow stripes, and white borders. It has three classes : for 
twelve, eighteen, and twenty-five years service; the respective 
buckles (Plate 9. Tab. I. Nos. 5, 6 and 7) are of iron (mounted 
in silver), silver or gilt. 

The Cross is worn by the officers at the button-hole, 
suspended by the same ribbon as above 3 while the buckles of 
the other classes are worn on the left side of the breast. 

Since the foundation of these latter badges of distinction, 
the ' Military Order and Medal of Charles Frederick ' were 
discontinued to be conferred for service of twenty-five years, and 
the claim thereto is now confined to its original destination : 
viz. to ' valour in war.' 


in gold (value 18, 12, and 6 ducats) shows on one side the 
effigy of the Grand Duke, the founder, and is worn at the button- 
hole, suspended by an orange coloured ribbon. It was founded 
in the reign of Grand Duke Charles Frederick, and is conferred 
on civil officers of inferior rank for long and loyal service, as well 
as on private individuals who have given assistance in accidents 
of fire and water, or distinguished themselves in the useful arts 
and industry. 


was founded 27th January, 1839. It consists of a bronze 
medal, representing on the obverse, a vulture holding in his 
left claw the Baden crest, and in the right a sword, with 
the inscription ' Fur Baden's Ehre ' (For Baden's honour), 


while the reverse contains the words : ' Fur treuen Dienst 
im Kriege ' (For faithful service in war) surrounded by an 
oak wreath. It is worn upon the left breast by an orange 
coloured ribbon, with red and white borders. It is conferred 
on soldiers in the line, or in the landwehr, who have made 
at least one campaign. 



Duke Reinhold IV. of Liege and Guelderland having died in 
1423 without issue, his duchy, Gueldern, fell to Arnold of 
Egmont, while Adolph of Berg became possessor of the Duchy 
of Liege. But Arnold, believing that Adolph had taken the 
lion's share in the inheritance, attempted at first to right him- 
self by force of arms. He consented, however, afterwards to 
a compromise, and a truce of ten years. But, when after the 
death of Adolph in 1437, his cousin, Gerhard V., Count of 
Ravensberg, inherited the Duchies of Liege and Berg, Arnold 
re-appeared with his old claims, and entered with an army into 
the territory of Liege. In confidence of his right, Gerhard 
gave him battle (3rd November, 1444) near Ravensberg in 
Westphalia, in which he was victorious, and completely routed 
his foe. In commemoration of that happy event, which took 
place on the feast of St. Hubert, (3rd November), Gerhard 
founded an Order which he placed under the patronage 
of that saint, and gave it originally the name of the Order of 
the Horn, the Knights being used to wear a golden chain 
composed of bugle-horns. 

The Order flourished until 1609, when the male dynasty 
of the Liege house became extinct at the death of John 
William. Since then, the Order was forgotten for nearly 


a whole century owing to the pending disputes about the inhe- 
ritance, as also to the intervening Thirty Years' War, and it 
was at last rescued from oblivion by the Elector of the Palati- 
nate, John William of the House of Neuburg, on the 29th Sep- 
tember, 1708. Having inherited a part of the territory to 
which the Order previously belonged, he declared himself 
Grand Master of the revived institution, gave it a constitution 
and new statutes ; and bestowed upon the first twelve Knights 
of the Grand Cross, who were Colonels in the army, the 
possession of small tracts of land. The Order consisted under 
the Elector, as Grand Master, of twelve Counts or Barons, and 
an unlimited number of Princes and noblemen who did not 
belong to any other order. The nomination was vested in the 
Chapter, who voted by majority ; the candidates elected were 
obliged to pay 100 ducats entrance fee for the poor. The 
Knights wore a large red ribbon, and upon the breast a silver 
Cross within a gold embroidered star with the inscription : ' In 
Fidelitate constans ' (Constant in loyalty). The two successors of 
John William still further enlarged the statutes ; but the last and 
still prevailing ordinances are those promulgated by Maximilian 
Joseph IV. (first King of Bavaria) on the 18th May, 1808. 

He declared the Order the first in the kingdom, and 
brought it into connection with that of Civil Merit, by 
decreeing that candidates must be members of six years' 
standing of the latter. The Order counts now only twelve 
Knights from the ranks of Counts and Barons, exclusive 
of the Sovereign, and the members whom the latter may, in 
addition, choose to nominate from among the Princes, both 
native and foreign. The Chapter is annually held either on the 
29th September, the day of the renewal of the Order by the 
Elector, John William, or on the 2nd February (the festival 
of the Virgin Purification). The entrance fees are now 200 
ducats in gold (about £100) for Princes, and 100 ducats 

« A V A R I A . Table I . 



Hurst and Blankctl, London. 1 S.'iS 


(£50) in gold, besides 100 rixthalers (£20) for Counts and 

The insignia of the .Order consist: 1. Of a star (Plate 11. 
Tab. I. No. 1) worn by the Knights embroidered in silver 
upon the left breast. Upon that star is attached a cross embroi- 
dered with silver and interwoven and mounted in gold ; it 
contains in the middle a round field of flame coloured, or 
poppy-red velvet, with the motto of the Order : ' In Treu vast ' 
(Constant in loyalty) in golden Gothic letters. 

2. Of a poppy-red ribbon, about three and a half inches 
wide, with narrow green borders, worn across the left shoulder 
towards the right hip, on which is suspended an octagonal 
large cross, white enamelled and blazing with gold, while 
between each of the arms of the cross are seen three golden 
points, and above the whole the royal crown. The central 
field represents, on the obverse, the history of the conversion of 
St. Hubert, with the above motto in a red ring. The reverse 
contains the Imperial ball, with the Cross in the shape of a 
globe, and with the inscription : ' In memoriam recuperatse 
dignitatis avitae, 1708 ' (In memory of the restoration of the 
original dignity, i. e. the Order). (Tab. I. Nos. 2 and 3). 
This great Cross, together with the large chain, as described 
in § 3, are, however, only worn on certain festivals, nor is it 
allowed to adorn the chain with precious stones. The daily 
decoration of the Knights (by fine of 20 thalers for each 
omission) is a small Cross, which may be adorned with a 
few precious stones in proportion to its size. 

3. Of a golden chain of forty-two links, of which twenty-one 
represent, in oblong squares, the history of the conversion of 
St. Hubert ; while the other twenty-one, which are alternately 
red and green, contain the Gothic initials in monogram, of 
the words : ' Treu vast. ' 

The costume, on festival days, is the Imperial mantle dress 



L e. a black collar, a sash of the same colour ; narrow, short 
breeches with poppy-red garters and bows, and a short black 
mantle after the old Castilian fashion, plume and sword. 


The origin of the Order cannot be shown with historical 
accuracy. The statements of the Bavarian chroniclers, that the 
Order was brought over to Germany from the Holy Land, 
as early as the twelfth century by Welf I., Otto III. and IV. 
and Eckart II., are, at least, not sufficiently warranted by 
historical records. The same may be said of the alleged 
renewal of the Order by the Emperor Maximilian I., who is 
said to have founded an Order of St. George in 1494, previous 
to the campaign against the Turks. These questionable tradi- 
tions are, however, closely connected with the strictly historical 
account of the second renewal, or rather first foundation of the 
Order by the Elector Charles Albert, afterwards the Emperor 
Charles VII., who received it as a pious legacy from his father, 
Max Emanuel. The latter had, during his campaigns against 
the Turks, solemnly resolved to renew it as a military badge 
of distinction ; but this he was prevented by death from 
accomplishing. His intention was, however, carried out by his 
son, who founded on the 24th April, 1729, the knightly Order 
of St. George, imposing upon the members the duty of 
venerating that saint, and believing in the Immaculate Concep- 
tion of the Virgin. 

He gave statutes to the Institution, and richly endowed it 
with large priories, prebends, and afterwards with provostships ; 
and Pope Benedict XIII. confirmed the Order, by a Bull, 
granting to it all the honours, privileges, and advantages 
which had been conceded by previous Popes to all the 


high Orders of Germany. After the extinction of the Louis 
line of Bavaria, the Elector Charles Theodore adopted it 
(1778) as a Palatinate-Bavarian institution, while his successor 
Maximilian Joseph sanctioned it as a royal Bavarian Order, 
only second in rank to that of St. Hubert. King Louis 
made some alterations in the constitution in 1827. 

The King is the Grand Master while the Grown Prince 
is first Grand Prior, and the next Prince second Grand 
Prior. The Chapter comprises six Knights of the Grand Cross, 
twelve Commanders, and an unlimited number of Knights, 
some of whom are nominated by the Grand Master as Honorary 
Knights of the Grand Cross.. 

Since 1741, a spiritual class has been added, consisting of a 
Bishop, a Provost, four Deans, and a number of Chaplains, 
who enjoy the distinction of Papal House Prelates. This class 
has been instituted and confirmed by the Bulls of Popes Bene- 
dict XIV. (6th October, 1741), and Pius VI. (30th April, 
1782). The candidates must prove their Catholic descent, 
and the Order consists of two languages : the German and a 
foreign ; the latter, however, counts only about one third of 
the members. The possession of another Order excludes the 
reception of this, without the special permission of the 
Grand Master. In the oath, the candidates confess to believe 
' in the Immaculate Conception of the Virgin without the 
original, or birth-sin. ' The Order celebrates, therefore, besides 
its anniversary, the 24th April, the 8th December, as the 
festival of the Holy Conception of the Virgin. The costume 
on these occasions consists of a long robe of bright blue velvet, 
with a train and without sleeves, more or less embroidered with 
silver, lined with w T hite satin or Gros-de-Naples, and with 
a velvet collar of the same colour. Upon this robe is the 
star of the Order embroidered on the left side (Plate 2. Tab. L 
No. 5). Beneath is worn an undergarment opening by buttons 

e 2 


to the half of the bosom. Short breeches of white satin, and 
similar rosettes, trimmed with silver fringes, white silk stockings, 
a nd white cordwain shoes, a high round hat of black felt with a 
silver sling of six, three or four cords, white leather gloves, a 
ruff of white lace buttoned in the front and hanging down upon 
the breast by the two ends, and finally a white satin sash round 
the body and fastened in a ring on the left side, with a short 
Knight's sword in a white belt, complete this elegant costume. 

The badge (Plate 2, Tab. I. Nos. 6 and 7) is worn by a 
broad sky-blue ribbon with white and dark blue borders, by the 
Knights of the Grand Cross upon the breast, and by the Com- 
manders and Knights round the neck. The size differs with the 
degree of rank. The decoration represents on the adverse (No. 
7) the Immaculate Conception of the Virgin, and on the reverse 
St. George on horseback together with the dragon. In the four 
corners of the Cross, on the obverse, are seen the initials of the 
words : ' Virgini immaculatse Bavaria imnfaculata ' (Immaculate 
Bavaria to the immaculate Virgin) ; on the reverse is the motto 
of the Order : ' Justus ut Palma flnrebit ' (The just will nourish 
like a palm tree). Upon the chain of which there are three 
links in Plate 2, Tab. II. No. 1 1 are distributed the words : 
' In Fide, Justitia et Fortitudine ' (In faith, justice and valour). 


On the 8th June, 1797, the Elector Charles Theodor, 
founded a military decoration of honour, which King Maximilian 
Joseph transformed into a royal Order under the above title, on 
the 1st March, 1806, the day when the Bavarian Prince 
assumed the title of King. It is formed after, and to the same 
purpose as the Baden Order of Military Merit of Charles 
Frederick. That the Order is held in high estimation, is owing 

15 A V A R 1 A . Table 1 1 . 

IM.ATE 12. 

Hurst and BliickctI, London. IHBH 


to the extra advantages and privileges attached to it. The 
six senior Knights of the Grand Cross, the eight senior 
Commanders, and the fifty senior Knights receive an annual 
pension of 1500, 500, and 300 fl. (£150, £50 and £30) res- 
pectively. Every Bavarian commoner hecomes ennobled with his 
nomination, and if his father and grandfather were also 
members of the Order, the nobility becomes hereditary in the 
family. The funeral of a deceased member is attended with 
ceremonies prescribed for that of one rank above his own. 
To these personal privileges, King Louis added (27th 
February, 1835) the following benefits for the children of 
the members. An annuity of 300 fl. (£30) is granted every 
year to eight children of living or deceased members, namely : 
to males until their twenty-fifth year of age, and to females 
until they are married, or in some way provided for, otherwise 
the grant continues for life ; and the same is the case also with 
males if incapable of gaining a livelihood from physical defects 
or infirmities. 

The decoration is a gold white enamelled cross with golden 
rays in the corners, placed under a royal crown. The blue 
enamelled middle shows on the obverse the initials in gold of 
the royal founder, Maximilian Joseph, and on the reverse, equally 
in gold, the motto of the Order : ' Virtuti pro patria ' (To valour 
for the fatherland). The Knights wear it (Tab. II. Nos. 9 
and 10) upon the left side of the breast, suspended by a black 
ribbon with narrow white and blue borders. The Commanders 
wear it round the neck, while the Knights of the Grand Cross 
suspend it across the right shoulder, or round the neck, and have, 
in addition, attached upon the left breast an embroidered star 
(Tab. II. No. 8). The size of the decoration accords with the 
class occupied by the members. 



This Order was also founded by King Maximilian Joseph on the 
19th May, 1808, and is of the same character for civil servants 
as is the Military Order of Merit for the military. "It is 
meant," according to the statutes, "to confer an honourable 
distinction on the servants of the state, and on the citizens of all 
classes of society who should have distinguished themselves by 
prominent virtues and merits." 

It consists of three classes : Grand Cross Knights, Com- 
manders, and Knights. The three classes were originally to 
consist respectively of only twelve, twenty-four and one hundred 
members, but the number was subsequently (8th October, 1817) 
increased to twenty-four, forty, and one hundred and sixty, 
exclusive (in the first class) of those Knights on whom was at 
the same time conferred the Order of St. Hubert. This Order, 
like the Military one of Merit, entitles the candidate to 
personal or hereditary nobility. The three degrees are conferred 
by recommendation of the Council of the Order. 

By the original law, the total funds of the Order were to be 
applied to the annual pensions of a certain number of members 
of all classes, but in 1824, the founder decreed that a part 
should be set aside for the support of twenty children of the 
members of the three classes, each to the annual sum of 250 fl. 
(£25). King Louis (1834) increased that sum to 300 fl. 
(£30), and the number of the recipients (1835) to thirty- 

The decoration consists of an octagonal white enamelled 
Cross, encompassed by an oak wreath under a royal 
crown. The middle of the obverse contains a o-olden crown 
upon white and blue rues, with the legend in golden letters 


within a red ring : c Virtus et Honos ' (Virtue and honour.) The 
reverse shows the effigy of the founder, with the inscription : 
c Max. Jos. Rex Boyvarise ' (Max Joseph, King of Bavaria.) 
This large Cross (Tab. II. Nos. 13 and 14) which differs in size 
with the various degrees, is worn suspended by a blue watered 
ribbon, with narrow white borders, by the Knights at the button 
hole, by the Commanders round the neck, and by the Knights 
of the Grand Cross across the left shoulder towards the right 
hip. The latter wear, in addition, upon the left breast an 
embroidered star (Tab. II. No. 12). No. 22 in Plate 13, Tab. 
Ill, represents three links of the middle part of the chain, the 
central link of which contains the initial of the founder. The 
oval intervals contain alternately the initials of the motto : 
' Virtus et Honos.' Connected with the above Order is : 


This medal, in gold, is bestowed on State-functionaries below 
the rank of Counsellor of Board or College. It gives no claim 
to nobility or support for children. To simple citizens it is pre- 
sented in silver. Plate 15, Tab. V. No 32, contains the effigy of 
the founder with the inscription c Max Jos. Konig von Baiern ' 
(Max Joseph, King of Bavaria). The reverse shows within a laurel 
wreath, the words : c Dem Verdienste um Fiirst und Vaterland ' 
(For merit of Prince and country). It is worn at the button hole 
of the left side, suspended by a silk ribbon one inch wide 
composed of two white and three bright-blue narrow stripes. 

This medal supplies the place of several previous ones of a 
similar character, introduced by Charles Theodor (1794 and 
1798), and by the Elector Max Joseph (1805) during the French 



' Fur ehrenvolle fiinfzig Dienst-jahre ' (For honourable service 
of fifty years), is the inscription upon the reverse of the Cross, 
impressed in golden letters upon white ground within a green 
enamelled laurel wreath — thus plainly indicating the object 
of the founder. It was created on the 25th August, 1827 
(the date is given in the four corners of the reverse). 
The obverse bears the effigy and crown of the King in gold 
upon a white enamelled ground, while in the four corners of the 
Cross are the words : ' Ludwig Konig von Baiern ' (Louis King 
of Bavaria) (Plate 14, Tab. IV. Nos. 27 and 28). The fifty 
years service required may have been spent partly or wholly in 
the service of the court, government, war department, or in 
the church of the country, or its incorporated provinces. For 
officers, the years of campaign count double, while those spent in 
inactive service count for nothing. The decoration is only con- 
ferred on individuals who bear the title of Counsellor. For those 
of lower rank, the badge consists of a gold medal (Plate 15, 
Tab. V. No. 30) with the same inscription as the Cross. Both 
are worn at the button-hole, suspended by a crimson ribbon 
with sky blue borders. The ribbon of the Cross is somewhat 
broader than that of the medal. 


This Order is one of those the objects and statutes of which 
have undergone manifold modifications in process of time. Its 
founder, Joseph Clemens, Elector of Cologne and Duke of 
Bavaria, introduced it on the 29th September, 1693, as a 

15 A VA1U A. Tabic III 

P LA IK I") 

Hurst anJ Blarkelt, Lomlon. 1858. 


Knightly Order exclusively for Catholics of noble descent, and 
imposed upon the members the duty of " defending religion 
and the honour of God." When Bavaria became a kingdom, 
and Maximilian Joseph I. began to introduce reforms in 
the several Orders of the state — as already seen in those of St. 
Hubert, St. George, and Max Joseph — he added, in the present 
Order, (11th September, 1808) the duty of "defending the 
fatherland." The statutes limited the number of the Knights 
of the Grand Cross to eighteen (who form the Chapter), of 
Officers to eight, and of Knights to thirty-six, all of whom must 
belong to the Catholic religion. The Grand Master was, 
however, free to nominate fourteen honorary members without 
regard to birth, rank, or religion. So it stood until the 
death of the Grand Master, Duke William of Bavaria in 1837. 
The new statutes date from the 1 6th February of that year, when 
the Order was erected into an Order of Merit, without distinction 
of birth, rank or religion, enlarging the claims thereto, to 
loyalty, patriotism, and distinction of useful works generally. 
Nobility is not ipso facto the result of the nomination. Since 
1837, the number of the Grand Crosses for natives is fixed at 
twenty-four (exclusive of those conferred on the Knights of St. 
Hubert), of Commanders at forty, and of Knights at three 
hundred. The Order is now in so far connected with that of St. 
Michael, that the latter follows in rank the corresponding 
degree of the former. 

The decorations (Plate 13, Tab. III. Nos. 16 and 17) are those 
of the Grand Crosses and Commanders, showing on the obverse 
in gold-relief St. Michael in warlike attire, surrounded by flashes 
of lightning. His shield bears the inscription ' Quis ut Deus ?' 
(Who is like God ?) The Cross of the (simple) Knights bears 
upon the face the initials of those three words. The four 
corners of the crosses of all classes are mounted in gold, 
containing in gold characters the initials : P. F. F. P. of the 


words 'Principi Fidelis Favere Patriae' (True to the Prince 
and attached to the country). The Cross itself is azure blue, 
octagonal, and covered by a royal crown. The reverse (in all 
classes) contains in blue enamel the word ' Virtuti ' (To 
virtue) upon a golden ground. 

The Knights of the Grand Cross wear besides, upon the left 
breast, a golden cross upon a star of silver rays with the above 
motto ' Quis ut Deus ?' (Plate 13, Tab. III. No. 15). Of the 
width of the ribbon by which the Order is suspended, two thirds 
are dark blue, and one third rose colour, in equal proportions for 
both ends. The Knights of the Grand Cross wear the Order 
across the right (since 1844 upon the left) shoulder, suspended 
by the above ribbon about three and a half inches wide ; the 
Commanders wear it in smaller size round the neck by a some- 
what narrower ribbon, while the Knights have it, in still smaller 
proportions, fastened to the coat. 

Plate 14, Tab. IV. No. 29, represents the chain which the 
members formerly used to wear upon their costume on festival 
days, while the new statutes mention neither costume nor chain. 

In 1846, the total number of the members was fixed at 
four hundred and sixteen, viz. thirty-six Grand Crosses, sixty 
Commanders, and three hundred and twenty Knights. 


The first Consort of the Elector Charles Theodor of the 
Palatinate, Elizabeth Augusta, daughter of the Palatine Joseph 
Charles Emanuel of Schulzbach, founded this Order for ladies in 
honour of her sainted patroness and namesake, on the 18th 
October, 1766, as a purely charitable institution for the poor. 
It was confirmed on the 31st January, 1767, by Pope Clement 
XIII. and endowed with various indulgences. The Catholic 

BAV All! V Table IV. 

PI. A TE I i. 

Unrsl and llhu'kelt, Lontliva. WIS. 


religion and the Seize Quartiers — the proof of noble descent 
running through sixteen generations of their own or their 
husband's ancestors — are indispensable conditions for candidates. 
The Grand Mistress is, however, empowered to nominate an 
unlimited number of ladies, from princely houses and her own 
court, as also six other married or widowed ladies of noble, 
though not ancient, descent. The nomination takes place either 
on Easter, or on St. Elizabeth's day (19th November). The 
entrance fee is four ducats. The badge (Tab. IV. Nos. 25 and 
26) is a white enamelled Cross, representing on one side St. 
Elizabeth dispensing charity to the poor, and on the other the 
initial of the founder. It is worn on the left breast by a blue 
ribbon with red borders. No member can appear in public 
without it, except by fine of one ducat. 

The King appoints the Grand Mistress ; the present one is 
the Duchess of Leuchtenberg. 


The Order was founded by the relict of the Elector Maximilian 
III., Maria Anna Sophie, from her own private property, in 1 784, 
for the benefit of the Bavarian nobility. The number of members 
was originally limited to ten single ladies, after the completion 
of their 15 th year, who could prove their noble descent through 
sixteen generations. They were to live together in the establish- 
ment under the guidance of the Deanness, and perform, moreover, 
daily, at certain hours a choral service. Its existence under 
such regulations was but short, and in 1802, the Elector, 
•afterwards King Max-Joseph IV., was induced to decree the 
discontinuance of convent life, especially as regarded the 
living under one roof. He left, however, to the inmates 


their allotted benefices or pensions, and even allowed 
them to make eligible marriages. The number of members 
who were endowed for life with pensions, he raised from 
ten to eighteen ; ten of whom (all noble born) were to 
receive 1000 fl. (£100) each, two 500 fl. (£50) each, and six 
others (the daughters of commoners but civil officers of a 
certain rank) also 500 fl. (£50) each. The Lady Abbess of the 
establishment was to be, at least, a Princess of the reigning 
house. The costume worn, when at Court or before the Lady 
Abbess, remained unaltered ; it consisted of a black garment, 
and of the insignia, the description of which will be given 

The financial position of the institution rendered, however, 
in 1825, a further reform indispensable. By a decree 
of the 10th February of that year, the benefices or pensions 
were reduced to 800 and 400 fl. respectively (to £80 and £40). 
By this and other means, the administration was enabled to 
increase the number of the members to twenty-five in the first, 
and forty-two in the second class, a third of whom were to be the 
daughters of military officers. The present Abbess is the 
Princess Adelgonde of Bavaria. 

The costume of the Order is a black dress trimmed with 
lace, and a long black velvet mantle with a hood ; the hood of 
the Abbess is trimmed with ermine. The badge (Plate 13, 
Tab. III. Nos. 18 and 19) is a gold Cross white enamelled, 
and enchased in blue, with rounded sides, and golden rings 
in the corners. It represents on the obverse the Virgin, and on 
the reverse the patron Saint of Bavaria, St. Benno, both in gold 
on white enamel. In the points of the obverse are distributed the 
words ' Sub tuam Presidium ' (Under thy protection), and of 
the reverse : ' Patronus Noster ' (Our patron Saint). 



By the will of the Countess Anne Maria of Dernbach, 
born Baroness Voit of Rieneck, in 1683, her estates 
were, in case her Consort should die without issue, to be applied 
to the foundation of an establishment for unmarried ladies 
of the Franconian nobility. It happened, that Count 
Dernbach died 1714, without direct heirs, and the Prince 
Bishop of Wurzburg, John Philip, therefore acted up to this 
disposition in the Countess's wiD. He founded the es- 
tablishment, and fixed the number of the members at six, 
including the Abbess. They were bound to live under one 
roof, while the indispensable conditions of their admissibility 
were, the Catholic religion, descent of sixteen noble generations, 
i. e. eight on each of the parent's sides (the Franconian race in 
preference), and an age varying from twelve to sixteen years. 
Adoration of God, celebration of the memory of the founder, 
and education in all noble virtues and spiritual sciences, were 
the objects of the establishment. The Prince Bishop Frederick 
Charles confirmed these statutes 1793, while a considerable 
donation made in 1756 by Count Ostein, permitted an increase of 
the members to seven, including the Abbess. 

When, at the beginning of the present century, the ancient re- 
lations of the German empire ceased to exist, and the principality 
of Wurzburg, like many other petty states, lost its independance, 
and became incorporated with Bavaria, the Elector Max- 
Joseph IV. abolished this institution, (4th April, 1803) but 
united it, after a few months, with the one at Munich, 
allowing from its revenues the pensions of twelve members, 


four at 800 fl. (£80), for native nobility, and eight at 400 fl. 
(£40), for state functionaries. 

The peace of Pressburg (26th December, 1805), having 
restored the independance of Wurzburg by creating it a Grand- 
Duchy, its Sovereign, Prince Ferdinand Archduke of Austria, 
re-established the institution at Wurzburg by a convention with 
Bavaria (29th April, 1807), and gave it in 1811 new statutes. 
In 1814, though Wurzburg fell again to the share of Bavaria, 
the institution retained its independance, nor were its statutes 
materially altered, except that the number and title of the 
members were in so far modified, that instead of four members 
(as fixed in 1811), the number was now fixed at an uncertain 
number of honorary ladies, twelve noble ladies with pensions 
of 800 florins each, and twenty non-noble ladies with pensions 
of 400 florins each. 

These pensions were granted until their marriage, and if 
married with royal consent, one year's pension was allowed 
by way of dower. 

The badge (Tab. III. No. 20) is a gold Cross, white 
enamelled, and its broad sides rounded. The obverse re- 
presents in gold upon white enamelled ground St. Ann, and 
upon the points are distributed the words : ' In ihren edlen 
Tochtem' (In her noble daughters), while the reverse bears the 
crest of the founder. It is worn upon the black dress sus- 
pended by a red ribbon with silver borders. 


" To grant to a certain number of unmarried noble ladies, 
a distinction of honour, as also a pension by which their income 
may be increased," so says the introductory part of the Patent. 
Theresa, late Queen of Bavaria, founded (12th December, 1827) 

BAVAItlA. 63 

the above Order, endowing it, from her own private property, 
with a revenue sufficient to allow an annual pension to twelve 
members, six of whom at 300 fl. (£30), and the other six at 
100 fl. (£10). The reigning Queen (even as a widow) is 
always to be Grand Mistress of the Order, or by her choice, 
and by consent of the King, some Princess of the royal house. 
The pretension — as in the previous one — to the Order, is nobi- 
lity of ancient Bavarian descent, and an age above ten years. 
The candidates must also show that their own private income 
does not exceed annually the sum of 300 fl. All Christian 
sects are admissible. The pension ceases with marriage ; but 
if suitably married according to their rank, they are allowed 
to wear the insignia in future as ' honorary ladies,' though the 
pension is discontinued. 

The badge (Plate 14, Tab. IV. No. 23, front; and No. 
24, reverse) is a Cross, worn by a bow of a white-watered 
ribbon with two sky-blue stripes, fastened to the left breast, 
and on gala days when at Court, a similar broad ribbon 
is thrown across the right shoulder towards the left hip. The 
costume is a dress of bright blue silk. 


The Military Medal of Honour, was founded by the Elec- 
tor Max-Joseph IV. (22nd November, 1794) in gold and 
in silver, to reward sub-officers and soldiers for brave conduct 
in war. With the silver medal the pay is increased one 
half, and with the golden it is doubled. It does not, 
however, increase with promotion, while, on the contrary, 
it diminishes with pension, and ceases altogether with dis- 

The medal (Plate 15, Tab. V. No. 33, obverse; and No. 


34, reverse) is worn on the left breast, suspended by a black 
ribbon with white and bright blue borders. 

2. Decoration of Honour and Distinction for Military 
Surgeons — was founded by a military decree (8th November, 
1812) by King Max-Joseph; it is in gold and silver, the 
former weighing ten ducats and measuring one five-eighths 
Bavarian inches in diameter. 

It is worn on the left breast on the same ribbon as the pre- 
vious, (Tab. V. No. 31), and represents on the obverse the 
effigy of the founder, with the inscription : ' Maximilianus Jose- 
phus Rex Bejoarise' (Max-Joseph, King of Bavaria), and on the 
reverse : ' Ob Milites inter Prselia et Arte et Virtute servatos ' 
(for saving soldiers in war by art as well as by courage). The 
Patent says : ' To claim this important reward, it is absolutely 
necessary that the candidate surgeons must have given their 
professional aid upon the field of battle or in the hospitals, with- 
out shrinking from the dangers around them, and have performed 
their duties with skill, presence of mind, and sympathy with 
the suffering wounded, &c, &c/ The gold medal is presented 
(by the King in person) to established surgeons of regiments ; 
and the silver to surgeons of batallions and to mere practitioners. 
To the medal is attached a pension of 300, 200, 150, and 
100 fl. (£30, £20, £15, and £10), the first two, to four owners 
of the golden medal, the third to eight, and the fourth to all 
the other possessors of the silver medal. 

3. The Military Cross for the Years 1813 and 1814. (Plate 
13, Tab. III. No. 21). — It is a Cross cast from the metal of guns, 
and founded on the 4th December, 1814, in commemoration of 
the War of Liberty of that period. It was distributed 27th May, 
1817, not only amongst the troops who had actually made 
the campaigns of the two years ; but also amongst those who had 
entered the service as late as the following year (1815). It is 
worn on the left breast, the Bavarian Field-Marshal, Prince 

U A V All 1 A Table V. 


Ilursl and lilacketl, London. 18.'i!>. 

BAVARIA. Table VI. (AUSTRIA Table. VI.) 

PLATE 10. 


Ilursl ami Blackclt, London. 18."8. 


Wrede, was, however, allowed to wear it round the neck. It 
is also suspended on the standards of the regiments who served 
at that period. 


It was founded 28th November, 1853, by King Maximilian II. 
as a distinction for prominent talents in the Arts and 
Sciences, and more especially for German savans and artists. 
It is divided into two parts : the Arts and the Sciences. The 
decoration consists of a Gothic Cross, enamelled dark blue with 
white edges, and four rays in the corners, and surrounded by a 
wreath of laurel and oak leaves. The middle of the Cross forms a 
shield, the front of which exhibits the effigy of the founder, 
with the inscription, ' Maximilian II. Konig von Baiern,' while 
the reverse represents either an owl (as symbol of science) or — 
for the division of the Arts — Pegasus, with the inscription, ' Fur 
Wissenschaft und Kunst ' (For science and art). Within the 
points of the Cross are to be seen the words ' 28 th November, 
1853* (the foundation day). It is worn round the neck, 
suspended by a dark blue ribbon with white borders (Plate 
16. Tab. VI. No. 35). 

The King is Grand Master of the Order. The Chapter 
consists of seven or nine members, who annually meet in 
November to deliberate on the merits of the candidates. 
The number of members is limited to one hundred, with a 
due regard to the proportion of the two departments, the arts 
and sciences. The Order is not hereditary, and the insignia are 
returned, after the demise of a member, to the Minister of 
State of the Royal Household and Foreign Affairs. 



This Order was founded on the 1 1th July, 1832, and has been 
divided, since 1838, into five classes — Knights of the Grand 
Cross, Grand Officers, Commanders, Officers and Knights. The 
nomination is made by the King, as Grand Master. Members 
of the two Chambers, who receive the Order from other 
motives than merely military distinction, are subject to a new 
election. Privates and sub-officers who are Knights of the 
Order, enjoy, until their promotion, an annual pension of 
100 francs (£4). The motto of the country, 'L'union fait 
la force ' (Union constitutes power) is also that of the Order. 

The decoration, differing in size only, is the same for 
all degrees. For the four first classes, however, it is in 
gold, while for the fifth class it is in silver. The illustrations 
(Plate 17. Tab. I. Nos. 1 to 5), give the half of the official size 
of the insignia. The first class wear the star (No. 1) on 
the left breast, and the decoration (No. 3), suspended by a 
flame-coloured watered ribbon, thrown across the right shoulder 
towards the left hip. The second class wear the star (No. 2), 
upon the left breast. The third suspend the cross (No. 4), 
round the neck. The fourth suspend it at the button-hole 
by a bow or knot (No. 5), while the fifth class wear it also at 
the button-hole, but without a bow, and suspended by a 
much narrower ribbon. 

HKLG i IMI. Table I 

PL ATK 17 

HurM ami Bluckell . London. !S:iS 


Illustration 6, represents the reverse of the insignia. The 
gold chain worn on solemn occasions by the Knights of the 
Grand Cross (No. 3) consists alternately of the crown or lion, 
and the initials in monogram L. R. (Leopoldus Rex). 

The insignia of the military members of the Order are 
distinguished by two crossed swords of gold (with the Knights 
only of silver), fixed, with the first class, in the centre of the 
star, adorned with the motto of the Order and the Belgian 
Lion, and with the three other classes below the crown above 
the star. 

By decree 8th November, 1832, the administration of the 
Order is transferred to the Minister of Foreign Affairs. 


The foundation of this Order had, in fact, preceded the former, 
which was conferred, in 1835, upon sixteen hundred and two 
Belgian citizens who had taken an active part in the Revolu- 
tion, many of whom had previously received the iron medal 
(Plate 18. Tab. II. No. 9). The form and inscription of the 
Cross are represented Tab. II. No. 7 (front), and No. 8 (reverse). 
It is worn suspended by a red watered ribbon, with black and 
yellow borders. The above-mentioned medal shows upon the ob- 
verse the Belgian Lion with the inscription, ' Aux defenseurs de 
la patrie ' (To the defenders of the fatherland), and upon the 
reverse, the year 1830 in the centre of the sun, which is encom- 
passed by the arms of the nine Belgian provinces, and the in- 
scription, ' Independance de la Belgique ' (Independence of 


A private society in one of the provinces of the Netherlands, 
in 1825, first distributed medals for deeds of self-devotion. The 

f 2 


Belgian government introduced the same into Belgium after the 
revolution. The expenses are included in the annual budgets. The 
medal is distributed in gold, silver gilt, and silver. The intrinsic 
value is 100, 50 to 60, and 30 to 40 francs. It is worn at the 
button hole by a tri-coloured ribbon, black, red and yellow. 

The front of the medal (Tab. II. Nos. 11 and 12) represents 
the effigy of the King, with the inscription, ' Leopold Premier, 
Roi des Beiges.' The reverse shows in the middle a crown, 
beneath which is, each time when presented, engraved, the 
name, domicile, and the cause of the reward, of the reci- 
pient. The legend is ' Devouement, Courage, Humanite — 
Recompense publique' (Self-devotion, courage, humanity — 
public reward). 

By a decree of the 19th April, 1849, the following bye-laws 
were added : 

1. The medal is in future to be adorned with a crown. 

2. The distribution of the colours of the ribbon by which the 
medal is worn suspended at the button-hole is shown (Plate 19. 
Tab. III. Nos. 14, 15 and 16). 


It originated in Holland in 1818, for the encouragement of 
vaccination. The value of the gold medal is 50 gulden 
(about 4 guineas), and is presented to medical practitioners who 
have gratuitously vaccinated more than one hundred children in 
the course of the year. 

The same medal (Tab. II. No. 10) is now also introduced in 

IIELG 1 L VI. Tabic I I 


Uuisl and Blacked, London. I8.*>S. 

hi: u;i um. ruble ml 

pi. \'i !•: id. 

Ilursl and Ul.-irkell, London. I8.'1S. 



The following royal patent was issued on the 7 th November, 

1. A decoration with the symbols of commerce and industry, 
is to be issued under the name, " Reward for artizans, mechanics, 
and the working classes." The name of the recipient and the 
year when granted to be impressed on the reverse. 

2. There are to be two classes, one for a gold, and the other 
for a silver medal. 

3. It is to be worn on a small chain of the same metal on 
the left side of the breast (Plate 19. Tab. III. No. 13). 

4. It is exclusively designed for mechanics who join skill to 
irreproachable conduct. 

5. The jury appointed at the Industry Exhibition, is to report 
on their various merits. 

6. The skill of the mechanic or artizan is to show itself in a 
work distinguished for fine form, wholly or mostly of his own 

7. The first reward is the silver medal, while the gold 
is to be awarded to increased progress and skill, after the 
receipt of the former. 

8. The number of the members is limited to one thousand ; 
two hundred to the gold, and eight hundred to the silver 

In 1848, the reward was also extended to agricultural talent 
and improvement, on the occasion of the Agricultural Exhibition. 

The number of the latter is fixed at five hundred for the gold, 
and twelve hundred for the silver medal. 



Don Pedro I. established this Order, named from himself, 
soon after he assumed the title of Emperor of Brazil. It is 
the highest in the empire, has only one class, and was only 
presented to reigning sovereigns. 

Beneath an imperial gold crown is seen a radiating 
golden pentagonal star, upon which rests another pentago- 
nal star, white enamelled with gold edges, and with gold 
little balls at each corner. The blue enamelled broad ring 
has two narrow gold edges, with the legend: ' Fundator 
del Imperio dal Brazil' (Founder of the Brazilian empire), 
while the white enamelled centre of the star shows a 
gold Phcenix bearing within its silver face the letters 
P. I." (Pedro I.), and in its claws an antique crown. This 
Order is worn by a broad green watered ribbon with^ white 
borders, across the right shoulder towards the left hip (Plate 
20, Tab. I. No. 2). 

A similar star, but without crown (Tab. I. No. 1), is besides 
worn on the left breast. 

In October, 1842, this Order received its first statutes, 
and was, by them, divided into three classes, consisting of 
twelve Knights of the Grand Cross, fifty Commanders, and one 
hundred Knights. The Princes of the imperial family are, by 
birth, Knights of the Grand Cross. 

lilt VZIL. Table I 


Ilinvl mil WY.u-VfW liinilhii 1KSS 



This Order, which is divided into four classes, Knights 
of the Grand Cross, Dignitaries, Officers, and Knights, was 
also founded by Don Pedro I. on the 1st December, 1822, 
instituting the reigning Emperor as Grand Master. The 
decoration (Tab. I. No. 4) is a pentagonal white enamelled 
Cross, resting upon a green laurel wreath with broad edges 
mounted in gold, and the ten points of which bear little 
gold balls. The gold scutcheon in the centre of the 
obverse, shows the effigy of the Emperor Don Pedro in relief, 
and is surrounded by a dark blue ring with ■ gold edges, 
and the legend 'Petrus I. Brazilian Imperator' (Pedro I. 
Emperor of Brazil). The four stars which form this curious 
constellation of the South Cross, are exhibited upon the sky 
blue centre of the reverse, which is also surrounded by a 
dark blue ring with gold edges, and the legend, ' Praemium 
bene Merentium' (Reward of the well deserving). This Cross is 
surmounted by a gold imperial crown, and is worn by a sky 
blue ribbon (more or less broad according to the degree of the 
wearer) by the Knights of the Grand Cross across the right 
shoulder, by the Dignitaries round the neck, and by the Officers 
and Knights upon the left breast. 

A pentagonal radiating star of gold below an imperial 
golden crown, the middle face of which contains the same 
as the reverse of the Cross, distinguishes the owners of the 
three higher classes, and is worn by them upon the left breast 
(Tab. I. No. 3). 

The particular characteristic of the ..-Order is, that Prin- 
cesses, Duchesses, and other high born ladies, are not excluded 
from it. 



Was founded by Don Pedro on the 17th October, 1829, the 
day of his second marriage with the Princess Amalie Eugenie 
Napoleone of Leuchtenberg and Eichstadt, daughter of the 
celebrated Prince Eugene, Due de Leuchtenberg. It was destined 
as a reward for both civil and military merit. 

The Order, of which the Emperor is Grand Master, has 
eight real, and eight honorary Knights of the Grand Cross, 
sixteen Grand Dignitaries, thirty Dignitaries, and an unlimited 
number of Commanders, Officers and Knights. The heir 
presumptive to the throne, or Crown Prince, is at once Knight 
of the Grand Cross and Dignitary, while the other Princes of 
blood are only the former. Only those with the title Excellency, 
are admissible to the Grand Cross, while the Grand Dignitaries 
receive the title (Excellency) with their nomination. The 
Dignitaries are chosen from those who are already styled, 
Senhor, while with the nomination of Commander, the candidate 
receives the title (Senhor.) The Officers receive, with the 
Order, the rank of Colonel, and the Knights that of Captain. 

The insignia (Tab. I. No. 6) consist of a white enamelled 
hexagonal star with gold edges, the six points of whictfbear 
small balls ; the star is fastened by the upper point to a gold 
imperial crown, surrounded by a wreath of full blown roses. 
Upon the white ground of the front are seen the letters, P. A. 
(Pedro and Amalie), encompassed by a broad golden ring or 
circle, with the legend, ' Amore Fidelios ' (Love and fidelity). 
The gold centre of the reverse shows the date of the 
foundation, while the blue ring round it has the words, 
' Pedro e Amalia.' 

The Order is worn by a rose coloured or pink ribbon, with 

BRAZIL. Table II. 

I' LATE 21 

tlursl an.l Blarkcll, l.mulim. IS.'JS 


white borders, the width of which varies with the various 
degrees of the wearers. The Knights of the Grand Cross wear 
it across the right shoulder, the Dignitaries round the neck, and 
the three other classes upon the left breast. 

The five superior classes wear, besides, upon the left breast, a 
star (No. 5) exactly resembling the obverse of the Order, except 
that it is much larger, and is in addition surmounted by 
a gold crown, for the Knights of the Grand Cross and 
Dignitaries. The eight real Knights of the Grand Cross wear, 
besides, on solemn occasions, a gold chain of roses worked in 


These three Orders had followed the royal family at their emi- 
gration from Lisbon to Rio Janeiro, and were retained by the 
colony, after John VI. was recalled to the capital of Portugal. They 
became national in Brazil by decree, 20th October, 1823, and 
by subsequent usages. The insignia were only in so far altered 
that the crown of Portugal was exchanged for that of the 
empire, and the borders of the ribbons of the Orders of Christ 
(Plate 21. Tab. II. No. 6), and St. Jacob (No. 7) were changed 
into blue, and those of St. Benedict (No. 8) into pink red. 

The Emperor is Grand Master, the Crown Prince first 
Commander. The Knights wear the Order at the button hole, 
the Commanders have the star upon the left breast, while the 
Knights of the Grand Cross wear, besides, a broad scarf on 
which the decoration is suspended. 

All these three Orders have, however, lost their religious 
character in Brazil, owing to her independence of Portugal, and 
the rejection of the Bull ' Prseclara Portugaliae.' They are now 


considered as civil Orders, and are presented to native as well as 
foreign subjects, who have done service to the state (Law 9th 
September, 1843). 


1. Medal as reward for valour in battle. 

2. Medal for the war of Independence (Bahia). 

3. Medal of the Division for preservation of good order. 

4. The same medal with the inscription ' Constancia e 
Bravura ' (Constancy and valour) for the troops who have kept 
their post at the bar without assistance. 

5. Medal for the campaign to Rio de la Plata. 

6. Medal for the campaign in Cis Plata. 



Was founded by the present reigning Duke William on the 
25th April, 1834. The object is given in the introductory 
remark of the patent, ' to reward those who have distinguished 
themselves in our service, military or civil, in war, or the arts 
and sciences.' No regard is, therefore, had in the distribution, 
to birth, rank, or religion, except in the higher classes, when a 
previous possession of a Knightly cross is required. 

The Order consists of four classes, Knights of the Grand 
Cross, Commanders first and second classes, and Knights. 
The reigning Dukes of Brunswick are Grand Masters. 

The badge consists of a golden octagonal Cross, enamelled 
bright blue, with gold balls at the points and with a red 
middle, bearing on the obverse the helmet of the Brunswick 
Arms so as to allow it to rest upon the lower wing of the Cross, 
while the crowned pillar with the galloping horse, together with 
the two sickles, are placed in the centre ; the feathers of the 
peacock are represented upon the right and left wings, and its 
tail, together with the star, upon the upper wing of the Cross. 
Above the Cross is a gold lion passant between two laurel 
branches covered with the Brunswick crown, while between the 
wings of the Cross is a gold W also covered with the crown. 
The reverse has in the red centre, the motto of the Order in gold 


letters, ' Iramota Fides ' (Immutable faith), encompassed by a 
golden ring, with the year of the foundation MDCCCXXXIV. 
The front of the Order is seen Plate 22, Tab. I. No. 3, and the 
reverse No. 4. 

It is worn in different sizes, suspended by a deep red ribbon 
(of equally different widths) with narrow yellow stripes, by the 
Knights of the Grand Cross across the left shoulder towards the 
right hip, by the Commanders round the neck, and by the 
Knights at the button hole. The first two classes have besides 
the following insignia, as special distinctions, an octagonal star 
with silver rays encompassing the golden bright blue enamelled 
Cross of the decoration, while the centre shows a golden W. 
covered with the crown, as also a red ring with the motto of 
the Order in golden letters, which is worn by the Knights of the 
Grand Cross upon the left breast (Tab. I. No. 1). The 
Commanders of the first class wear, likewise, upon the left 
breast an octagonal silver Cross, between the wings of which is 
the gold W equally covered with the ducal crown (Tab. I. 
No. 2), while the red centre bears the motto of the Order in 
gold letters, encompassed by a gold ring with the date of 
the foundation of the Order in it. 

The Knights of the Grand Cross are, moreover, allowed to 
wear, on high gala days, their decorations round the neck by a 
gold chain, the links of which consist of three parts ; of 
the escutcheon surrounded by flags with the two fields of 
Brunswick and Liineburg, of two golden lions pacing towards 
the escutcheon, and of the centre of the star of the Knights of 
the Grand Cross (Tab. I. No. 5). 

Equal to this Order and connected with it, was founded the 


which is divided into two classes, gold and silver, and is 
worn suspended by the same ribbon as that of the previous 


PLATE 22. 

Hurst and Blackctl , London. 18"iS. 



Order, Henry the Lion. Each corner of the gold Cross is 
filled with a green oaken wreath, but not so the silver. The 
centre of both contains a W with the crown, and upon the 
wings are distributed the words, ' Immota Fides' (Tab. I. 
No. 6). The nomination to the previous Order, precludes 
the wearing of the present cross. 

Besides this Order, Brunswick possesses a variety of 
decorations and medals of merit, mostly military. We give 
them here in chronological order of their foundation. 

1. Waterloo Medal (Plate 23, Tab. II. No. 1 1) was founded 
by the Prince Regent of Great Britain, George, as guardian of 
the minor Princes of Brunswick, on the 1 1th June, 18 18, 'for the 
perpetual remembrance' — as the patent says — ' of the campaign 
of 1815, and the glorious distinction with which the Brunswick 
corps has participated in it.' The medal was cast from the 
captured guns of the enemy, and bears on the front the effigy 
of Duke Frederick William, who fell at the battle of Quatre 
Bras on the 16th June, 1815 ; the reverse shows within a laurel 
oak wreath, the date 1815, with the legend, 'Braunschweig 
seinen Kriegern — Quatre-Bras und Waterloo ' (Brunswick to 
her warriors — Quatre-Bras and Waterloo). Upon the edge of 
the medal is engraved the christian and family name, and the 
character which the owner bore during that campaign, and more 
especially during the battles of Quatre-Bras and Waterloo. 
It was presented to all men of the Brunswick corps who had 
either taken direct part in the campaign, from 15th June to 
7th July, 1815, or were present during that period and given 
assistance to the former, including even field chaplains, &c. 
Also the heirs of those soldiers who had either fallen in the 
field or died subsequently, received in memory of the dead this 
medal, which is worn by all classes suspended by a yellow and 
blue striped ribbon about six inches long, at the third button 
hole, or near it upon the left side. 


2. The decoration of Honour for the campaign of the 
year 1809, (Tab. II. No. 9), was originally instituted by 
Duke Charles II. on the 30th October, 1824, for the yet living 
soldiers in the Brunswick service who had followed the Duke 
Frederick William in 1809, from Bohemia to England ; but was 
afterwards distributed, also, amongst those of them who were no 
longer in the Brunswick service. 

It consists for officers, of a gold, and for sub-officers 
and privates of a bronze Cross, surrounded by a laurel and 
oak wreath. The year 1809 stands in the centre of the 
front bearing upon the wings the words, 'Fur Treue und 
Tapferkeit' (For loyalty and valour), the reverse shows the 
Brunswick white steed, and in the centre and upon the wings 
originally the name, ' Karl Friedrich August Wilhelm/ and 
since his expulsion, the name of the present reigning Duke. 
The Cross is worn upon the left breast, suspended by a sky blue 
watered ribbon. 

3. The medal of Honour for the Spanish-Portuguese 
Campaign. — The troops which came over to England 
with Duke Frederick William in 1809, formed, it is well 
known, the nucleus of the contingent which England lent 
to Spain and Portugal in the War of Independence against 
Napoleon, and which took part in nearly all the battles 
fought in the Peninsula from 1810 to 1814. Duke 
Charles II. founded also for these troops (30th October, 
1824) a medal of honour (Tab. II. No. 10), for officers in 
silver, and for sub-officers and men in bronze. It is worn 
upon the left breast, suspended by a crimson red ribbon; 
the front shows the word, ' Peninsula,' encompassed by a 
laurel wreath, while the reverse exhibits within a scutcheon, 
two C's in monogram (the initial of the founder). As may 
be supposed, the medal is possessed by nearly all the owners 
of No. 2. 

BRUNSWICK. Table 11. 

PLATE -_>o 

llursl and Blarkclt , Lnmlnn IHjS 


4. The Medal of Civil Merit. — This medal was founded by 
Duke Charles II. in the first year of his reign, as was, also, 

5. The Medal of Military Merit, founded by him towards 
the end of his reign to complete the former. But as the first 
was presented only to three civil officers, and the latter only to 
two military officers, both can hardly be ranked amongst the 
really existing Orders or decorations. Both medals were in 
silver, and worn at the button-hole suspended by a sky blue 
watered ribbon with a very narrow white border. 

6. Crosses for twenty to twenty-five years' military service, 
(Tab. II. Nos. 7 and 8). — This, together with some other 
decorations connected with it, were founded by Duke William, 
1st April, 1833. Officers and military officials with that rank, 
who have served honourably twenty-five years or more, receive 
a gold cross with purple red chevrons, the white centre of 
which contains on the front a W with the crown, and on the 
reverse the number twenty-five. It is worn suspended by a 
royal blue ribbon with similar borders upon the left breast. It 
can only be claimed by those who are on active service on the 
nomination day, which is the 25th April of each year. The 
Brunswick army counts now forty-five owners of this decoration. 
A similar cross of silver was also founded for sub-officers and 
soldiers for twenty-five and twenty years' uninterrupted and 
irreproachable service. The centre of the Cross represents on 
the front a W with the crown, and the reverse the number 
twenty-five or twenty ; it is likewise worn on the left breast by 
a royal blue ribbon, but with yellow borders. That for twenty- 
five years service has its centre surrounded by rays. The first 
twelve oldest owners of the twenty-five years' cross receive 
a monthly increase of their pay of one Thaler (3s. 6d.), 
all the others (not exceeding thirty-six in number) twelve 
Groschen (Is. 6d.) With the retirement from service the 
increase ceases. 


There are, besides, decorations for fifteen and ten years good 
service, consisting of silver and iron bolts or buckles, and with 
the same impressions and ribbons as the former. They are 
equally worn on the left breast. 

7. The Saving Medal (Tab. II. No. 12). — It was founded 
on the 25th April, 1836, and is presented to those who have 
saved the life of a fellow creature at the risk of their own. The 
medal is of silver, and contains on the obverse a W upon a 
scutcheon covered with the ducal crown, borne by lions and 
surrounded by flags, with the legend, ' Ehrenzeichen, gestiftet 
am 25th April, 1836' (Decoration of honour, founded on the 
25th April, 1836). The reverse shows the Goddess Victoria, 
pointing with her right to a wreath of stars, and bearing in her 
left a palm wreath with the legend, ' Miithiger Thaten ehrender 
Lohn ' (Honourable reward for courageous deeds). The medal 
is worn suspended by a green ribbon. 



Before entering on the history and statutes of this illustrious 
institution, it will be as well to give a few prefatory remarks 
concerning the general principles which regulate the two Danish 
Orders. Of both, the King is the head, and distributes them 
at pleasure. The affairs of both are managed under his 
presidency by a ' Chapter of the royal Orders/ established 
at Copenhagen on the 28th June, 1808. Its chief business 
is to watch over the conduct of the members, to report on 
them, and endeavour to settle their private disputes amicably. 
The officers of the two Orders consist of a Chancellor, Vice- 
Chan cellor, Bishop, Secretary, Marshall, Treasurer, Master and 
Vice-Master of ceremonies, Vicar and Historian. The festival 
days, common to both, are the 28th June, the birthday of 
King Waldemar, and the respective birthdays of the reigning 
sovereigns. The Chapter meets on both days; at the Castle 
of Frederigsborg on the 28th June, and at the Castle of 
Rosenberg on the birthday of the reigning King. 

The Order of the Elephant is one of the most striking 
proofs that the dignity of an Order is elevated in proportion 
to the rarity of its bestowal. For, though Denmark only 
occupies a third rank among European states, the Order of the 



Elephant commands as high a respect in public opinion as does 
the Golden Fleece, or even the Garter. The date of its origin 
cannot be ascertained with historical accuracy, since even the 
Danish historians themselves are not agreed on the point. 
Some would have it founded during the time of the first 
Crusade, others in the time of Kanut VI. (consequently at the 
end of the twelfth century), while others refer its creation to the 
second half of the fifteenth century, under Christian I. The 
Danish government in its official documents, assumes the date of 
the foundation to fall in the first half of the fifteenth century, 
while Christian L, it says, has only renewed the Order in 1458. 

That the Order was originally of a religious character is 
evident, not only from the circumstance that it required the 
Papal consent (of Pius V. and Sixtus VI. in 1462 and 1464) 
but also from the name : ' Society and fraternity of the Holy 
Virgin Maria,' which the fifty Knights, the number as at first 
fixed, had borne. The surmise is further confirmed by the 
insignia of the Order, which consisted originally of the figure of 
the Virgin with the infant Jesus in her arms, as also by the collar 
of the mantle in the shape of a monk's hood, which the Knights 
still wear on festival days. It has, however, entirely lost its 
religious element since the alteration of its statutes by Christian 
V. on the 1st December, 1693. Since that time it ought 
only to count thirty Knights, exclusive of the Princes of the 
blood who are by birth entitled to the Order, though they 
cannot wear it before the completion of their twentieth year. 
All the other Knights, if Danes, must have professed the Evan- 
gelical religion, for at least thirty years, and be declared by the 
Board of Enquiry, previous to their nomination, worthy of the 
Cross of Danneborg. This last regulation is, however, no longer 
strictly enforced, nor is the number of the Knights now strictly 
limited to thirty. 

The badge of the Order (Plate 24, Tab. I. No. 2) is a white 

DENMARK. Table I. 

PLATE 24. 

Ilurvl and IlUrkelt , London. lSub. 


enamelled elephant with golden tusks, a blue cloth covering, a 
battlemented tower upon his back, and a negro upon his neck 
with a spear in his hand. This decoration is worn suspended by 
a bright blue watered broad ribbon across the left shoulder 
towards the right hip. On festival days, it is suspended by a 
golden chain (No. 3) consisting of towers and elephants with blue 
coverings, upon which is seen the Golden letter D (Dania). The 
Knights wear, besides, upon the left breast a star, in the centre 
of which is a small red shield, charged with a cross formed of 
brilliants and surrounded by a silver laurel wreath (Tab. I. 
No. 1). The costume of the Knights, on festival days of the 
Order, consists of a jacket and short breeches of white satin ; 
of a mantle of crimson velvet with a long train, lined with 
white fur ; a collar in the form of a hood ; and a black velvet 
hat with red and white feathers. The King wears, on such 
occasions, a mantle lined with ermine, and upon the hat a black 
heron plume and white feathers. 

The motto of the Order is : ' Magnanimi Pretium ' (Reward 
of the high minded or magnanimous). 

The special festivahrf the Order which used to be held on Whit- 
Tuesday, has, since 1808, been transferred to the 1st January. 


A miracle, according to popular belief, was the cause of 
the foundation of this Order. The tradition relates, that the 
Knights of the Sword who were introduced into Livonia by 
Albert III. Bishop of Riga, were, in 1219, so hardly pressed 
by the heathen Esthonians whom they had subjected, as to 
induce them to seek assistance at the hands of the King of 
Denmark, Waldemar II. The latter came, but in the battle 
which he gave to the combined hordes of Esthonians and 
Russians, the ranks of his own troops were sadly thinned and 

G 2 


dispersed. They had already lost their ensign, and were about 
to flee, when suddenly a red flag bearing a white cross appeared 
from the Heavens, the sight of which inspired the Danes with 
renewed courage. They rallied their ranks, and gallantly van- 
quished the enemy. The heavenly flag became, to Denmark, 
what to France was the Oriflamme, whose origin tradition assigns 
to a similar miracle wrought for Chlodwig. Waldemar II., in 
commemoration of the event, and at the same time as a reward 
for his brave warriors, founded the Order of the Danneborg. 
Thus far tradition. History, however, knows nothing certain 
about the origin or date of the foundation. The year, 1671, 
is certainly mentioned as the epoch, but it remains doubtful 
whether the Order was not renewed rather than founded 
then, as it may have been lost, or have fallen into decay 
in consequence of the events of the Reformation. It was 
Christian V. who most probably revived the Order on the 
12th October, 1671, by the advice of his favourite, Count 
Griffenfeld, who, no doubt, hoped, by this political toy, 
to indemnify the Danish nobility for their loss of the right 
to elect a King, the result of the preceding revolution. 
The statutes of the Order — then reduced to a mere court 
honour — were published on the 1st October, 1693, and re- 
mained in force until 1808. In that last year, King Frederick 
VI. raised it to an Order of Merit, by a patent of the 28th 
June, and gave it its present organization. 

All native Danes of merit, whether civil or military, are 
admissible to the Order, without regard to birth or age, nor is 
the number of the Knights limited. They are divided into 
four classes, so that no one can enter the higher without having 
first belonged to the class immediately below it, though the 
King has the power of making exceptions to the rule. 

The Knights of the first class go by the name of Grand 
Commanders ; they are members of the Chapter, bear the 

!)!■ NMAKK Table U. 

IM.ATE 25. 


Hursl and Blairkell , London. ISfiS. 


title of * Excellency,' are next in rank to Field- Marshals and 
Admirals, and receive the military honours due to a Lieutenant- 
General. This degree is considered as a special royal favour. 

The Knights of the Grand Cross form the second class. 
Their rank is that of a Major-General. All those who were 
in possession of the Order, at the time of its reorganization, 
were placed in the second class. 

The Knights of the third class, the Commanders, have no 
real rank, but receive the honours due to an officer of the staff, 
while those of the fourth class receive the honours due to a 
subaltern officer. 

The badge (Plate 25, Tab. II. No. 9) is an oblong golden 
cross, enamelled white, with red edges, above which is seen 
the initial of the King under the royal crown, which latter is 
also found in each of the angles of the cross. The centre of 
the front contains a crowned ' W ' (Waldemar), and upon the 
four wings of the cross are distributed the words ' Gud og 
Kongen ' (God and the King). The reverse contains the supposed 
years of the foundation, renewal and reorganization of the 
Order, 1219, 1671, 1808. The ribbon, by which it is 
suspended, is white with red stripes at the borders. 

The Grand Commanders wear the cross, without the in- 
scription, but with the addition of diamonds (Tab II. Fig. 8) 
round the neck ; and the star (Tab. I. No. 4.) upon the left 

The Knights of the Grand Cross wear it (Tab. II. No 9) 
suspended by a broader ribbon across the right shoulder, towards 
the left hip, in addition to the star, peculiar to the class, which is 
worn upon the left breast. Clergymen, or Knights of the 
' Order of the Elephant ' wear the cross round the neck. 

The Commanders wear it likewise (Tab. II. No. 9) round 
the neck, in addition to an embroidered cross (Tab. I. No. 5.) upon 


the breast, while, finally, the Knights of the fourth class wear 
the cross round the neck, without the addition of a star. 

The Order celebrates a festival at the Castle of Rosenburg every 
year, on the 15th of April, the birthday of Christian V. Then, 
as on all other solemn occasions, the Knights of the two first 
classes wear a mantle of pale-red velvet, trimmed with white fur, 
white breeches, white stockings, and white shoes ; also a black 
hat with white and red feathers, while the decoration of the 
Order is suspended by a chain, the links of which consist 
alternately of the crowned initials of Christian V. (C. 5.) of 
Waldemar (W.) and of the cross (Tab. I. No. 6.) The motto 
of the Order is : ' Pietate et Justitia ' (By piety and justice). 

Various definitions and derivations are given of the word 
Danneborg ; the most probable deduces it from the old 
Danish ' Brog,' signifying ' cloth, texture, flag.' Danneborg 
may, therefore, mean, the flag of the Danes — the standard of 

As a fifth class of the Danneborg Order may be considered 
the ' Men of Danneborg.' By two royal patents (28th June, 
1808, and 28 th January, 1809) the silver cross of the Danneborg 
Order was likewise conferred upon all Danish citizens who 
had distinguished themselves in their respective spheres by 
honest conduct and actions benefitting their fellow-creatures. 
This decoration is also a sort of stepping-stone to knight- 
hood. The military -are bound to shoulder their arms before 
the wearer, who have also free admittance to the meetings 
of the Danneborg Knights. There exists also a fund in aid 
of the necessitous members. 

The above silver cross (Tab. II. No. 10) is also worn by the 
King, Members of the Chapter, and Knights of the Order of 
the Elephant, while its presentation to Knights of the Order of 
Danneborg is considered a new proof of royal favour. 



1. Decoration of the Battle at Copenhagen. — After this 
battle, in which the Danes fought bravely (though unsuccess- 
fully), on the 2nd April, 1801, against the English, the King 
caused a Medal of Honour to be struck for those who had 
distinguished themselves in the affair. It was presented in gold 
to officers, and in silver to inferior grades, and was worn sus- 
pended by a red ribbon, in which is interwoven the Cross of 
Danneborg. The obverse exhibits a lion standing upon the fore- 
quarters of a man-of-war, holding by one claw the arms of Den- 
mark, with the inscription : ' 2nd April, 1801,' while the reverse 
shows the royal insignia, crown, sceptre, and sword, with the 
inscription : c Kongen Foedrer, Faederlandet Skjonner ' (The 
King honours, and fatherland is grateful). On the edge is 
impressed the name and grade of the recipient. The medal 
is seldom now met with, as but few of the owners are left 
among the living. 

2. Medal of Merit at the Dockyards. — It was founded 
on the 29th January, 1801, by Christian VII, as a reward 
for the workmen at the royal dockyards, and for the encourage- 
ment of those belonging to the fleet. The same medal was subse- 
quently, (4th September, 1814), distributed also amongst the 
sub-officers of the artillery, and the navy, inspectors of fire- 
engines and dockyards, and all those engaged in the formation of 
nautical models. To be entitled to the medal, sailors, artillery- 
men, cannoneers, ship-carpenters, and other master-mechanics, 
or their chief clerks, must have completed their twenty-fifth 
year, while rope-makers, cabinet-makers, and others, must 
have been full thirty years in the royal service, before they can 
lay claim to the medal. The obverse of the medal has the inscrip- 


tion : ' For ood Tieneste ' (For good services), and the reverse 
the word: 'Fortient' (Merit). (Tab. II. No. 7). 

3 and 4. Decorations for eight and sixteen Years' loyal Ser- 
vice. — Both (Tab. II. Nos. 11 and 12) were founded on the 
23rd August, 1817, for sub-officers, and musicians of the 
band of the same rank. They are of bronze, and are presented 
at their re-engagement for another period of eight years. They 
are worn suspended by a small golden chain, the cross above 
the medal. 

5. Medal of Merit of 1771. — This medal which is not 
allowed to be worn publicly, was founded by Christian VII. It is 
in gold and in silver. The front shows the effigy of the King, 
and the reverse two cornucopise (horns of plenty), surrounded by 
a laurel and oaken wreath, and with the inscription : ' Pro 
Meritis ' (For merit). 

6. Medal of Merit of 1793, was founded by the same King, 
to reward and encourage inland industry and civil virtues. The 
front shows the effigy of the King, and the reverse the word : 
' Fortient ' (Merit), within an oaken wreath. This medal, also, 
is not intended to be worn in public. 

7. Medal for noble Deeds, founded in 1793 at the propo- 
sal of the College of Finance. The front shows the effigy of 
the King, and the reverse the inscription : ' For Aedel Daad ' 
(For a noble deed). 

8. Medal for saving from Drowning, founded in 1812. 
It differs from the former only in the reverse, which shows 
within a wreath of water-lilies, the inscription : ' Of Farens Fvaelg 
ferblomster Priis og Low ' (Praise and reward blossomed forth 
from danger). As in the preceding case, the name of the 
recipient of this medal is also engraved on the edge. 

Since the 24th July, 1845, a new Medal of Honour for 
personal merit has existed in Denmark. The obverse represents 
the effigy of the King with the legend : ' Christian VIII. Rex 


Dania?,' while the reverse shows an oaken or corn wreath, 
within which is the word ' Fortient ' (Merit). On the edge is 
engraved the name of the recipient. When permission is given 
to wear it publicly, it is suspended by a red ribbon with a white 
cross thereon. 

In 1854, medals of military distinction were struck for 
sub-officers, or those bearing that rank. They are of bronze, 
and are worn suspended by a red ribbon, on which is a 
white cross. The medal is divided into two classes, each 
of which enjoys a pension for life of 30 and 15 thalers (90s. 
and 45s.) The first of which is obtained after sixteen, and 
the second after eight years' service. 



The establishment of this Order, after much discussion and 
opposition, arising from a feeling that it was contrary to 
freedom and equality, the watchword of the Revolution, was 
at last carried (1802) in the Legislative Body by a majority 
of one hundred and sixty-six to one hundred and ten. 

The Legion of Honour was meant to be an institution, 
at once the safeguard and protection of all republican principles 
and regulations, of all the laws of equality, and for the abolition 
of all the differences of rank in society as created directly or 
indirectly by the nobility.* 

The Order was originally divided into three classes: — 
Legionaries, Grand Officers, and Commanders. 

After the coronation of Napoleon (14th July, 1804), the 
first class of Grand Officers was divided into Knights of the 
Grand Eagle, (as the highest,) and Grand Officers. In 1810, 
the first class already exceeded by nineteen thousand the 
limits fixed by law; while in 1814, the Legion counted about 
thirty-seven thousand members. This vast number naturally 

* The real object, however, of the First Consul in creating this 
Chivalry, to which merit of every social grade was eligible, was to 
popularize the idea of personal distinction, and pave the way for the 
establishment of the Empire, and the more exclusive titles of nobility 
which accompanied it. 

FRANCE. Table I. 


Hurst uml ISIaekell, London. 18."iS. 


deteriorated much from the value of the decoration. The 
Restoration, though it retained the Imperial Order of the 
Legion, by no means resigned the legacy of the old monarchy 
with regard to orders. 

The Order of the Holy Ghost was the first rescued from 
oblivion. The Legion was converted into an Order, and lost 
its original character and signification. The number of the 
educational establishments, in connection with the Order, was 
greatly reduced, the effigy of Napoleon was exchanged for that 
of Henry IV. ; while the Eagle — despite its five wings — was 
christened ' Cross.' The Knights of the Grand Eagle became 
Knights of the Grand Ribbon (Grands Cordons), and the Legio- 
naries, became Knights. Moreover, all the nominations which 
had taken place during the Hundred Days, were nullified by 
Louis XVIII. on his return to Paris, after the battle of 
Waterloo. In 1816, the pay of the members was reduced 
to half, and compensation was only granted in 1820. During 
the Restoration, sixty-three ribbons of the Holy Ghost, and 
twelve thousand one hundred and eighty crosses of St. Louis 
were distributed, while the members of the Legion increased 
to forty-two thousand. 

The present statutes of the Legion provide : — 

That the Order is to be conferred by the King as President, 
for important civil or military services rendered to the state. 

That it is to consist, besides the royal family and foreigners, 
of eighty Knights of the Grand Cross, one hundred and sixty 
Grand Officers, four hundred Commanders, two thousand 
officers, and an unlimited number of Knights.* 

The candidates, in time of peace, must prove that they have 

* In 1843, it counted eighty Knights of the Grand Cross, one hundred 
and ninety-six Grand Officers, eight hundred and three Commanders, 
four thousand four hundred and fifty-four Officers, and forty-three 
thousand eight hundred and eighty-four Knights. 


served, with the requisite distinction, for twenty years in some 
military or civil department. 

In time of war, the Order is also awarded for exploits, or 
severe wounds received in battle. 

The first claim to the Order must begin with the lowest 
degree of Knights, as no degree can be passed over. Promotion 
requires a standing in the fourth class of four, in the third class 
of two, in the second class of three, and in the fourth class of 
five years. There are usually two distributions in the year, on 
the 1st January, and on St. Philip's day (1st May). 

The nomination of military persons takes place on parade ; 
and of civil, at the courts of justice, in the presence of the 
Grand Chancellor or his deputies. 

No ignoble punishment can be inflicted on a member of the 
Order, so long as he belongs to it. 

The decoration consists of a white enamelled star with double 
rays under a royal crown. The centre represents on the front the 
effigy of Henry IV., and on the reverse the motto : ' Honneur et 
Patrie' (Honour and our country), as legend in a golden field 
with two tri-coloured flags. (Plate 26, Tab. I. No. 2). 

The star for the Knights is in silver, and for the other 
classes in gold. 

The Knights and officers wear it at the button-hole; the 
Commanders round the neck. The Grand Officers wear besides 
upon the right breast a star embroidered in silver, similar to that 
of the Grand Crosses, and at the button-hole, a golden star. 
The Knights of the Grand Cross wear the same golden star, but 
somewhat larger, suspended by a ribbon across the right shoulder 
towards the 'left hip; and, also, on the left breast of the coat 
or cloak, a star embroidered in silver (Tab. I. No. 1), the centre 
of which contains the effigy of Henry IV., with the legend : 
' Honneur ct Patrie.' The intervening spaces of the five wings 
of that star are filled with golden lances and tri-coloured flags. 


The college of the Legion possesses in rentes and shares in the 
canals of Orleans, Loing and the South, a revenue of 7,103,098 
francs, of which sum about 5,829,000 francs are annually spent 
in the pay of the Legionaries, and in pensions (of 250 francs 
each) to the sub-officers and soldiers. 

Napoleon I. established, at St. Denis and Ecouen, two board- 
ing-schools for six hundred young girls, daughters, sisters, 
nieces and cousins of the Legionaries, two hundred of whom 
were educated at the expense of their families, three hundred as 
half boarders, and one hundred entirely free. Six other estab- 
lishments for the female orphans of the Legionaries were 
founded in 1810, while the male orphans were received at the 
military schools and college. The Restoration only retained the 
boarding-school of St. Denis, reducing the number to five hundred 
pupils, four hundred of whom, including the daughters of 
the members of all Orders in the kingdom, were to enjoy free 
board and education. The orphan institutions were reduced to 
two, receiving two hundred pupils free, and being managed by the 
nuns of the ' Congregation of the Blessed Virgin.' By the law, 
19th April, 1832, the decorated of the Hundred Days were 
admitted to a pension of 250 francs each. On the 16th June, 
1837, a new military class was admitted to the decoration of 
the ' Cross,' together with a pension. In 1845, the Legionaries 
since 1814, as also the Knights who underwent amputation 
in consequence of wounds, were ordered to receive 100 
francs for life in addition to their regular pay, while to the 
sub-officers and privates who were in active service at that 
period, and who, by decree, of the 27th February, 1815, were 
received into the Legion, was granted a sum of 250 francs each. 

From 1831 to 1841, not less than four thousand one 
hundred and twelve sub-officers and soldiers received the 
' Cross,' while on the 30th November, 1845, about fifty thou- 
sand two hundred and twenty-seven persons were in possession 


of it. The amount of pension then paid out was 5,975,000 
francs. Since then, the annual distribution of the cross has 
been reduced to two hundred. 

On the 24th May, 1851, it was decreed that until 1860 only 
one nomination should take place for every two extinct ones, and 
that the annual pensions are not to exceed 100,000 francs. The 
Imperial Eagle, which was again placed on the army colours, was 
also restored to the* Cross ;' and, by a decree, of the 31st January, 
1852, the previous imperial form of decoration was generally 
re-introduced into the realm (Plate 27, Tab. II. Nos. 5 and 6). 

The President, Louis Napoleon, decreed, that a part of the 
property of Louis Philippe, which had been restored to the state, 
should be set apart as an endowment for the Legion of Honour ; 
he also fixed the pensions of the Legionaries at 250, of Officers 
at 500, of Commanders at 1000, of Grand Officers at 2000, 
and of Grand Crosses at 3000 francs each. 

On the 1st October, 1853, the Order counted sixty-five 
Grand Crosses (forty-six with pensions), two hundred and twenty- 
two Grand Officers (one hundred and twenty-five with pensions), 
one thousand and thirty-four Commanders (four hundred and 
fifty-seven with pensions), four thousand seven hundred and 
fourteen Officers (one thousand four hundred and fifty with 
pensions), and forty- eight thousand and eighty-five Knights 
(sixteen thousand eight hundred and thirty-one with pensions). 


On the 9th October, 1830, the Minister of the Interior pro- 
posed in the Chamber of Deputies, the foundation of an institu- 
tion of national reward, for the support and pension of the 
citizens who had distinguished themselves, or been wounded in the 
revolution of the preceding July, as also for the widows, orphans, 
or parents of those who had fallen. According to his account, 

FRANCE. Table II. 


Hurst anl Iilarkott, Loudon. I8j8. 


more than five hundred orphans, and a like number of widows 
resulted from the contest, in which three thousand eight 
hundred had been wounded. He asked a vote of credit for 
seven millions francs (£250,000), four millions of which were to 
be applied to pensions. 

The proposal was accepted with a few amendments on the 
30th November, and the ' Cross of July' was founded in con- 
sequence. It consists of a white-enamelled star with three double 
rays under a silver mural crown. The similarly-enamelled centre 
bears in three circles the national colours, and exhibits, on the 
obverse, the inscription, ' 27, 28, 29 Juillet, 1830/ in the middle, 
and ' Donne par le Roi des Francais' (Presented by the King of 
the French) on the edge. The reverse shows the Gallic Cock in 
gold, and the legend : ' Patrie et Liberte ' (Our Country and 
Liberty). The rays with six points, and with silver balls, are 
connected by an oak-leaf wreath (No 7). It is worn suspended 
by a bright blue ribbon (about three and a half inches wide) 
with a red stripe near each border. 


was also founded for the citizens who had co-operated in the 
revolution. It is of silver, and shows on the front the Gallic 
Cock sitting upon a tri-coloured flag, surrounded by an oak 
wreath, and the words : { A ses defenseurs la patrie reconnais- 
sante' (A grateful country to its defenders). The reverse 
exhibits three intertwined laurel-wreaths, between each of which, 
as also upon the edge, are seen the words: ' 27, 28, 29 Juillet, 
1830. Patrie, liberte'.' 


was founded by the President of the Republic (Louis Napoleon), 
and to it he assigned one of the national castles as an educational 


establishment for the daughters, or needy orphan girls, of those 
honoured with it. Each possessor of the medal receives a 
pension of one hundred francs. 

It consists (by decree, 29th February, 1852) of silver of 
about one inch in diameter. The front shows the effigy of 
Louis Napoleon inscribed with his name, while the centre of 
the reverse contains the motto : ' Valeur et Discipline,' and 
over all is seen an eagle. (Tab. II. Nos. 7 and 8). It 
is worn upon the left breast suspended by a yellow ribbon with 
green borders. 

The medal is given : 

1. To sub-officers, soldiers and sailors on re-entering the 
service after a discharge or retirement. 

2. To all whose names are mentioned in the Army Orders. 

3. To those who have received several wounds before the 
enemy, or on other occasions in the service. 

4. To all who have distinguished themselves by courageous 
deeds as mere officials in the army, without pay or rank, such 
as military agents, &c. 


was instituted by the present Emperor of France, Louis Napo- 
leon III., on the 12th August, 1857, in commemoration of 
the campaigns from 1792 to 1815, and for the purpose of 
being conferred on those of the army and navy who were 
engaged in any, or all, of those campaigns. 

The medal (No. 9.) is of bronze, and bears on the obverse the 
effigy of Napoleon I. ; and on the reverse the legend : ' Campagnes 
de 1792 a 1815 — A ses Compagnons de Gloire sa derniere Pen- 
sec, 5 May, 1821.' It is worn at the button-hole suspended 
by a red and green ribbon. 



Neither the time when the Order of the Garter was founded, 
nor the cause of its foundation, can any longer be traced with 
precision ; and, in the absence of all authentic -records, fable 
and tradition have been called in to supply their place. The 
public muniments afford us no light on this remote topic, 
and the annals of the Order itself are, for nearly two centuries, 
exceedingly imperfect. The statutes of Edward III. have 
perished long ago, and the so-called copies of them bear 
internal marks of having been compiled at a much later 
period. The Register, usually known as the Black Book, 
though treating of the Order from its foundation, was not 
drawn up in its present form till near the end of Henry the 
Eighth's reign, when its history begins, for the first time, to 
assume precision and regularity. 

Selden fixes, as the foundation of the Garter, St. George's 
Day, in the 18th year of King Edward III. and this state- 
ment is corroborated by Froissart. The account given by 
the old Chronicler is, as is usual with him, so naive and so 
vivid that, like a painting, it brings the whole scene at once 
before our eyes : — " At this time there came into the mind 



and will of King Edward of England that he would cause to 
be made and rc-erectcd the Great Castle of Windsor, which 
King Arthur had formerly made and founded, where first 
was begun and established the noble ' Round Table,' of which 
were so many good and valiant men and Knights, who went 
forth and toiled in arms and in prowess throughout the world. 
And that the same King would make an Order of Knights 
of himself and his children, and of the bravest of his land, 
and that they should be called the Knights of the Blue 
Garter, and that the Feast should be kept from year to year, 
and should be solemnized at Windsor, the day of St. George." 
Froissart proceeds to narrate how the King assembled from 
all his countries, Earls, Barons and Knights, and how he 
carried out his royal intentions, but our space prohibits our 
extracting the graphic details. 

But even with all these data, there is still a mystery hang- 
ing over the subject, which it is in vain to think of solving 
in the present day ; and there is hardly less doubt with 
respect to the principal ensign, from which the Order has 
received its name. The popular tradition, derived from 
Polydore Vergil, is that having a festival at Court a lady 
chanced to drop her garter, when it was picked up by the 
King. Observing that the incident made the bye-standers smile 
significantly, Edward exclaimed in a tone of rebuke : " Honi 
soit qui mal y pense ;" Dishonoured be he who thinks evil of it : 
and to prevent any further inuendos, he tied the Garter round 
his own knee. This anecdote, it is true, ^as been character- 
ized by some as an improbable fable: why, we know not. 
It is strictly in accordance with the romantic habits of an age, 
when devotion to woman was one of the first duties of 
Knighthood. A garter has always been united with senti- 
ments of gallantry, and, to wear a lady's favour, her glove, her 
ribbon, or any thing which belonged to her, was in those days 

G R E A T Kill T A 1 N . Table I . 

PLATE 28. 


Hurst and Blackett . London. 18u8 


a common practice, and this token or Emprize was regarded 
with feelings of which we can have no idea. 

Camden assigns for the period of the foundation of the 
Order* the battle of Crccy, at which, says that great antiquary, 
Edward ordered his Garter to be displayed as a signal for 
the onset. Be the origin of the institution, however, what 
it may, no Order in Europe is so ancient, none so illustrious, 
for "it exceeds in majesty, honour, and fame all chivalrous 
fraternities in the world." 

The original statutes of this most noble institution have 
undergone continuous changes : suffice it to add that by a 
Statute passed on the 1 7th January, 1805, the Order is to 
consist of the Sovereign and twenty-five Knights Com- 
panions, together with such lineal descendants of George III, 
as may be elected, always excepting the Prince of Wales, 
who is a constituent part of the original institution. Special 
Statutes have since, at different times, been proclaimed for 
the admission of Sovereigns and extra Knights, the latter of 
whom have, however, always become part of the twenty-five 
Companions, on the occurrence of vacancies. 


The Garter, of dark blue ribbon edged with gold, bearing 
the motto " Honi soit qui mal y pense" in golden letters with 
buckle and pendent of gold richly chased, is worn on the left 
leg below the knee. 

The Mantle is of blue velvet, lined with white taffeta ; on 
the left breast the star is embroidered. 

* The Order being under the especial tutelage of St. George, his 
Banner continued to be the national ensign of England, until the accession 
of James I., when, in violation alike of good taste and heraldry, it was 
mingled with the Banner of St. Andrew. 

H 2 


The Hood is of crimson velvet. 

The Surcoat is likewise of crimson velvet, lined with white 

The Hat is of black velvet lined with white taffeta ; the plume 
of white ostrich feathers, in the centre of which a tuft of 
black heron's feathers, all fastened to the hat by a band of 

The Collar, gold, consists of twenty-six pieces, each in 
the form of a garter, enamelled, azure, and appended thereto. 

The George, or figure of St. George on horseback, en- 
countering the dragon. The George is worn to the collar ; 
and the lesser George, pendent to a broad dark blue ribbon 
over the left shoulder. 

The Star, of eight points silver, has upon the centre 
the Cross of St. George, gules, encircled with the garter. 

The Officers of the Order are ; — the Prelate, the Bishop of 
Winchester ; the Chancellor, the Bishop of Oxford ; the 
Registrar, the Dean of Windsor ; the Garter Principal King 
of Arms, and the Usher of the Black Rod. 

Motto — Honi soit qui mal y pense. 



Tradition and national partiality have carried up the insti- 
tution of " the Thistle" to fabulous times, but, leaving 
conjecture and surmise for fact and reality, we cannot trace 
the Order as an organized Knightly fraternity, further 
back than the reign of King James II. of England and VII. of 
Scotland. Nevertheless, in the Royal Warrant issued by that 
monarch before the promulgation of the Statutes, reference is 
made to the fact, that " his Majesty's Royal predecessor, 
Achaius, King of Scots, did institute the most ancient and 
most noble Order of the Thistle, under the protection of St. 

G KKAT I! 15 ITA IN. Table II. 


Hiiisl ami Blacken, Loudon. 1858. 


Andrew, Patron of Scotland, in commemoration of a signal 
Victory obtained by the said Achaius over Athelstan, King of 
the Saxons, after a bloody battle, in the time of which there 
appeared in the heavens a White Cross in the form of that 
upon which the Apostle Saint Andrew suffered martyrdom." 

King James II. may, under any circumstances, be con- 
sidered the fountain-head from which is derived the present 
organization of the Order ; true it is, that after his abdication, 
this Knightly institution fell into desuetude, and so remained 
until the year 1703, when Queen Anne directed Letters 
Patent to be passed under the Great Seal of Scotland to revive 
the Order : the statutes, then authorized by her Majesty, 
were very similar to those of King James, and are those which 
are still followed. 

The Star of this Order, which is worn on the left side of 
the coat or cloak, consists of a St. Andrew's Cross, of silver 
embroidery, with rays emanating from between the points of 
the cross, in the centre of which is a Thistle of green, heigh- 
tened with gold, upon a field of gold, surrounded by a circle 
of green bearing the motto of the Order in golden characters. 

The Badge or Jewel is worn pendent to the collar, or to 
a dark green ribbon over the left shoulder, and tied under 
the arm. It consists of a figure of St. Andrew, of gold 
enamelled, with his gown green, and the surcoat purple, 
bearing before him the Cross, enamelled white, the whole 
surrounded by rays of gold in the form of a glory ; the cross 
and feet resting upon the ground, of enamelled green. 

The Collar is of Thistles, intermingled with sprigs of 

By a Statute passed in May, 1827, the Order is to consist 
of the Sovereign and sixteen Knights. 

Motto — Nemo me impune lacessit. 


The Officers of the Order are ; — The Dean, the Secretary, 
the Lord Lyon King of Arms and the Gentleman Usher of 
the Green Rod. 


King George III. wishing to manifest his regard for 
Ireland by assigning to that kingdom a National Order, was 
induced to institute, on the 5th February 1783, a Fraternity 
of Knights formed on the model of " The Garter" and named 
after the tutelar Saint, St. Patrick. His Majesty was further 
pleased to assign as insignia the emblems of the country to 
which the Order was to belong, and gave for " Motto" the 
words "Quis Separabit MDCCLXXIII," to inculcate that 
harmony and union which the Royal Founder was anxious to 
foster throughout his dominions. Thus orignated 

The Knights of St. Patrick, 

a brilliant succession of distinguished men, selected from the 
most eminent, for birth, rank, or personal achievement, amongst 
the Irish Peers. 

At the present time, the Order consists of The Sovereign, 
the Grand Master, twenty-two Knights, and several Officers. 
By the original statutes, George III. his heirs and suc- 
cessors, Kings of Great Britain were declared to be the 
Sovereign, and the Lord Lieutenant General and General 
Governor of Ireland, Grand Master. 

At first, the number of Knights was limited to fifteen, but 
in the reign of William IV. it was increased to twenty- 

Every person of or above the rank of a Knight is eligible 
to be admitted, but up to this time, none but Peers have 
been elected. 


The Officers of the Order are The Prelate (the Arch- 
bishop of Armagh) ; The Chancellor (the Archbishop of 
Dublin) ; The Registrar (the Dean of St. Patrick's) ; The 
Secretary; The Genealogist; The Usher of the Black 
Rod ; The Ulster King of Arms ; Two Heralds and 
Four Pursuivants. 

The Star consists of the Cross of St. Patrick gules, on a 
field argent, surmounted by a trefoil vert, charged with three 
imperial crowns within a circle of azure containing the motto 
' Quis Separably" and the date " MDCCLXXXIII " in letters 
of gold, the whole encircled by four greater and two lesser 
rays of silver. 

The Badge is of gold, of an oval form, surrounded with a 
wreath of Shamrock, within which is a circle of sky blue 
enamel containing the Motto, encircling on a field argent 
the Cross of St. Patrick gu. charged with a trefoil vert, having 
on each of its leaves an Imperial Crown, or.; in some of the 
present Badges, however, the field is left open or pierced. 
The Badge is suspended to the Collar from the neck, but, 
when the Collar is not used, it is attached to the ribbon and 
hangs on the left side. 

The Collar is of gold, composed of roses and of Harps 
alternate, tied together with a knot of gold, the roses being 
enamelled alternately, white leaves within red, and red 
leaves within white, and in the centre an Imperial Crown, 
surmounting a harp of gold, from which the Badge hangs. 
The Collar is worn on all great and solemn feasts, and 
especially on St. Patrick's Day, the 1 7th of March. 

The Ribbon, four inches wide, is light blue, and is worn 
over the right shoulder. 

The Mantle is made of rich sky-blue tabinet, lined with 
white silk, and has on the right shoulder a hood of blue tabinet 
also lined with white silk. It is fastened by a cordon of blue 


silk and gold, having a pair of tassels of the same materials. 
On the left side is placed the Star of the Order. For many 
years, despite of the injunction of the original statutes that the 
Knio-hts of St. Patrick should be robed in mantles of Irish 
manufacture, the dress was invariably made of French satin, 
but His Excellency, Lord Carlisle, who has always been desirous 
of promoting Irish industry, restored the original ordinance, and 
Irish tabinet is now the texture used. 


The present Military Order of the Bath, founded 
by King George I. in the year 1725, differs so essentially 
from the Knighthood of the Bath, or the custom of making 
Knights with various rites and ceremonies, of which one was 
Bathing, that it may almost be considered a distinct and new 
fraternity of chivalry. The last Knights of the Bath, made 
according to the ancient forms, were at the coronation of King 
Charles II ; and from that period until the reign of the first 
George, the old institution fell into total oblivion. 

At the latter epoch, however, it was determined to revive, 
as it was termed, The Order of the Bath, by erecting it 
" into a regular Military Order;" and on the 25th May, 1725, 
Letters Patent were issued for that purpose. 

By the Statutes then promulgated, the number of Knights, 
independent of the Sovereign, a Prince of the Blood Royal, 
and a Great Master, was restricted to thirty-five ; but even- 
tually, at the conclusion of the war in 1814, it was found 
expedient, for the purpose of rewarding the numerous 
distinguished officers of both services, to extend considerably 
the limits of the Order of the Bath. In consequence, a 
complete alteration was effected : and on the 2nd of January, 
1815, it was declared that, " for the purpose of commemorating 

(, K E A T 1$ R I T A I N . Tabic III. 

PLATE 50. 

Hurst and Blacki'tt, London. IS.*i8 


the auspicious termination of the long and arduous contest in 
which this empire has been engaged," the Order should be 
composed of three classes; and, on the 14th April, 1847, it 
was further extended by the addition of civil knights com- 
manders and companions, on which occasion new Statutes were 
promulgated for the government of the Order, and the 
number of members declared as follow, viz : 

First Class — to consist of Knights Grand Cross ; number not 
to exceed, for the military service, fifty, exclusive of the 
Sovereign and Princes of the blood royal, and such distin- 
guished foreigners as may be nominated honorary Knights 
Grand Cross ; and twenty-five for the civil service. 

Second Class — Knights Commanders, number not to exceed, 
for the military service, one hundred and two, and for the civil 
service fifty, exclusive of foreign officers who may be admitted 
as honorary Knights Commanders. In the event of actions of 
signal distinction, or of future wars, the numbers may be 
increased of this as well as of the third class. The members 
of the second class are entitled to the distinctive appellation of 
knighthood, after being invested with the Insignia ; to take 
precedence of Knights Bachelors ; to wear the badge, &c, pen- 
dent by a red ribbon round the neck, the star embroidered on 
the left side. 

Third Class — Companions of the Order, to consist, for mili- 
tary service of five hundred and twenty-five, and for the civil 
service of two hundred ; they are to take precedence of esquires, 
but are not entitled to the appellation, style, &c, of knights 
bachelors. To wear the badge assigned to the third class, 
pendent by a narrow red ribbon from the button-hole. No 
officer can be nominated to the military division of the third 
class of the Order, unless his services have been marked by 
special mention of his name in the London Gazette, as having 
distinguished himself in action against the enemy. • This class 


has never been conferred on any officer below the rank of 
Major in the army and Commander in the navy. 

The Badge for the Military Classes of the Order is 
a gold Maltese cross, of eight points, enamelled, argent; in 
the four angles, a lion passant-guardant, or. ; in the centre, the 
rose, thistle, and shamrock, issuant from a sceptre between 
three imperial crowns, or within a circle, gules ; thereon the 
Motto of the Order, surrounded by two branches of laurel, 
proper, issuing from an escrol, azure, inscribed Ich Dien 
(I serve), in letters of gold. It is worn by the Grand Crosses 
pendent from a red ribbon across the right shoulder, by the 
Knights Commanders from the neck, and by the Companions 
from the button-hole. 

The Collar is of gold (weight, thirty ounces Troy weight), 
and is composed of nine imperial crowns, and eight roses, 
thistle, and shamrock, issuing from a sceptre, enamelled in 
their proper colours, tied or linked together with seventeen 
gold knots, enamelled white, having the badge of the Order 
pendent therefrom. 

The Star of the Military Grand Crosses is formed 
of rays or flames of silver, thereon a gold Maltese cross, 
and in the centre, within the motto, branches of laurel, 
issuant as in the badge. 

The Civil Knights Grand Crosses retain the old badge 
and star of the Order. The Star is of silver, formed with 
eight points or rays, charged with three imperial crowns, 
proper, upon a glory of silver rays, surrounded with a red 
circle, upon which is the motto of the Order. Their badge 
is of gold, composed of a rose, thistle and shamrock, issuing 
from a sceptre between three imperial crowns, encircled by 
the motto. The civil Knights Commanders wear the same 
badge, of a similar size, round the neck by a red ribbon, and 
the civil companions the same, but of a still smaller size, 
from the button-hole, pendent from a red ribbon. 


The Star of the Knights Commanders is in the form 
of a cross-patee of silver, having the same centre as the 
Grand Crosses, but without a gold Maltese Cross thereon. The 
star of the civil Knights Commanders is of the same form 
and size, only omitting the laurel wreath round the circle 
containing the motto, and the escrol with the words, " Ich 
Dien " underneath. 

Motto — Tria juncta in uno. 

The Officers of the Order are ; — the Dean ; the Genealogist, 
and Blanc Coursier Herald ; the Bath King of Arms ; the 
Registrar and Secretary ; the Gentleman Usher of the 
Scarlet Rod and Brunswick Herald ; and the Messenger. 


Not long after the cession of Malta to Great Britain, and 
the submission of the seven Ionian Isles to the exclusive 
protection of the same power, it was deemed advisable to 
institute an Order of Knighthood for the purpose of bestowing 
marks of Royal favour on the most meritorious of the Ionians 
and Maltese, as well as on British subjects who may have served 
with distinction in the Ionian Isles or the Mediterranean Sea. 

The Order was founded 27th April, 1818, by letters patent 
under the Great Seal of the United Kingdom, and a Code 
of Statutes was promulgated on the 12th August following; 
but, by its third Sovereign, William IV, the Constitution 
of ' St. Michael and St. George ' was so materially changed, 
and its importance so much enhanced that His Majesty may 
almost be considered its second Founder. The new Statutes, 
framed by that Monarch, ordain that the King of the United 
Kingdom shall for ever be Sovereign of the Order, that 


a Prince of the Blood Royal being a descendant of the body 
of the Princess Sophia, Electress of Hanover, shall be Grand 
Master, and that there shall be three Classes of Knights, 
first Knights Grand Cross, second Knights Commanders 
and third Cavalieri or Companions: the first class to be 
restricted to fifteen, the second, to twenty, and the third, to 

The members of the Order enjoy rank and precedency 
immediately after the corresponding classes of the Order of 
the Bath : that is to say, the Knights Grand Cross after 
Knights Grand Cross of the Bath ; The Knights Commanders 
after the Knights Commanders of the Bath ; and the Cava- 
lieri and Companions after the Companions of the Bath. 
All natives of the Ionian Islands, and of Malta, who 
receive this third class of the Order are styled ' Cavaliere/ 
and all natives of Great Britain and Ireland ' Companions.' 
The Grand Master is the first and principal Knight Grand 
Cross, and the Lord High Commissioner to the Ionian Isles 
has precedency of all other Knights Grand Cross. The 
Knights Grand Cross are entitled to bear supporters and to 
encircle their arms with the collar, ribbon, and motto of the 
Order. The Knights Commanders and Cavalieri also encircle 
their arms with the ribbon and motto ; and the Companions 
suspend the badge of the Order to their arms. 

The Star of a Knight Grand Cross is composed of seven 
rays of silver, having a small ray of gold between each of 
them, and over all the cross of St. George, gules. In the 
centre is a representation of the Archangel St. Michael 
encountering Satan, within a blue circle, inscribed with the 
motto ' Auspicium Mclioris iEvi.' 

The Collar is formed alternately of lions of England, of 
Maltese crosses, and of the ciphers S. M. and S. G. having in 
the centre the imperial crown, over two winged lions, passant- 

GKEA T BR I T A IN. Table IV. 

PI, A I K 31. 

Ilursl ami Hliii'Uelt. Louden. 185N 


guardant, each holding a book, and seven arrows. At the 
opposite end of the collar are two similar lions. The whole 
is of gold, except the crosses, which are of white enamels 
and it is linked together by small gold chains. 

The Badge is a gold cross of fourteen joints of white 
enamel, edged with gold, having in the centre, on one side, 
the Archangel St. Michael encountering Satan, and on the 
other, St. George on horseback, encountering a dragon within 
a blue circle, on which the motto of the Order is inscribed. 
The cross is surmounted by the imperial crown, and is worn 
by the Knights Grand Cross to the collar, or to a wide Saxon- 
blue ribbon, with a scarlet stripe from the right shoulder to 
the left side. 

The Mantle is of Saxon-blue satin, lined with scarlet 
silk, tied with cordons of blue and scarlet silk and gold, and 
has on the left side the star of a Knight Grand Cross. 

The Chapeau is of blue satin, lined with scarlet, and 
surmounted with white and black ostrich feathers. 

The Knights Commanders wear the badge suspended 
to a narrow ribbon from the neck, and have on their left side 
a star composed of four rays, with a small cross of eight points 
in saltier of silver surmounted by the cross of St. George, 
gules, and having the same centre as the star of Grand 

The Cavalieri and Companions wear the small cross 
of the Order from a still narrower ribbon at the button hole 
of their coats. 

The Officers of the Order are ; the Prelate, the Chancellor, 
the Secretary and the King of Arms. 

Motto — Auspicium Melioris iEvi. 



Medals were, at various times, conferred for great naval 
actions; for Lord Howe's Victory of the 1st June, 1794, 
for Cape St. Vincent, for Camperdown, for the Nile, for 
Trafalgar, for Duckworth's capture of the French squadron 
in 1806, for Captain Hoste's defeat of the enemy's squadron 

1811, &c. 

In 1831, a Medal was instituted, to reward the long and 
faithful services of Seamen and Marines of the Royal Navy, 
It is of silver, having on one side the words, " For long service 
and good conduct," and on the other, an "Anchor and 
Crown." The name of the person to w 7 hom the Medal is 
accorded, is engraved in the centre of the Medal, which is worn 
to a narrow blue ribbon. 

Military Medals, Crosses, and Clasps, have also been 
granted to the British army for many glorious actions : for 
Maida ; for the brilliant victories of the Peninsula ; for 
Waterloo, and for the Crimea. In July, 1830, King 
William IV. was pleased to command that a Silver Medal, 
" for long service and good conduct," should be granted to 
meritorious soldiers ; and regulations for its distribution were 
then established. The Medal, worn to a narrow crimson 
ribbon, has upon the obverse, the Royal Arms, with the rank 
and name of the soldier ; and on the reverse, the words, " For 
long service and good conduct." 

For the Battles of Roli^a and Vimeira, one medal only 
was given to those officers who were engaged in both or in 

A Medal was granted for each of the following actions : 
"Sahagun," " Corunna," "Talavcra," " Busaco," " Barrosa," 


PLATE 52. 

Iluinl and Blacked, Lundou. 18uS. 


"Fuentes d'Onor, " "Albuhera, " " Ciudad Rodrigo, " 
"Badajoz," "Salamanca," "Vittoria," "the Pyrenees/ 5 "St. 
Sebastian/ 5 " Nivelle/' "Nive," " Orthes/' and "Toulouse. 55 
Medals were also assigned for " the Capture of Martinique/' 
" the Capture of Guadaloupe/ 5 " the Capture of Java/' " the 
Capture of Fort Detroit/ 5 and " the Defeat of the Americans 
at Chateauguay/ 5 and " Chrystler's Farm. 5 ' 

In consequence, however, of many officers having received 
several medals, it became inconvenient to wear them ; and 
towards the close of 1812, a new arrangement was adopted. 
It was determined that no more than one medal should be 
worn by any individual ; that for every other battle wherein 
he might distinguish himself, he should wear, on the ribbon 
to which his medal was suspended, a gold clasp, with the 
name of the event, until the number of such clasps amount 
to two. In case he should again signalise himself, he was 
to receive (instead of the Medal and Clasps formerly borne) a 
Gold Cross, having in each compartment, the name of one of 
the four battles in which he was present ; and for every sub- 
sequent affair, a clasp, with the name of the battle or action, 
was to be issued, which clasps were to be attached to the 
ribbon above the cross. 

The Waterloo Medal is of silver, nearly an inch and a 
half in diameter, having on one side the head of the Prince 
Regent, inscribed, " George P. Regent /' and on the other, 
is Victory, holding a palm branch, and seated on a pedestal, 
inscribed, "Waterloo," under which is the date, "June 18, 
1815 ;" over the figure of Victory is the name of 
" Wellington.' 5 Round the edge, the name of the officer or 
soldier to whom the Medal was given, his rank, and the 
number of his regiment are engraved. 

The Medal for the Crimean Campaign, was instituted 
on the 15th December, 1854, and was awarded to all the 


officers, sub-officers, and privates who served in the Crimea. 
Clasps, with the words, "Alma, Balaklava, and Inkermann," 
inscribed on them, were also distributed amongst those who 
were present in those Battles. 

A Silver Medal, suspended to a sky-blue ribbon, is also 
accorded for distinguished service in India. 


Was instituted on the 29th January, 1856, by a Royal Warrant, 
of which the following is a literal copy : — 


Whereas We, taking into Our Royal consideration that 
there exists no means of adequately rewarding the individual 
gallant services either of officers of the lower grades in Our 
naval and military service, or of warrant and petty officers, 
seamen, and marines, in Our navy, and non-commissioned 
officers and soldiers in Our army ; and whereas the third class 
of Our most Honourable Order of the Bath is limited, except 
in very rare cases, to the higher ranks of both services, and 
the granting of medals, both in Our navy and army, is only 
awarded for long service or meritorious conduct, rather than 
for bravery in action or distinction before an enemy, such cases 
alone excepted where a general medal is granted for a particular 
action or campaign, or a clasp added to the medal for some 
especial engagement, in both of which cases all share equally 
in the boon, and those who by their valour have particularly 
signalized themselves remain undistinguished from their com- 
rades : Now, for the purpose of attaining an end so desirable as 
that of rewarding individual instances of merit and valour, We 

r. r e \v nn i ta i x. 7W>/e \ i 

PLATE .",. 

Hurst anil 151a -kctt. London. ISJS. 


have instituted and created, and by these presents, for Us, Our 
heirs and successors, institute and create a new naval and 
military decoration, which We are desirous should be highly 
prized and eagerly sought after by the officers and men of Our 
naval and military services, and are graciously pleased to make, 
ordain, and establish the following rules and ordinances for the 
government of the same, which shall from henceforth be 
inviolably observed and kept : 

Firstly. It is ordained, that the distinction shall be styled and 
designated " The Victoria Cross," and shall consist of a Maltese 
Cross of bronze, with Our Royal Crest in the centre, and 
underneath which an escroll, bearing this inscription, " For 

Secondly. It is ordained, that the Cross shall be suspended 
from the left breast, by a blue ribbon for the navy, and by 
a red ribbon for the army. 

Thirdly. It is ordained, that the names of those upon whom 
We may be pleased to confer the decoration shall be published 
in the " London Gazette," and a registry thereof kept in the 
office of Our Secretary of State for War. 

Fourthly. It is ordained, that any one who, after having 
received the Cross, shall again perform an act of bravery, 
which, if he had not received such Cross, would have entitled 
him to it, such further act shall be recorded by a Bar attached 
to the ribbon by which the Cross is suspended, and for every 
additional act of bravery an additional Bar may be added. 

Fifthly. It is ordained, that the Cross shall only be awarded 
to those officers or men who have served Us in the presence 
of the enemy, and shall have then . performed some signal act 
of valour, or devotion to their country. 

Sixthly. It is ordained, with a view to place all persons on a 
perfectly equal footing in relation to eligibility for the decoration, 
that neither rank, nor long service, nor wounds, nor any other 



circumstance or condition whatsoever, save the merit of con- 
spicuous bravery, shall be held to establish a sufficient claim to 
the honour. 

Seventhly. It is ordained that the decoration may be con- 
ferred on the spot where the act to be rewarded by the grant of 
such decoration has been performed, under the following cir- 
cumstances : — 

I. When the fleet or army, in which such act has been 
performed, is under the eye and command of an admiral 
or general officer commanding the forces. 

II. Where the naval or military force is under the 
eye and command of an admiral or commodore com- 
manding a squadron or detached naval force, or of a 
general commanding a corps, or division or brigade 
on a distinct and detached service, when such admiral, 
commodore, or general officer shall have the power of 
conferring the decoration on the spot, subject to con- 
firmation by Us. 

Eighthly. It is ordained, where such act shall not have been 
performed in sight of a commanding officer as aforesaid, then 
the claimant for the honour shall prove the act to the satisfaction 
of the captain or officer commanding his ship, or to the officer 
commanding the regiment to which the claimant belongs, and 
such captain or such commanding officer shall report the same 
through the usual channel to the admiral or commodore 
commanding the force employed on the service, or to the 
officer commanding the forces in the field, who shall call 
for such description and attestation of the act as he may think 
requisite, and on approval shall recommend the grant of the 

Ninthly. It is ordained, that every person selected for the 
Cross, under Rule Seven, shall be publicly decorated before 
the naval or military force or body to which he belongs, and 


with which the act of bravery for which he is to be rewarded 
shall have been performed, and his name shall be recorded in a 
General Order, together with the cause of his especial dis- 

Tenthly. It is ordained, that every person selected under 
Rule Eight shall receive his decoration as soon as possible, 
and his name shall likewise appear in a General Order as 
above required, such General Order to be issued by the 
naval or military commander of the forces employed on the 

Eleventhly. It is ordained, that the General Orders above 
referred to shall from time to time be transmitted to Our 
Secretary of State for War, to be laid before Us, and shall be 
by him registered. 

Twelfthly. It is ordained, that as cases may arise not falling 
within the rules above specified, or in which a claim, though 
well founded, may not have been established on the spot, We 
will, on the joint submission of Our Secretary of State for War 
and of Our Commander-in-chief of Our army, or on that of 
Our Lord High Admiral or Lords Commissioners of the Admi- 
ralty in the case of the navy, confer the decoration, but never 
without conclusive proof of the performance of the act of 
bravery for which the claim is made. 

Thirteenthly. It is ordained that, in the event of a gallant 
and daring act having been performed by a squadron, ship's 
company, a detached body of seamen and marines, not under 
fifty in number, or by a brigade, regiment, troop, or company, 
in which the admiral, general, or other officer commanding 
such forces, may deem that all are equally brave and distin- 
guished, and that no special selection can be made by them : 
then in such case, the admiral, general, or other officer com- 
manding, may direct, that for any such body of seamen or 
marines, or for every troop or company of soldiers, one officer 

i 2 



Was founded on the 1st June, 1833, by King Otho, in 
commemoration of the deliverance of Greece. It is conferred 
both on natives and foreigners who either rendered important 
services during the War of Independence, or have distinguished 
themselves in industry, commerce, arms, arts or sciences. 

The King is Grand Master, and he alone has the right 
to confer it. The Order consists of five classes : — Knights 
Grand Cross, Grand Commanders, Commanders, Knights 
of the Golden and Knights of the Silver Cross. 

The number of the first four classes is limited — the Grand 
Crosses to twelve, Grand Commanders to twenty, Commanders 
to thirty, and Knights of the Golden Cross to one hundred and 
twenty (all exclusive of the Princes of the blood royal, and of 
foreigners), while the fifth class is unlimited. 

Greek subjects cannot enter the higher classes without 
passing first through the lower. In promotion, only worth 
and merit are to be considered, without regard to rank, 
birth, &c. 

By Art. 12 of the Statutes, a sufficient sum is annually 
to be voted in the budget for the Order, to enable the 
College to pay the annual pensions to the members. 

The badge consists of an octagonal white enamelled cross 



Hurst and Blaokett, London, 1838. 

GREECE. 119 

beneath a royal crown ; the wings of the cross are connected 
with each other by a wreath of oaken and laurel leaves, 
while the centre of the obverse contains the arms of the 
country, surrounded by the words: HAEH1A 20T XEIP 
AEAOEA2TAI EN I2TTI (Thy rights, O Lord, are 
glorified with power). The reverse shows the effigy of King 
Otho, with the legend: O0HN BA2IAET2 TH2 
'EAAAAOS (Otho, King of Greece). (Plate 34, No. 2). 

The Order is worn suspended by a blue watered ribbon with 
white borders ; the Knights wear it at the button-hole, the 
Commanders (both classes) round the neck, and the Grand 
Crosses across the left shoulder towards the right hip. The 
Grand Crosses and Grand Commanders wear besides, on the 
left breast/j;he star (No. 1 .) embroidered in silver ; the star of 
the latter is somewhat larger than that of the former. No 
member can appear before the King or the Princes of the blood 
royal, or on public festivals without the decoration of the Order. 


1. Memento for the Bavarian Auxiliary Corps. — On the 
24th November, 1833, King Otho founded at Nauplia, 
the cross of cast iron (No. 6.) for the above corps which had 
accompanied him to Greece. Upon the wings of the cross, 
which are connected with each other by an oaken and laurel 
wreath, are the words (in Greek) : ' Otho, King of Greece,' and 
on the reverse, 'To the Royal Bavarian Auxiliary Corps.' 
It was presented to all the soldiers and officials of the corps, 
irrespective of rank and standing. It is worn on the left 
breast, suspended by a bright blue ribbon. 

2. Memento for the Bavarian Volunteers. (No. 5.) — The 
form of this cross is exactly the same as that of the former, but 
the metal is bronze, while the inscription and edge are embossed 



Was founded on the 23rd April, 1839, as the ' Order of the 
House of Hanover.' The statutes appoint the Kings of Hanover 
Grand Masters, and allow of only one class, called the Knights 
of St. George. 

The sons and brothers of the King are Knights by birth, 
while the Princes of the royal family have a claim to it. The 
number of native members is fixed (exclusive of the royal 
Princes) at sixteen, which cannot be exceeded without^some 
special grounds. With the exception of Dukes and Princes, 
no member can be admitted before the completion of his 
thirtieth year of age. 

Only noblemen of unblemished reputation are eligible, and 
those who are already in possession of the Grand Cross of 
the Guelphic Order. 

The badge is an octagonal dark blue enamelled cross, 
the centre of the obverse representing St. George with lance 
and dragon, and the reverse the initial of the King. This 
cross (Plate 37. Tab. IV. No. 11) is worn across the right 
shoulder by a dark red watered ribbon, about four and a 
quarter inches wide. Close to it is fastened, on the left breast, 
a star embroidered in silver. The centre of the star contains 
likewise St. George on horseback, and the motto : ' Nunquam 
rctrorsum' (Never backward.) (Tab. III. No. 10.) 

II A III— II \ N OVER. Table I. 

PLATE o;i. 

II \ \ V E K 

Huisl .mil Blarkelt. London. 1838 

HANOVER. 1'23 

The Knights wear besides, the Cross of the Guelphic Order 
round the neck, saltire-ways. The members must possess 
the rank of at least Lieutenant-general ; they are allowed 
to join the insignia to their family crest on seals or 


King George IV. founded this Order, when Prince Regent 
of England, in the name of his father George III., on the 
12th August, 1815, his birthday, being also the anniver- 
sary (101 years), of the accession to the English throne of the 
Elector, George Louis. 

The statutes were revised and modified on the 20th May, 
1841 j according to these, the dignity and power of the Grand 
Master is always vested in the Crown of Hanover, and the 
Order is now divided into four Classes : 

1. Knights Grand Cross. 

2. Commanders, first and second classes. 

3. Knights. 

4. Simple Members. 

There is, besides, another class of sub-officers and privates 
who have distinguished themselves in the field by skill and 
valour, and on whom is conferred a medal. The possession of 
the medal entitles the owner to a pension of twenty-four thalers 
(72s). The number of the members is unlimited. 

The Grand Cross is conferred on those high military officers 
who have distinguished themselves by their skill and judgment, 
when the plan and execution of an expedition has been left to 
their own discretion and responsibility. It is usually not conferred 
upon any one below the rank of Lieutenant-general, except in 
some peculiar cases, when an Ambassador has merited 



well of his country by his diplomatic skill, or when a Major- 
general was acting as an independent commander. 

The Cross of Commander (first class) is usually not pre- 
sented to any civilian, or any military individual below the rank 
of Major-general. 

The Cross of Commander (second class), as also the next 
below it, are bound to no rank whatever. 

The presentation of the Order to meritorious subjects of 
Hanover, usually begins with the lowest, the fourth class, and 
ends with the first. The Cross of the fourth class is worn 
by the King himself, as also by the royal Princes. 

The badge consists (Plate 36, Tab II.), for the Grand Cross, 
of a star (No. 1) and a cross, worn by a light blue watered 
ribbon, four inches wide, across the right shoulder, like a scarf. 

The decoration of the Commanders (first class), consists of 
a similar but smaller cross. It is worn upon the breast, 
below the neck-tie, saltire-ways, suspended by a broad ribbon 
(two and a half inches wide), fastened behind, and at the side 
of it is worn, upon the left side of the coat, a similar cross 
embroidered in silver, in the form of a star, but without the 
crown above it (No. 2). 

The Commanders (second class), wear a like cross, saltire- 
ways, but not as a star upon the left side. 

The Knights wear the cross, rather small, at the button- 
hole, suspended by a ribbon about an inch wide, which runs 
through a ring j the latter is fastened above the crown by the 
imperial globe. 

The badge of the fourth class is a silver cross with the 
royal initial in it, and is worn in the same manner as 
the former. 

The medal is worn at the button-hole, suspended by a 
similar ribbon. 

The Order is both civil and military, and the difference 

II V N 0\ Ell. Table II. 

I' \. \ T K oli 

Ilurxt and IlU-U'tl. I.oiulon. IS;,R 


consists only in the star and cross, which contain, for the 
military, a laurel instead of an oaken wreath, and are, besides, 
adorned with two swords. The motto of the Order is : < Nee 
aspera terrent ' (Difficulties do not terrify.) 

The Orders of deceased members must be returned to the 
Commission of the College, except the medal, which may 
remain in the family. 

On gala days, or at festivals of the Order, the ribbon of the 
Grand Cross is exchanged for a golden neck chain, the links 
of which consist alternately of the Hanoverian crown, a lion 
passant guardant with upraised tail (the ancient arms of the 
Guelphs), and the initials ' G. R.' (Tab. II. No. 5). 

The obverse contains, in the red enamelled centre of the cross, 
the galloping white horse (the crest of the House of Brunswick), 
and\he reverse the initials * G. R.' beneath the royal crown, 
and surrounded, with the first class, by the number of the 
year, when the Order was founded, upon dull golden ground. 

Between the wings of the cross, with all classes, is placed 
the Brunswick lion. 


1. The Guelphic Medal (belonging to the Guelphic Order.) 
(Tab. II. No. 6).— It is of silver, and of the same size 
as the next following, Waterloo Medal ; it contains, on the 
front, the effigy of the founder; and on the reverse, the in- 
scription : 'Verdienst und Vaterland' (Merit and fatherland), 
surrounded by a laurel wreath. Upon the edge are engraved, 
the name and rank of the recipient. It is worn at the button- 
hole, suspended by the same ribbon as is the Guelphic Order. 
The pension attached to it has,, no doubt, contributed to the 
observance of strict economy in its distribution. 

2. The Waterloo Medal— Was founded in December, 1817, 


by the Prince Regent of England, and distributed amongst 
all the soldiers of his hereditary dominions in Germany (Guelph- 
lands), who were present at that battle, or amongst the heirs 
of those who had fallen in it. The medal is of silver, and 
adorned with the effigy of the founder. The obverse and reverse 
are sketched in Tab. II. No. 9. Upon the edge are engraved the 
Christian and family names of the owner, as also his rank, 
and the name of the regiment, battalion or corps to which 
he belonged. It is worn at the third button-hole on the 
left side, suspended by a dark red ribbon with bright blue 
borders. It passes to the family as a token of remembrance 
after the decease of the recipient. 

3 and 4. The William Cross and William Medal were 
founded on the 2nd March, 1837, by King William IV., for the 
Hanoverian troops, as a reward for long loyal service. The first 
distribution took place only after his demise. 

The Cross (Tab. II. No. 8), is of gold, and has on the obverse 
the letters : ' W. R. IV.' with the crown above them, and 
on the reverse the number : ' 25.' It is presented to all officers 
(including staff-surgeons and their assistants), commanders, 
town-majors, and others in active service, who have served in 
the army, twenty-five years (the years of war counting double). 

The medal (Tab. IV. No. 14), is presented to sub-officers, 
and officers in active service, who have served sixteen years (the 
years of war also counting double). It is of silver, with the 
effigy of William IV. on the front, and the inscription : ' Fiir 
sechszehnjahrige treue Dienste ' (For sixteen years' loyal service) 
on the reverse. 

Both cross and medal are worn on the left breast, formerly 
suspended by a yellow ribbon with white borders, but now by 
a dark red ribbon with dark blue borders (the ribbon of the 
English Waterloo Medal). 

5. War Medal for the Volunteers in the Hanoverian Army 

HANOVER. Table Hi 

I' I. ATE o7. 

Ilursi and Blackett , London. !8. - «. 


in the year 1813. — It was founded by King Ernest Augustus, 
on the 11th May, 1841, and cast from the guns captured from 
the enemy at that period. The obverse represents a cross, a royal 
crown, the initials: ' E. A. R. and (the year) 1813,' while the 
reverse contains : '1813' within a laurel wreath. (Tab. III. 
No. 12). 

The medal is worn by the still serving military of that period 
on the left breast, suspended by a white ribbon, with two 
yellow stripes, and by civilians, i. e., by those who have retired 
into civil life, at the button-hole. 

6. War Medal for the Volunteers in the British- German 
Legion, until the conclusion of the Peace at Paris, in 1814. 
— The foundation of this medal is coeval with the previous, 
and was also cast from the captured guns. The front 
shows a cross beneath a royal crown, with the initials : 
*E. A. R.' within its wings, while the reverse contains the 
words : ' Koniglich Deutsche Legion ' (Royal German Legion) 
in the circle, and ' Tapfer und Treu' (Brave and loyal) in the 
centre, and the whole is surrounded by a laurel wreath. (Tab. 
III. No. 13.) Like the former, it is worn suspended by a white 
ribbon with two yellow 7 stripes, by the military on the left breast, 
and by civilians at the button-hole. It is conferred on military 
men of all degrees and all nations (including military surgeons), 
who had entered that legion before the conclusion of peace in 
1814, and stood before the enemy in some of the years from 
1803 to 1814. 

7, 8 and 9. Medals of Merit in gold and in silver, and 
General Decoration of Honour, were founded on the 5th June, 
1841. The two medals (gold and silver), bear on the front the 
effigy of the King, with the legend : ' Ernest August ' and 
the year of his accession to the throne, and on the reverse an 
oaken wreath, with the inscription : ' Verdienst urn's Vaterland ' 
(Merit of the fatherland). Both are worn suspended by a 


bright blue watered ribbon (the same as that of the Guelph 

The General Decoration of Merit consists, for Military Merit, 
of a silver medal (Tab. IV. No. 16), with the initials of the 
founder on the obverse, and a laurel wreath, with the inscription : 
' Krieger Verdienst ' (Warrior's merit) on the reverse. It is 
worn suspended by a white and yellow watered ribbon. 

The Decoration for Civil and other Merits, consists also of 
a silver medal (Tab. IV. No. 15), but has within an oaken 
wreath the inscription : ' Verdienst urn's Vaterland ' (Merit of 
the country), and is worn suspended by a tricoloured (black, 
white and yellow) watered ribbon. 

In all the above medals, the name of the recipient is engraved 
round the edge. They are worn (without a buckle) on the 
left breast. 

The presentation usually begins with the Medal of General 
Merit, and at further new proofs of merit and distinction, the 
silver, and next the golden medals are conferred. All medals 
may be worn together by those who possess them. 


Initials in diamonds are presented for distinguished merit to 
court ladies. This decoration is worn upon the left shoulder, 
suspended by the blue commander ribbon of the Guelphic Order, 
and consists of the letters : ' E. A. F. R.' (Ernest Augustus 
Frederica, Reges). (Tab. I. No. 17.) 

The Ernest Augustus Cross, was founded by King Ernest 
Augustus on the 9th August, 1845, and was made to form the 
first class of the above William Cross ; it is designated — by 
the words of the warrant — as " a reward to officers for long 
faithful service, while it promises, at the same time, a better 


PLATE 58. 

Hurst and Blarkctt, London. I808. 

II AN OV EH. Tabic V. 

PLATE -5'J. 

Hurst and Blackctt, London. 18."iS. 


prospect for future promotion than do the William Cross and 
Medal." It consists of a golden cross, the front of which 
shows in monogram the initials : ' E. A. R. 5 beneath a crown, 
and the reverse, the number ' 50.' It is worn (without a 
buckle) on the left breast, suspended by a dark red ribbon with 
dark blue borders. Only Hanoverian troops of fifty years' active 
service may claim its possession. 

The Medal of Merit for saving from Danger, was founded 
on the same day with the previous, as a reward for those who 
have saved, or been the means of saving/ the life or property 
of others at the risk of their own lives. It is of silver, and 
shows on the obverse the effigy and the name of the King as 
legend, and on the reverse an oaken wreath, with the inscrip- 
tion : ' Fiir Rettung und Gefahr ' (For saving and danger), 
while round the edge is engraved the name of the recipient. 
It is worn on the left breast, suspended by an orange coloured 
ribbon with bright blue stripes. 



It was founded on the 14th August, 1790, by the Landgrave 
Frederick II., as a reward for distinguished merit, and placed 
by him under the patronage of St. Elizabeth of Hungary, one 
of the ancestors of the Landgrave. The Landgrave had formed 
only one class, but altered circumstances induced subsequently 
the Elector William I. to enlarge the statutes on the 1st 
January, 1818. 

The title of the Order has, however, been retained. The 
reigning Electors are Grand Masters, and bound to contribute, 
as much as lies in their power, to preserve and increase the 
dignity and glory of the institution. The members are divided 
into four classes : Knights Grand Cross, Commanders first and 
second classes, and Knights. The number is unlimited, and is 
not confined to any station, military or civil. The Princes of the 
reigning house are born Knights of the Grand Cross, though 
they are not decorated until they have reached the age of 
discretion or reason. The upper degrees cannot be obtained 
before passing through the lower. Religion is no bar to 

The insignia consist for Knights of the Grand Cross, of the 
decoration (Plate 40, Tab. I. No. 2), worn by a ribbon across the 
right shoulder towards the left hip, and containing, on the edge of 
the reverse, the name of the Grand Master ; it further consists of 

E L E C T R A I, II E S S E. Table I . 

PLATE 40. 

lui-st ami Itl.ifkcil, I.oihIiiii is;;s- 

HESSE (electorate). 133 

a star (No. 1), worn upon the left side of the coat; both badges 
show the inscription : ' Virtute et Fidelitate ' (For virtue and 

The Commanders (first class) wear the decoration (No. 4) 
round the neck, and the silver cross (No. 3) on the left side. 

The Commanders (second class) wear the same decoration, 
but without the cross. 

The Knights suspend the cross (No. 5) at the button-hole, or 
on the left side of the breast. Both (Nos. 4 and 5) have, in 
the centre of the reverse, the letters : ' W. K.' (Kurfiirst Wilhelm) 
beneath a royal crown. 


This Order, which bore, until 22nd October, 1820, the title 
of: " Ordre pour la Vertu Militaire," was founded on the 25th 
February, 1769, by Landgrave Frederick II., as a reward of 
military distinction. In times of peace, it is reserved only for 
higher officers, while in times of war it can be claimed by all 
officers, from the rank of General down to that of Lieutenant. It 
has only one class. The Elector is Grand Master and sole judge 
of the merits of the candidates. 

The badge is an octagonal gold cross, white enamelled, 
and covered with a crown. The four wings contain (Tab. II. 
No. 6) the initials of the Elector, and the word : ' Virtuti ' 
(To virtue). In the spaces between the wings is the Hessian 
lion (crowned and erect). It is worn round the neck by a sky 
blue ribbon with silver borders. 

Was founded by the Elector William I., on the 18th March, 


1814, as a reward for military distinction to both officers and 
men in the war of liberty of 1814. 

The decoration consists of an Iron Helmet upon the Brabant 
Cross ; it is divided into two classes, and one Grand Cross. 
Both classes have the same cross of cast iron, set in 
silver. The centre of the front shows an open helmet, at the 
sides of which are the initials ' W. K.' and below, the number 
'1814' (Tab. II. No. 7). It is worn at the button-hole. 
The first class wear besides, on the left breast, a cross formed of 
red ribbon with white borders. The Grand Cross is double the 
size of the previous, and is worn round the neck. The first 
class cannot be obtained without previously possessing the 
second. The Grand Cross is only conferred after a victorious 
battle, on the commanding officer who has, by skill and courage, 
contributed to its success, or who has held out a fortress against 
the besieging foe. In the Iron Helmet, which was distributed 
in the succeeding year, in 1815, the Brabant Cross was super- 
seded by the German Cross. (Tab. II. No. 8). 


1. The Cross of Merit.— In 1820, the Elector William I. 
founded a Silver Medal of Merit for both civil and military 
individuals, who should distinguish themselves by bene- 
volent actions to their fellow citizens, or by special courage 
in dangers, and other circumstances of national import. In 
1831, the medal was exchanged for a cross, without, however, 
modifying its original statutes. It is divided into two classes, 
and consists of gold and silver crosses. (Tab. II. No. 9). The 
inscription within the four wings is : ' Fur Verdienst und 
Treuc ' (For merit and loyalty), with the initials of the founder 
in the centre. 


PLATE \\. 

Uuvsl and Blackpll , London. t8.".S. 

HESSE (electorate). 135 

2. The Medal of Remembrance and Honour, was instituted 
by the Elector William II. on the 14th March, 1821, for the 
Hessian military of all ranks and stations who had passed 
the Rhine, and participated in the wars of 1814 and 
1815. It was cast of metal from captured guns. (Tab. II. 

No. 10). 

3. The Cross of Military Distinction for Sub-officers and 
Soldiers, was founded on the 19th August, 1835, by the 
Co-Regent Elector. The statutes say : That the claim thereto 
is founded on long active service, from and below the rank of 
sergeant. It is divided into three classes, for twenty, fifteen and 
ten years' service (the years of war counting double). It is 
worn upon the regimental uniform, suspended by a crimson 
red ribbon with blue stripes. (Tab. II. No. 11). The distribution 
takes place every year, on the 20th August. 



Was founded in 1807, by the Grand Duke Louis L, as a 
reward for civil and military merit, for all classes, high and 
low. It was first distributed by him on St. Louis day, 
(24th August), the namesday of nearly all the members of 
the Grand Ducal House. But as the founder had published 
neither its statutes nor its special title, it passed by various 
names such as : Order of Merit, Order of Louis, &c, until the 
14th December, 1831, when the Grand Duke Louis II. thought 
proper to promulgate the statutes and modify them in one 
particular point, with regard to the star, which, instead of 
being as formerly the same with the Commanders of the 
first class, and the Knights of the Grand Cross, was now 
superseded for the former class by a silver star with four points, 
in which is embroidered the cross of the Order. 

The Order is now called the ' Order of Louis,' and is divided 
into five classes ; Knights of the Grand Cross, Commanders, 
first and second classes ; and Knights first and second 
classes. The number of the members in each class is unlimited. 
In connection with the Order are, also, gold and silver Medals 
of Merit. The badge consists, for the Grand Cross, of 
an octagonal black cross set in gold, with red edges 
and enamel. The centre of the red enamelled obverse 
contains the letter ' L,' and within the white ring round it are 
seen the words in golden characters : ' Fur Verdienste ' (For 

Gl{ \\ I) 1)1 Cm II F.SSE. Table I. 

P !. VTE 42. 

Hurst ami lilai-ki'll , London . IS.'iS. 

HESSE (grand duchy). 137 

Merit). The reverse is a black field, and contains, in golden 
characters, the words : ' Gott, Ehre, Vaterland ' (God, honour, 
country), surrounded by a laurel and oaken wreath upon 
white enamelled ground. 

The cross, with the crown above it, is worn by the Knights 
of the Grand Cross across the left shoulder towards the right 
hip by a black- watered ribbon, three and a quarter inches wide, 
and with red borders. They wear besides upon the left breast 
an octagonal silver star, in the black centre of which are seen, 
surrounded by a laurel and oaken wreath, the above words : 
'Gott, Ehre, Vaterland.' (Plate 42. Tab. I. Nos. 1 and 2). 

The Commanders' first class, wear the cross, by a ribbon, 
round the neck, and besides upon the breast, a silver star 
with four points, in which is embroidered the cross of the 
Order. (Tab. I. No. 3). 

The Commanders' second class wear the same, but without 

The Knights of the first and second classes wear the same 
cross upon the left breast suspended by a ribbon of the above 

The size of the cross, and the width of the ribbon diminish 
with the respective inferior classes. 

To the first class of Grand Cross are only admitted Princes 
by birth, or individuals with the title of ' Excellency.' 


It was founded on the 1st of May, 1840, by the Grand 
Duke Louis II., in honour of one of his ancestors, one of the 
greatest Princes of the House of Hesse. It is divided into 
four classes : Knights of the Grand Cross, Commanders of the 
first and second classes, and Knights. 


The obverse of the cross shows the effigy of Philippe-le- 
Bon upon a sky-blue ground, with the legend : ' Si Deus nobis- 
cum, quis contra nos ?' (If God be with us, who is against us ?) 
while the reverse gives the Hessian arms, with the legend : 
' Ludovicus II. Magn. Dux Hessise instit.' (Founded by Louis II. 
Grand Duke of Hesse). (Plate 43, Tab. II. No. 7). 

The Knights of the Grand Cross wear the decoration by 
a ribbon across the shoulder, and the star (No. 6) upon the 

The Commanders, of both classes, wear it by a narrow rib- 
bon round the neck, but those of the first class wear besides 
upon the left breast, the embroidered cross. (Tab. II. No. 8). 
The Knights wear it in smaller size suspended by a ribbon at 
the button-hole. 

Except on solemn occasions, the Knights of the Grand 
Cross, when they also possess the same degree in the Order of 
Louis, wear the present cross round the neck by a narrow ribbon. 


1. Military Service was founded on the 26th December, 
1833 ; it consists of a cross, for officers, of gold, and for sub- 
officers and privates of silver. The front shows the letter ' L,' 
with a crown above it, and the reverse the words : ' XXV. Jahre 
treuer Dienste ' (Twenty-five years' loyal service). (Tab. II. 
No. 5). It may, therefore, be claimed only after twenty-five years 
active service. The cross is worn upon the left breast suspended 
by a red and white ribbon. The years of campaign count double. 
Since 1839, a similar cross for fifty years' service has been 

2. Decoration for Field Service was founded on the 14th of 
June, 1 840, for all military grades ; it consists of a medal cast of 



Hiirsl and Blarkclt, London. 18W. 

HESSE (grand duchy). 139 

heavy or gun metal. The front exhibits the letter ' L,' with a 
crown above it, and the inscription : ' Gestiftet am 14 Juni, 1840' 
(Founded on the 14th June, 1840), and the reverse the words : 
' Ftir treuen Dienst im Kriege' (For faithful service in war). 
(Tab. II. No. 9-). It is worn on the left breast suspended by 
a red ribbon with white borders. 

After the decease of the owner, the medal remains in the 




1. The Cross of Honour, was founded on the 1st January, 
1842, conjointly by the two Princes (Frederick and Charles), 
of the above Principalities. 

They divided it into four classes : 

a. Cross of Honour, first class, with the crown. (Plate 44, 
No. 1). 

b. Cross of Honour, second class, without the crown. 

c. Medal of Honour of gold, with the crown (No. 2). 

d. Silver Medal of Merit (No. 3.) 

The badge consists : for the first class, of an octagonal 
gold cross with black edges, and coated with white enamel. 
The middle of the cross is white enamelled, and contains the 
letters in monogram : ' F. and C the initials of the founders. 
The blue enamelled ring round the middle contains, in golden 
characters, the legend : ' Fur Trcue und Verdienst ' (For 
loyalty and merit), and is surrounded by a laurel wreath. The 
reverse shows, on a similar centre, the arms of Hohenzollern. 
Above the cross is seen the crown in gold. 

For the second class, of the same cross, but without the 



tv.>l .ind Blacked , London. 1Sj8. 


For the third and fourth classes, of the medals containing 
the same impression as does the cross, with the only difference 
that the gold medal of the third class has, in addition, a 
gold crown above it. 

The insignia of all the four classes are worn at the button- 
hole of the left breast, suspended by a white ribbon with 
black borders. The owners of the first three classes are 
allowed, on ordinary occasions, to wear the ribbon without the 

All the Princes of the Hohenzollern House are born Knights 
of the Cross of Honour, but are not allowed to wear it before 
the completion of the fifteenth year of their age. 

The first class Cross is only presented to the higher State 
and Court functionaries for distinguished merit. 

With the second class Cross are honoured, civil officers 
who possess the rank of Collegiate, Counsellor, or Head-bailiff, 
while military men must possess, at least, the rank of Captain. 
The first class is limited (for each Principality) to four, and 
the second to six members. 

The decorations of the third and fourth class are bestowed 
indiscriminately, on all individuals who have merited well of 
their country -in promotion of the arts, sciences, inventions, 
useful establishments, &c. The number of foreign members is 
not strictly limited in some particular instances. 

On the 8th April, 1844, another class was added to the former, 
a sort of an intervening class between the Cross of Honour, 
second class, and the Golden Medal of Honour. The new 
class which was then made to form the third, was that of the 
Silver Cross of Honour, and its members were limited (for 
each Principality) to eight. 

2. Military Decoration, was founded on the 25th February, 
1841. It consists of a small golden cross (Nos. 4 and 5), and 
is worn on the left breast by a black ribbon with white borders. 


The centre of the obverse contains the crest of the princely 
house, and the reverse shows the number * XXV,' alluding to 
the distinction, which can only be obtained after twenty-five 
years' active service, the years of war counting double. 

After the incorporation of the two Principalities with Prussia 
in 1850, the Order was received amongst the Prussian Orders, 
under the name : c Order of the House Hohenzollern.' The 
statutes underwent modifications in several points, and the 
Order now consists of only three classes : Cross of Honour, 
first, second, and third class, to which are added a Golden 
Medal of Honour, and a Silver Medal of Merit. 

1 . The Cross of Honour, first class, is a gold octagonal 
cross, white enamelled, with black edges. In the middle 
of the cross is a white enamelled field, showing the family 
crest of the Hohenzollern, quartered white and black, and 
covered with a crown. Round this field, and within a 
ring upon blue enamelled ground, is the legend : ' Fur Treue 
und Verdienst' Between the angles of the Cross are 
green enamelled wreaths, partly of laurel, and partly of oaken 
branches, the leaves being adorned with gold edges. 

2. The Cross of Honour, second class, consists of the 
same Cross, but of a smaller size. The white enamelled 
middle of the reverse contains the crowned initials, ' F. and 
C in gold. The ring round it shows in gold, upon blue 
ground, the day of the foundation of the Order (5th December, 

3. Tlie Cross of Honour, third class, is of silver ; the 
arms of the cross are pointed, while the reverse shows the 
date of the foundation (8th December, 1844). In all other 
respects, it resembles the Cross of the second class. 

4 and 5. The Golden Medal of Honour, and The Silver 
Medal of Merit, have the same impression, both on front and 
reverse, as have the medal and ring of Cross second class. 



The Cross of the first class is worn on the left breast; 
and that of the second and third, as also the two medals 
at the button-hole, suspended by a white watered ribbon 
with three black stripes, and about one and a half inches 
wide. The first class Cross is usually worn by the Prussian 
Knights of the Black Eagle below the star of that Order. 

The Princes of the blood royal have the option of wearing 
either the first or the second class Cross. In the latter 
case, the Cross is covered with a crown, consisting of a golden 
circle, mounted by five leaves and four coronets, above which 
are joined three rings set with pearls, holding the imperial 
globe. Between the rings is a red velvet hat, which partially 
covers the crown. 

II 1. 1. A X I), ruble I. 

P I. A T K -ir» 

Ilurst and Blackclt, London. 18.S8. 


d. For the Knights' fourth class, the decoration is of a 
smaller size in silver, and is suspended, also, at the button-hole, 
by a ribbon about three quarters of an inch wide. 

The Knights in the army and navy, below the rank of 
officers, receive with the first class Order, an addition equal 
to the half of their pay, which is doubled when promoted to 
the third class. The scale of the degrees is from the fourth 
class upwards, so that no intervening class can be passed 

The festival of the Order is annually held on the 16th 


{Also called the Order of the Netherlands Lion.~) 

This Order was also founded by King William T. on the 
20th September, 1815, for distinguished merit in civil life, 
patriotism, or eminence in the arts and sciences ; foreigners 
are not excluded from it. 

The monarch holds the Grand Mastership, a dignity 
inseparable from the Dutch crown. 

The Order is divided into three classes : Knights of the 
Grand Cross, Commanders, and simple Knights. 

There is also a fourth class, under the name 'Brothers/ 
for individuals who have merited well, by useful and humane 
actions towards their fellow-creatures. 

The badge is a white enamelled cross, with a gold letter 
' W ' in each of the angles : the blue enamelled middle of the 
front contains the inscription in gold, of ' Virtus nobilitat ' 
(Virtue ennobles), and the similar middle of the reverse 
shows the lion of the national arms. (Plate 46, Tab. II. 
No. 8). Above the whole is a royal crown. The colour 



of the ribbon is Nassau blue with two orange coloured 

The distinctive marks of the different classes are : 

1. For the Knights Grand Cross, the decoration of the 
front mounted on a silver star without the crown, and embroi- 
dered upon the left side of the coat, (Tab. II. No. 6), while the 
jewel of the Order, (No. 8), is worn across the right shoulder 
towards the left hip, by a ribbon about three and a half inches 

2. For the Commanders, the same decoration embroidered 
upon the coat without the star, but with the crown above it. 
(Tab. II. No. 7). The jewel is worn round the neck by a 
ribbon about two inches and a half wide. 

3. For the simple Knights, the decoration is worn at the 
button-hole, suspended by a ribbon about two inches and a half 

The ' Brothers ' wear a silver medal instead of the cross ; 
the front shows the symbol, and the reverse, the motto 
of the Order. It is worn suspended by a blue ribbon, about 
one inch and a half wide, with an orange stripe in the middle. 
(Tab. II. No. 9). 

The ' Brothers ' receive an annual pension of 200 fl. 
(about £17), the half of which goes, after death, to their 


The history and sketch of this Order is already given 
under Austria. 

Utrecht, was one of the twelve Bailiwicks, of which the 
Order consisted in Germany. It originated from a gift be- 
queathed to the Order, by a nobleman of Munster, a certain 

HOLLA N I). Table I I 


IIuisl ami niackclt, Lnn.lcm. 1S.">N. 



Suedre, (of Dingete and Ringenburg), and his wife, Beatrix, of 
all their estates situated in the diocese of Utrecht. 

The first Great Commander of this Bailiwick, was the 
Chevalier Anthony of Lcdersakc of Printhagen. 

Since 1231, thirteen Commanderies were established, besides 
that of the Great Commander, eleven of which are still extant, 
viz: Dieren, Maasland, Tiel, Rhene, Leyden and Katneyk, 
Schooten, Doesburg, Schaluinen, Middelburg and Schoonhoven. 

The Commander of Dieren is always Co-adjutor of the Order 
and is next in rank to the Great Commander. 

Since the 8th September, 1837, there are, in addition to the 
actual Knights, noblemen who have obtained the expectancy or 
reversion of a Commandery, and are on that account allowed 
to wear a small cross. 

When the Reformation was introduced into the Netherlands, 
and the Protestant became the established religion of the 
country, the Bailiwick of Utrecht was withdrawn from the 
authority of the then Grand Master, Mergenthein, as were, 
indeed, all the old church domains then disposed of for the benefit 
of the towns. The States of Utrecht, however, took in 1580, the 
Bailiwick under their protection, under the conditions that 
the Grand Master should follow their instructions, exclude 
priests from the Order, receive into it those noblemen only 
who professed the new religion, and enjoin the Com- 
manders to renounce celibacy, in fine, dissolve all ties that 
might bind the Order to Rome. Of all the vows, there 
remained, consequently, but one : that of obedience. 

In course of time, however, the Grand Masters endeavoured 
to bring the Bailiwick back under their own jurisdiction, and the 
consequence was, that at the meetings of the General Assembly 
of the States, the chair of the Grand Master remained vacant, 
its arms being turned towards the table. Things remained in 
this state of uncertainty until the war with France, in 1795, 

l 2 


when by a decree of Napoleon, (February 27th, 1811), the 
Bailiwick of Utrecht ceased to exist, as did indeed the Teutonic 
Order in the whole of Germany, by a similar decree of 
Napoleon (24th April, 1809). 

After the return of the House of Orange-Nassau, King 
William proposed to the States- General, the restoration of the 
Bailiwick, which the States consented to, and by a law of the 
8th August, 1815, all the previous rights and privileges were 
restored to it. 

The candidates must, previous to their nomination, prove 
their noble descent, of, at least, two hundred years' standing. 

The members are now divided into Great Commanders, Com- 
manders, and Knights, to all of whom the revenues of the 
Bailiwick belong. They owe obedience and loyalty to the Great 
Commander, as the representative of the King. 


1. Medal for faithful Service ; was founded by King 
William, on the 19th February, 1825. It is bestowed in 
bronze for twelve, and in silver for twenty-four years of military 
service ; it is worn at the button-hole, on the left side. 
(Tab. III. No. 11). 

2. Medal for Courage and Loyalty, was founded on the 
24th January, 1839, for the native troops of the Colonial 
army, who belong to no European corps. It is of silver 
and of bronze ; the first is conferred for particular distinc- 
tion, or on those who are already in possession of the latter. 
It is worn on the left breast, suspended by a blue ribbon. 
The motto : ' Im Namen des Konigs ' (In the name of the 
King), is surrounded by the legend : ' Fur Muth und Trcue 
im Holliindischcn Indien ' (For courage and loyalty in Dutch 

OLI.AN I). Table III. 


Hnrsl -w\ Bhtckett, Loudon. 1 808. 

HOI-LAND. 149 

India). With the decoration, the pay is increased, by half 
(with the silver), and by a third (with the bronze). 

3. Medal of the Hague, was distributed amongst those 
who had first taken up arms on the 17th November, 1813, to 
repulse the French, and re-establish the legitimate government. 
The front shows two swords, with the motto : ' Fur das 
Vaterland und Oranien ' (For the Fatherland and Orange); 
and the reverse, the words : ' XVII November, MDCCCXIII. ' 
while the centre contains an oaken and laurel wreath. It is 
worn suspended by a ribbon of the colours of the town, blue 

and yellow. 

4. Medal of Dotrecht was distributed for a similar circum- 
stance as the previous, amongst the people of the place. The 
front shows the beak of a ship, and a gun covered by a mural 
crown, with the words : * Fur unsre Mauern und unsre Woh- 
nungen' (For our walls and dwellings). While the reverse 
exhibits, within a laurel and oaken garland, the inscription : 
' Dotrecht, XXIV November, MDCCCXIII. ' 

5. Medal of Naarden, was presented to the citizens of 
Amsterdam, who co-operated at the siege of Naarden, occupied 
by the French. The front shows, within a laurel and orange 
wreath, the words: ' Belagerung von Naarden, 1814' (Siege of 
Naarden, 1814). The reverse exhibits, within an oaken wreath, 
the words : ' Verliehen vom Central-Comite in Amsterdam — 
N. N.' (Presented by the Central Committee at Amsterdam 
to . . . name of recipient). It is worn suspended by a 
tri-coloured ribbon, white black and red. 

6. Medal of Java, was founded on the 27th June, 1831, 
for the military who were present at the campaigns of Java, 
from 1825 to 1830. (Tab. III. No. 13). 

7. The Cross of Hasselt, was cast from the guns taken at the 
battle of Hasselt, 8th August, 1831, and was distributed amongst 
the military who participated in that aifair. (Tab. III. No. 13). 


The same cross, but with the ribbon No. 14, and the 
inscription : ' Vrywilling ' (Volunteer), on the reverse, was 
distributed amongst the volunteers engaged in the struggle 
with Belgium, in 1831. 

8. Medal of Antwerp, was founded on the 31st of May, 
1833, for those who had distinguished themselves at the 
defence of the citadel. (Tab. III. No. 12). 

9. Buckle in bronze, founded for valour, on the 31st 
May, 1832. 


Was founded on the 5th December, 1851. It consists, for 
officers, of a silver buckle, on which is given the number of 
years of service, within a wreath of olive and oak leaves above 
two crossed swords, and, for sub-officers and guard-soldiers, of a 
medal with the words-: ' Trouwe Dienst ' (Loyal service) above 
a trophy of standards and weapons, which partly cover the 
above words ; while beneath the trophy is seen within a semi- 
circle, the word ' Schuttery ' (National Guard). The whole is 
of silver, surrounded by an olive and oak wreath, and covered 
by a civic crown. The officers fasten it on the left breast, 
while the sub-officers and privates wear it suspended by an 
orange coloured watered ribbon. It is conferred on those who 
have served, irreproachably, in the National Guard for fifteen 
years. Active service out of the town of domicile, counts double. 


The Military Medal, (Plate 48, Nos. 5 and 6), was 
founded by Prince George William on the 15th November, 
1831, as a reward for the officers and soldiers who have par- 
taken in the campaigns since 1808, and loyally served the 
Prince and the State. The medal is of silver with the effigy 
and the usual legend (the name of the founder) on the front, 
and the words : ' Fiir Tapferkeit und Treue ' (For valour and 
loyalty), surrounded by a laurel and an oak branch on the 

It is worn at the button-hole suspended by a blue ribbon 
with white borders. The medal remains in the family after the 
death of the owner. 



1. The Military Medal of Merit, in bronze, (Nos. 1 and 2), 
was founded 16th May, 1832, for long military service, or 
peculiar distinction in war. 

2. The Civil Medal of Merit, in silver, was founded in 
1816 by the same Prince, Paul Alexander Leopold. The 
obverse contains an oaken branch with the words between the 
leaves : ' Des Verdienstes Anerkennung ' (Acknowledgment of 
merit), while the reverse shows the Lippe rose, with a forget- 
me-not garland below, which means : ' The fatherland will 
never forget merit.' The medal is worn suspended by a 
crimson ribbon with yellow stripes near the ends. 


V L A 1 E 4*. 

llnrsl an:| IHui'kcll, Lmultni. I8:iS 



Was founded by Duke Charles Louis on the 1st June, 1833, 
under the name : ' Ordine di San Giorgio per il Merito Mili- 
tare (Order of St. George for Military Merit). 

The reigning Duke is Grand Master of the Order, which is 
divided into three classes, the nomination beginning with the 
lowest, and advancing gradually to the second and third. 

The badge is a cross (Plate 49, No. 1) ; the middle of 
the obverse shows the figure of St. George and the Dragon, 
surrounded by a green enamelled ring with the inscription: 
'Al Merito Militare' (To military merit), and that of the 
reverse, the initial of the founder together with the year ' 1833.' 

The cross for the first class Knights is of gold and enamel, 
for the second, of silver and enamel, and for the third, of silver 
without enamel. It is worn by all the classes on the left side 
of the breast suspended by a red ribbon with white borders, 
while that of the first class is, in addition, adorned with a 
rosette. The reigning Duke wears the cross of the first class, 
accompanied by a star, the middle of which has the same device 
as that of the front of the cross, with the addition of the year 
of the foundation as inscribed on the reverse. For extraordi- 
nary merit, the cross of the first two classes is adorned with 
brilliants, (No. 2), or is accompanied by a pension. 


The first class cross is usually presented : 

a. To the Director General of the armed force, after three 
years' distinguished management of his department. 

b. To officers of the staff, and 

c. To officers of any degree for peculiar distinction in a 
military enterprize that had been left to their own discretion. 

The second class is presented to officers of distinction, and 
the third, even to privates of merit. 


Was founded by Duke Charles Louis on the 22nd December, 
1836, and consists of three classes. The badge is a cross, 
adorned with lillies ; the obverse shows the figure of St. Louis 
in golden armour, and the reverse the Bourbon crest. The 
cross of the first class is of gold and white enamel ; of the 
second, of silver and the same enamel ; and of the third, also 
of silver, but without enamel. It is worn on the left breast, 
suspended by a bright blue ribbon with yellow borders. (Plate 
49, No. 3). The Chancellor and the Secretary of the Order 
wear, besides, a cross of peculiar form, characteristic of their 
respective offices. 


Medal for long Military Service, (Medaglia di Anzianita). 
— It was founded on the 1st of June, 1833, for officers who 
had served at least thirty years. 

It consists of a cross of gilt metal ; the middle of the front 
shows the initial of the founder, and the reverse the number 
' XXX.' It is worn on the left side of the breast suspended by 
a bright blue ribbon with three yellow stripes. (Nos. 4 and 5). 


PLATE 19. 

Hurst and Blacken, London. 1S.">8. 



It was founded by King William II. of the Netherlands, on 
the 29th December, 1841, for all classes of society, for distin- 
guished merit in the army, civil service, or the arts and 
sciences, and may, in some instances, be also conferred upon 

The King is Grand Master, and the dignity cannot be 
separated from the Grand Ducal crown. 

The Order consists of four classes: Knights of the Grand 
Cross, Knights with the star of the Order, Commanders, and 
(simply) Knights. 

The badge (Plate 50, No. 4) is a square silver star with 
a green enamelled middle which shows a golden ' W ' be- 
neath the Grand Ducal crown, with the motto in golden 
characters : ' Je maintiendrai ' (I will maintain), upon red 
enamelled ground. The motto is encircled by an oaken crown, 
whence the name of the Order is derived. 

The jewel of the Order (No. 5) forms a square cross white 
enamelled and set in gold, containing upon green enamelled 
ground in the middle, a golden ' W ' beneath the Grand Ducal 
crown. The ribbon is orange yellow, watered, and with three 
dark green stripes. 

The Knights Grand Cross wear the decoration on the left 


side, and the jewel across the right shoulder towards the left 
hip, suspended by a ribbon about three and a quarter inches 

The Knights with the star, wear the decoration as before, 
and the jewel round the neck suspended by a ribbon about two 
inches and a half wide. 

The Commanders wear the jewel (without the star) as above, 
while the simple Knights wear it at the button-hole by a 
ribbon of about one and a half inches wide. 

In February, 1850, two decorations were founded for the 
contingent of the German Bund in that Duchy. 

The first is for officers, and others of the same rank, belong- 
ing to that contingent, as a reward for long and faithful 
service, (fifteen years 5 service under the Dutch flag entitles to 
the decoration). It consists of a cross, containing on the obverse 
the initial of the King, and on the reverse the arms of the 
Grand Duchy; it is worn suspended by an orange-coloured 
ribbon. (Plate 50, No. 1). 

The second is for sub-officers and soldiers of the German 
contingent, equally for long and faithful service. It consists 
for ten years' service of a bronze cross, with the royal initial on 
the front, and the Grand Ducal arms on the reverse; for 
twenty years' service, of a similar medal in silver, (No. 2). 
It is worn by an orange coloured ribbon with green borders. 

I.l' AEH lili 1WJ 


llurrt and Blacked, London. 18.">8. 



1. Military Medal of Merit, (Plate 11, Nos. 1 and 2), was 
founded on the 23rd July, 1814, by Duke Frederick Francis, 
for the troops who had distinguished themselves in that 
memorable campaign. It is worn at the button-hole suspended 
by a ribbon of the ducal colours : bright blue with narrow 
borders of red and yellow, and is divided into two classes — 
the gold and silver medal. The front exhibits an antique 
sword in a perpendicular position, entwined by a laurel wreath 
with the year ' 1813 ' at the sides of it; the reverse shows the 
inscription : * Mecklenburg's Streitern ' (To Mecklenburg's 
warriors), and the initial of the founder. 

2. Civil Medal of Merit. — It is rather larger than the 
previous, and bears on the front the effigy of the founder with 
the legend : ' Friedrich Franz, Herzog zu Mecklenburg ' 
(Frederick Francis, Duke of Mecklenburg). The reverse shows 
the words : ' Dem redlichen Manne, und dem guten Burger ' 
(To the honest man and good citizen). It is presented either 
in gold or silver, and is worn by a ribbon of the same 
colour as the previous military medal (No. 3). 

3. The Military Cross of Service, (Nos. 4 to 8). — It was 
founded on the 30th April, 1841, by the Grand Duke Paul 
Frederick, and consists, for officers and officials of the same 
rank, of a gold cross, bearing in front the initial of the 



founder, and on the reverse the number of years of service. For 
sergeants and under, the decoration has four classes : a cross 
of silver with a gold middle for the first class : a cross of 
silver for the second class : a cross of copper with a silver 
middle for the third class : a cross of copper without middle 
for the fourth class. 

The front shows the initial of the founder, and the reverse, 
the years of service. 

The Military Cross of Service is worn on the left breast 
suspended by a crimson ribbon with blue and yellow 

Officers and officials of a similar grade receive, after twenty- 
five years' service, the gold cross, while the number on the 
reverse is altered for every five years' additional active 

Military sergeants and those of inferior rank, receive, after ten 
years' active service, the fourth class cross ; after fifteen years, the 
third class cross ; after twenty years, the second class ; and after 
twenty- five years the first class cross ; also the number of the 
years on the reverse is altered after every five years' additional 

4. The War Medal was founded on the 30th April, 1841, 
by the Grand Duke, after the form of the medal of the other 
German States, for the war of 1814. It is cast from heavy 
(gun) metal. The obverse shows the initial of the founder, 
and the year '1841,' and the reverse, the inscription: 'Fur 
treuen Dienst im Kriege' (For faithful service in war). The 
name of the recipient is engraved on the edge ; it was distributed 
amongst the veterans who had served in the Rhinebund 
from 1808 to 1812, or made the campaigns of from 1812 
to 1815. 

5. The Military Cross of Merit, was founded on the 5th 
of August, 1848. It is also cast of heavy gun metal, and 


V 1. A T K 5 1 

Hiii'M and lilai-kplt, London. \K\K. 


contains on the front the inscription : ' Fiir Auszeichnung im 
Kriege' (For distinction in war), and on the reverse the initial 
of the founder, and the year ' 1848/ It is worn on the left 
breast by a bright blue ribbon with narrow borders of red and 



Was founded after the model of the old one of the Emperor 
Iturbide, on the 11th November, 1853. The head of the 
Mexican government is Grand Master, and nominates twenty- 
four Knights Grand Cross, one hundred Commanders (exclusive 
of foreigners), and an unlimited number of Knights. 

The Order is worn suspended by a sky blue ribbon with 
violet borders, and consists of a golden cross, enamelled red 
green and white, and placed upon palm leaves and an olive 
branch, with the Mexican eagle above it. The middle of the 
front shows the figure of the Madonna of Guadaloupe, with the 
inscription : ' Religion, Independence, Union.' The red middle 
of the reverse contains the enamelled inscription : ' Heroic 
Patriotism.' The Order has its chapter, festivals, costume (of 
satin and taffetas), spiritual and secular officials, salaries and 
hospitals, all after the model of the old European Orders. 



In addition to the already existing decoration for sub-officers 
and privates of twelve or eighteen years' service, the Duke 
(Francis V.) founded on the 16th May, 1852, another Cross 
for officers who had served the uninterrupted space of twenty- 
five years, under the standard of the house of Este. 

This Cross is of silver, with a golden edge and ring, and 
is worn on the left breast suspended by a white and blue ribbon. 
The middle of the obverse contains a small blue enamelled 
medal, on which is seen the white eagle of Este under a royal 
crown. The reverse shows the cypher ' XXV ' in silver, upon 
golden ground. 

Officers who have completed the fiftieth year of service 
receive a white enamelled cross, with the cypher ' 50 ' on it ; in 
all other respects as just described. 



In 1837, this government had medals struck to reward the 
Klephts (Armatols) for their services in the Greek War of 
Independence ; these medals contain the Russian arms, and 
inscription : ' To loyalty and valour.' Prince Daniel distributed 
about two hundred of them in 1853. 



1. Military Decoration of Honour. — This decoration was 
founded by Duke Frederick Augustus, to save from oblivion 
— as the patent says — special deeds of valour, such as saving 
the life of a comrade, &c, performed by a soldier It consists 
(Plate 52, Nos. 1 and 2) of a medal, gold or silver, and is des- 
tined only for sergeants and those of lower rank It is worn at 
the button-hole of the regimentals, suspended by a dark brown 
and sulphur-yellow ribbon. The owner of the silver medal re- 
ceives with it an addition equal to half of his pay, and the owner 
of the gold medal, an addition equal to his full pay, in time 
of peace. The addition is retained even after promotion. The 
owner of the silver medal is not excluded from the additional 
reward of the gold medal, if subsequent merit entitle him to it. 

The medal remains in the family of the recipient after his 

2. The Civil Medal of Merit, is distributed in gold and in 
silver to civil officers for long and faithful service. It also 
remains with the heirs of the deceased owner. 

The impression shows, each time, the effigy and name of the 
reigning Duke. 

3. Military Decoration of Honour, for Service, was 
founded on the 25th February, 1834 (Nos. 4 and 5). It 
consists : 

M 2 


a. For officers, of a golden cross, showing in the middle 
of the front, a ' W,' and in the arms of the cross : ' XXL 
Treue Dienstjahre ' (Twenty-one years' faithful service), while 
the reverse contains in the middle: ' Der 25 Februar, 1834' 
(25th February, 1834), as the day of the first presentation. 

It is worn on the left breast by a blue ribbon (No. 4). 

b. For sub-officers, the members of the band, and privates, 
of a silver cross, with the same inscription as the above, and 
with the only difference, that the Roman cypher upon the upper 
arm of the cross is ' XXII., XVI.', X., (No. 5) according to the 
respective classes. 

The ribbon of the first class is blue (like that of the officers) ; 
that of the second class the same, but with a gold yellow 
stripe (No. 6) ; and that of the third class also the same, 
but with two stripes (No. 7). The cross is worn, if military, 
on the left breast of the uniform, and if civil, at the button- 

An increase of pay is granted to sub-officers and soldiers on 
receiving the silver cross. 

4. The Waterloo Medal was founded by Duke Frederick 
on the 23rd December, 1815 (No. 3), for officers and privates 
who had taken part in that battle, or were at least in active 
service at that period. It is worn suspended by a dark blue 
watered ribbon with orange coloured borders. 


1' L \ T K 52. 

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Was founded on the 21st August, 1847, by King Oscar. 
It is the first independent Order the country ever possessed. 
The name is to commemorate the illustrious monarch who 
freed (1015) Norway from the sway of Denmark, and introduced 
Christianity into that realm. To this latter circumstance was 
owing his canonization (1033). 

The Order is designated as a reward for all classes, who 
distinguish themselves in patriotism, or in the arts and sciences. 
It consists of an octagonal golden cross, white enamelled, and 
surmounted with the royal crown. The middle of the obverse 
is encompassed by a blue and white ribbon, and contains the 
arms of Norway (a gold lion, crowned), while the reverse shows 
the motto : ' Ret og Sandhed ' (Right and truth). (Plate 53, 
No. 3). Between each of the arms of the cross is seen a 
crowned ' 0.' It is worn suspended by a red watered ribbon 
with blue and white borders, by the Knights of the Grand 
Cross, across the right shoulder; by the Commanders round 
the neck, and by the Knights at the button-hole. The Knights 
Grand Cross wear, in addition, a star (Plate 53, No. 1), and 
the Commanders another (No. 2). The cross of the military 
has, in addition, two crossed swords beneath the crown. 

The first Chapter was held on the 23rd August, 1 847, when the 
King nominated eleven Knights Grand Cross, twenty-two Com- 

166 NORWAY. 

manders, and forty-six Knights. Among the first, were the 
celebrated savans, A. Humboldt, Berzelius, and Oehlenschlager. 
It may be mentioned, that among the Commanders was the 
Bishop of Drontheim, the same who refused to anoint the Queen, 
alleging as a reason, that the fundamental law of the realm 
only speaks of the coronation of a King, but not of a Queen. 


I'!. ATE S3. 

Huriit and Blacken. London. 1S3S. 



This Order (Plate 54, Nos. 1 to 6) was founded on the 
27th November, 1838, by Duke Paul Frederick, in memory of 
his father, who, the patent says, had himself resolved upon 
the foundation of a similar Order, as reward to subjects or 
foreigners for distinguished merit in the arts and sciences, 
or in the more humble pursuits of domestic and civil life. 
The reigning Grand Duke is always Grand Master. 

The Order consists of Capitulars and Honorary Members. 
Both divisions are equal in rank, and have four classes : Knights 
Grand Cross, Great Commanders, Commanders, and Knights 
Small Cross. 

Only natives and citizens of Oldenburg can be received 
amongst the Capitulars. The Capitular of a lower class may, 
at the same time, belong to a higher class as Honorary Member. 
The Princes in direct male line from the Ducal House of Peter 
Frederick Louis are, by birth, Honorary Members of the Grand 
Cross. The heir presumptive to the Grand Duchy, bears the 
title of Grand Prior. 

Proofs of valour and distinction in military service entitle to 
the nomination into the fourth class. The division of Capitulars 
consists of: 


Two Knights Grand Cross with an 

annual pension of . . 500 gold thalers (£75). 

Two Great Commanders „ 400 „ (£60). 

Four Commanders „ 300 „ (£45). 

Eight Knights Small Cross „ 200 „ (£40). 

The number of Honorary Members in the Grand Duchy, is, 
exclusive of the Ducal Princes, limited to four Knights Grand 
Cross, four Great Commanders, eight Commanders, and 
sixteen Knights Small Cross. In time of war, the latter class 
may be augmented as regards the military. 

The insignia consist, for the first class, of a star worn on 
the left breast, and of a cross worn across the right shoulder 
towards the left hip by a dark blue watered ribbon, with a 
narrow red stripe near each border (Nos. 1 and 2). For the 
second class, of a star worn on the right breast, and of a small 
cross worn round the neck by a similar ribbon about two 
inches wide. 

For the third class, of a small cross also worn round the 
neck by a similar ribbon about one inch and a half wide. 

For the fourth class, of a small cross, worn at the button- 
hole of the left side, and suspended by a similar ribbon about 
one inch and a half wide. 

Military persons who have received the small cross in war, 
wear, in addition, upon the ribbon of the Order, a round 
cockade formed of the same ribbon. 

The Capitulars wear, besides, a particular decoration, varying 
with every class (Nos. 3 to 6). 

The Chapter is usually held on the 17th January, the birth- 
day of Duke Peter Frederick Louis. 

The middle of the star and obverse of the cross contain 
the initials of the Duke Peter Ferderick Louis. 

The inscriptions upon the four white enamelled wings of the 



Hurst and Bl.vkett, Lmnlim. 18.18. 


cross indicate the birth-day (17th January, 1755), the date of 
the accession to the throne (6th July, 1785), and of the death 
(2nd May, 1829) of that Duke, as also the day when the Order 
was founded (27th November, 1838). 

The additional special decoration of the Capitulars consists 
of a medal surrounded by an oaken wreath. It is for the first 
class, of gold, and adorned with a golden crown ; for the second 
class, of silver, with a silver crown ; for the third class, of gold, 
without a crown ; and for the fourth class, of silver, also without 
a crown. It is worn, suspended by a ribbon, round the neck. 


1. The Medal of Honour, was founded on the 30th April, 
1815, at the suggestion of Field-Marshal Bliicher, who bore 
testimony to the gallant conduct of the Oldenburg regiment 
in the war with France. The decoration was accordingly 
distributed amongst those officers and men who took part in 
any one of the battles. It consists of a medal (No. 7), and is 
worn on the left side of the breast suspended by a dark blue 
ribbon with two red stripes. 

2. The gold and silver Crosses of Honour, for twenty- 
five years faithful Military Service (No. 8). — It was founded 

on the 24th December, 1838, as a reward for long military 
service as above. The decoration consists of a cross, the obverse 
of which contains the number ' XXV.' in Roman cyphers, and 
the reverse, the initials ' P. F. L.' (Peter Frederick Louis) in 
gothic characters, and surmounted by a crown. It is worn on 
the left breast, suspended by a red ribbon with narrow blue 

For officers, the cross is of gold, and for sub-officers and pri- 


vates of silver. Non-combatants in the army, such as military 
surgeons, mechanics, secretaries, and other officials, may claim 
the decoration, if present, at least, in one campaign. Lieutenants 
receive with the decoration a monthly addition to their pay of 
10 gulden (£1), and sub-officers and those under, an increase 
amounting to the half of their pay. 

The day of distribution of the decoration, is the 24th 
December of each year. 



This Order was founded by Pope Gregory XVI., on the 
1st September, 1831, as a reward for zeal and devotion 
displayed in the cause of the Roman Catholic religion, and 
Apostolic authority, in an age of religious opposition and 

In 1834, the original statutes were in some parts modified, 
the classes were reduced from four to three, and their respective 
numbers, as regards Roman subjects, limited to thirty, seventy, 
and three hundred. 

The badge consists of an octagonal golden cross, chased 
and enamelled red. The blue middle contains on the obverse 
the effigy of Saint Gregory, and on the reverse the words : 
' Pro Deo et Principe ' (For God and the Chief), both accom- 
panied by the legend: ' S. Gregorius Magnus' (Plate 55, 
Tab. I. No. 2). It is worn suspended by a red ribbon with 
yellow borders by the Knights of the Grand Cross, across the 
right shoulder towards the left hip, together with the star 
(No. 1), on the left breast ; by the Commanders round the 
neck, without the star ; and by the Knights in a smaller 
form at the button-hole. For civil service, the Cross is 
appended to a green enamelled olive branch (No. 2), and 
for military service, it is adorned with golden trophies (No. 3), 
and sometimes, by special favour, with brilliants. There is 
no particular costume in connection with the Order. 



As this is, properly speaking, a Portuguese Order, its history 
will be detailed among the Orders of Portugal, and we shall, 
therefore, confine our remarks here to a few principal par- 

Pope Clement V., it is well known, abolished, in 1312, the 
Order of the Templars. The measure was then objected to 
by King Dionysius of Portugal, who allowed the Order to 
exist in his dominions, with all its rights, privileges and 
possessions. It naturally led to misunderstandings between 
the two courts, until Pope XXII. (successor of Clement), com- 
promised the matter by consenting, in 1319, to the existence 
of the Order in Portugal under a new name : ' The Knights 
of Christ,' but reserved to himself, and his successors, the right 
of creating a similar Order also in the Papal States, of which 
right his successors avail themselves to this day, by conferring 
this Order, as a distinction of merit on both native and 
foreign Catholics. 

The Roman Order of Christ has only one class. 

The decoration consists of a red enamelled gold cross, 
with another white cross in the middle, surmounted by a 
crown. (Tab. I. No. 5). To this cross is appended, above the 
crown, when for military merit, some golden trophies (No. 6). 
It is worn round the neck by a red ribbon, accompanied by the 
star (No. 4) upon the breast. The Cross in the middle of the 
star is adorned with precious stones or pearls. Formerly, the 
Order was worn suspended by a gold chain. The candidates 
of the Roman Order are not obliged, like those of the Por- 
tuguese, to prove their noble descent ; nor is there any particular 
costume for the Roman Order. 

PAPA I. STATES. Tahiti I. 

plate r>:'i. 

JlursL ami Blackelt, London. ISjB. 



This Order of the Golden Militia, but better known as the 
Order of the Golden Spurs, claims prior antiquity to all other 
knightly Orders. The presumption that it was founded by 
Constantine, and confirmed by Pope Sylvester, at whose hands 
the Emperor even received the insignia, rests upon the testimony 
of several not unimportant writers, though it seems more 
probable, as some other authors affirm, that its origin falls in 
the reign of Paul III. or his successor, Pius IV. (in 1559). 
Its existence previous to the reign of Paul III. is, at all events, 
not historically evidenced. 

The Knights, who formerly bore in the patent the title of 
'Lateran Court Palatines,' possessed, at one time, numerous 
rights and privileges, and had even precedence in rank to the 
Maltese and Teutonic Knights, and the Order therefore com- 
manded then a very high position in public opinion. 

In process of time, however, the various alterations effected 
in the statutes, added to the lavish distribution of the Order, 
greatly detracted from its value and respect, while the words 
in the nomination patent : " That the new Knights were to 
partake of all the advantages and privileges peculiar to the 
Order," became an empty form. The Order was confined 
to no rank or station, and was usually conferred by the Popes, 
on the anniversaries of their accession, during their procession 
from the Vatican to the Lateran, on their pages and other 
attendants of their household. 

The right of nomination was even vested on certain prelates 
and Cardinals, while the Ducal house Sforza-Besarini professed 
to be in possession of a power granted by Pope Paul III. 


(1539), (which the succeeding Popes seemed to have confirmed) 
to invest with the Order any one whom they should deem 
worthy of it. 

That, under such circumstances, the Order gradually became 
depreciated in public esteem may easily be imagined from the 
vast extent to which the distribution was carried ; and no 
wonder that it fell so low, that no one coveted its pos- 
session, until Pope Gregory XVI. again succeeded in im- 
parting to it a dignified character, by the new regulations he 
made in 1840 respecting its distribution. 

He decreed that henceforth the Order should be granted, 
as a public acknowledgment, only to those who had really 
distinguished themselves, either in their zeal for the Catholic 
religion and the Holy Chair, or in civil virtues, or in the arts 
and sciences. He, moreover, divided the Order into two 
classes : Commanders and Knights. He retained the form 
of the insignia as prescribed by Pope Benedict XIV., and the only 
innovation he introduced consisted in the Cross : he ordered 
that in the round blue and white enamelled middle of its 
obverse, the effigy of Sylvester was to be exhibited, while the 
reverse should show the words : ' Gregorius XVI. restituit ' 
(Restored by Gregory XVI). The Order is now worn sus- 
pended by a black ribbon with white stripes by the Com- 
manders round the neck, and by the Knights upon the left 
breast. (Tab. III. No. 12). 

The number of the first class he fixed at one hundred and 
fifty ; and of the second class at three hundred (both, exclusive 
of foreigners). Every nomination that does not emanate direct 
from the Pope is considered null and void, 

The costume of the Order consists of a red military coat, 
white breeches, sword and spurs. 

l'A PA L STATICS. Tabic II. 

i' l \ i i. :'•<■» 

Hurst and BluL'kett, London. ISoS. 

I' \ I' \ I. ST \ IKS. Tnhlr III 

P LATE 57. 

Ilursl and Blai'kcll, London. 18'JS. 



1. The Military Medal of Merit was founded by Pope 
Gregory XVI. in 1832, of gold for subaltern officers, and of 
silver for sub-officers. The front shows the effigy of the Pope, 
and the reverse, the inscription ' Bene Merenti.' It is appended 
to a tiara and keys, and suspended by a white and yellow ribbon. 
(Tab. III. No. 16). It is sometimes encompassed by a green 
enamelled laurel wreath. (Tab. III. No. 15). 

2. A somewhat large medal, founded by Pope Pius VII., 
and each time adorned with the effigy of the reigning Pope. 
It is rather profusely distributed in bronze amongst the soldiers, 
and in silver amongst the officers. (Tab. III. No. 13). 

3. The same Pope founded also another medal (Tab. II. No. 
11) in 1816, for the troops who had distinguished themselves 
in the Crusade against the robbers of the State. It is of gilt 
silver, white enamelled, and with the inscription ' Latronibus 
Fugatis Securitas Restituta' (Safety restored by the expulsion of 
robbers). It was also distributed in bronze amongst the sub- 
officers and soldiers for lesser distinction and merit. 

4. The Decoration of Honour ' Ordine del Moreto' presented 
each time to the President of the Academy of St. Luke, who 
may wear it even after his retirement. (Tab. III. No. 14). 


Was founded on the 17th June, 1847. It is divided into 
two classes, hereditary and personal nobility. 

The decoration is an hexagonal blue star. The white 
enamelled obverse contains in the middle, in golden characters, 


' Pius IX./ while in the circle round it are the words : ' Virtuti 
et Merito.' The reverse shows the inscription ' Anno 
MDCCCXLVIL' (Tab. IV. No. 18). 

The Knights of the second class wear the Order upon the 
right side of the breast, suspended by a dark blue ribbon with 
red borders, while the Knights of the first class who for- 
merly carried it by a ribbon round the neck, and, by special 
permission, accompanied by a star (No. 17) upon the left 
breast; are now, by a Bull issued at Gaeta on the 1 7th 
June, 1849, enjoined to wear the badge across the right 
shoulder towards the left hip, suspended by a broad ribbon, 
and accompanied by the star, which may, by permission, 
also be adorned with precious stones. The costume for both 
classes, is a blue coat with red facings, and gold embroidery. 


After the fall of Napoleon, Pope Pius VII. having restored 
this Order, and the deputy Grand Master having established 
his head-quarters at Rome in 1831, a considerable portion of 
its previous possessions at Parma, Lucca, Tuscany, Piedmont, 
and in the Lombardo- Venetian kingdom, was restored to the 
Order in 1839, as we have already mentioned under the head of 
Austria ; and we will here only allude to the Bull of Pope Pius 
IX. of the 28th July, 1854, in which he in so far altered the 
statutes, by introducing a sort of noviceship in the Order for 
the space of ten years, during which time the candidate may 
alter his mind and resign the Order, which binds him to vows 
of chastity, poverty and obedience. The candidate makes, in 
the first instance, only a simple vow of poverty and obedience, 
but not of perpetual chastity, which is reserved for the solemn 
procession, after the lapse of ten years' probation. 

PAP A I. SI ATES 7'ol'lc IV. 

I' I. A 'I K r»«. 

Hurst itiid Bkckett, London. l«uS. 


This simple vow is as follows: "1 N. N. vow to God 
" Almighty, to his immaculate mother, and to John the 
" Baptist, poverty, mercy, and obedience, towards all superiors 
" of the Order, in the sense as given by his Holiness 
*' Pope Pius IX., in his Bull beginning ' Militarem Ordinem 
" equitum.' " 


During his residence at Gaeta, Pius IX. founded two medals, 
one for the foreign military who had given assistance to his 
government, and another with the inscription ' Alia Fedelta,' for 
papal subjects of all classes, as an acknowledgment of 
their devotion in the cause. Both are worn suspended by 
a ribbon of the papal colours, but no privileges are attached 
to them. 

The following is a list of the Orders which were founded by 
those Popes who have sanctioned and confirmed the ancient 
secular Orders, as established by Christian Princes. 

1. The Order of St. Peter, founded by Pope Leo X. for the 
victorious campaign against the Turks. 

2. The Order of St. Paul, by Pope Paul III. 

3. The Order of the Knights of St. George, by Pope 
Alexander IV. 

4. The Order of the Knights of St. John of the Lateran, by 
Pope Pius IV. in 1560. 

All these Orders, even the last, may now be considered as 
extinct or dormant, since no nomination has taken place in 
them during the present century, though some of the Knights 



who wore the Cross as given Tab. II. No. 10, are still alive, 
and the abolition has, moreover, never been publicly or 
officially announced. 

There still exists at Rome a knighthood, the members of 
which generally pass by the name, ' Merciful Brethren of the 
Holy Ghost.' Both priests and laymen belonging to it, make 
vows of chastity, poverty, and obedience, and engage them- 
selves, besides, to nurse and assist the sick, even in times 
of pestilence. Since the Pontificate of Innocent III., under 
whose reign the Knights of the Order came over to Rome 
from France, they have had the sole management of the 
hospital of Santo Spirito, at Sassia, near the Vatican. 

The badge is a white Cross, embroidered upon the coat, or 
suspended round the neck. 




This Order lays claim to the earliest antiquity. Tradition 
asserts that it was instituted under Constantine the Great, 
while sober history curtails 800 years from its pretended age, 
and assigns its origin to the year 1190, giving, as its 
founder, the Eastern Emperor, Isaac Angelas Comnenas, 
who lent to it the name of Constantine, (the Comnenas race 
professed to derive their descent from him), and also that of 
St. George, it's Patron Saint. 

The rules were formed after those of St. Basilius, and 
the Order rapidly acquired so many members, that it was 
found necessary to establish in all parts of Christendom 
Vicar-Generals to manage its concerns and possessions 
which increased from day to day, by the legacies of 100 
crowns, which every Knight was bound to bequeath 
to it. 

The members were divided into secular and spiritual, 
and these again into officials and dignitaries (Grand Priors, 
Priors, &c.) and into Knights. The candidates were originally 
bound to prove their noble descent through four generations ; 
but after the repulse of the Comneni by the Turks, they 

n 2 


began to traffic with the Order for pecuniary purposes, 
granting it to any one who was able to pay for it without 
regard to birth, rank, or station, until 1699, when the last 
scion of the race, who lived at Parma, and was childless, 
sold the dignity of Grand Master to Duke Francis I. of 
Parma, of the house of Farnese. 

The purchased title was confirmed by Popes Innocent XV. and 
Clement XL, and the new Grand Master again brought 
the Order into respect by the scruples he observed in its 
distribution, as also by the large domains he conferred 
on it, among others, the richly endowed church of the 
Madonna della Steccata, at Parma. 

After the extinction of the Farnese family, in 1731, the 
Infante Don Carlos, heir of the Duchy of Parma, declared 
himself Grand Master of the Constantine Order, and trans- 
ferred, three years afterwards, its seat to his new residence, 
at Naples which he obtained by force of arms. Having 
taken with him the Archives, he introduced, renewed and 
established the Order in his new kingdom, despite the 
declamations of the Infante Don Philip, who had succeeded 
his brother upon the throne of Parma. The Order thus 
remained in full force until ] 806, when Joseph Bonaparte 
abolished it, together with all the Orders of the king- 

The Order then followed the expelled King to Sicily, where 
it remained until after the Peace of Paris in 1814, when the 
Empress Marie Louise became heiress to the dominions of the 
Farnese. On the 13th February, 1816, she declared herself, 
solemnly and formally, its Grand Mistress, resting her claim 
on the circumstance, that her mother, Maria Theresa of 
Sicily, had descended from the Farnese family, in whose 
possession the Order had existed for upwards of one hundred 

1' \ K M A. 

PLATE 5!t. 

llurst and Blai-kctt, London. 18.'!8. 


As no compromise or negotiations had taken place on 
the subject, both sovereigns, the Bourbon King of Naples, 
and the Archduchess of Parma, considered themselves its 
legitimate heads. In the article ' Sicily,' the reader will 
find the regulations now existing at Naples with regard to it. 
As for Parma, the Order has been divided into : Senators 
of the Grand Cross, Commanders, Knights, Serving Brothers, 
and Squires or Shield-bearers. 

The Costume of the first three classes consists : of a sky 
blue coat after the French fashion, with white collar, and gold 
embroidery upon the breast and the edges, which have the double 
width in that of the first class. The members of the latter 
class wear, besides, gold epaulettes with large tassels, the Com- 
manders, the same with smaller tassels, and the Knights with 
pearls. The hat is worn after the French fashion, cocked, and 
with golden cords : it is, moreover, adorned with white feathers 
for the first class, and with black feathers for the second and 
third classes. The boots, gold spurs, and weapons are the 
same for the three classes. The Serving; Brothers wear the 
sky blue uniform without epaulettes, and with simple embroidery 
on the collar, and the hat adorned with black feathers. 

The insignia consist of a cross (No. 4), beneath which is 
appended, for the Grand Master and the first class, the figure 
of St. George (No. 3). In this form the Grand Master wears 
it on a collar (necklace) of fifteen links (No. 5), and the Grand 
Cross Senators, across the right shoulder towards the left 
hip, suspended by a ribbon. Both are accompanied by a star 
(No. 1) upon the left side of the coat, where also the Com- 
manders wear the crosses (Nos. 2 and 4) suspended by a sky 
blue ribbon. The Knights wear the cross (No. 4) in a 
diminished form at the button-hole, and that (No. 2), also in 
a smaller size on the left side of the coat. 

The Serving Brothers wear the badge in the same manner 


as do the Knights, except that the cross, which is worn by them 
as a star, has no upper point, nor does it contain, as in that of 
the other classes, the initials : ' I. H. S. V.' These letters signify : 
' In hoc signo vinces ' (In this sign thou shalt conquer), 
while two Greek letters A (Alpha, the first), and Q, (Omega, 
the last of the Greek alphabet) in the centre, together with a 
cross, resting upon the letter ' P/ are to represent : ' God and 
Jesus Christ' (Father and son), the beginning and end of all 

The Grand Prior, chief of the spiritual part of the Order, 
wears the costume of a bishop : a long blue mantle with red 
lining, and a blue and red coat. He officiates in the church 
of the Order, Santa Maria della Steccata, and possesses nu- 
merous privileges granted to him by the Popes, among others 
the right to issue dimissory letters to fourteen persons. 

The Chapter is usually held on the 11th December. 


Was revised on the 11th August, 1849, by Duke Charles III., 
as an Order of Merit, both civil and military. It had been 
founded by his father, Duke Charles II., in the year when he 
abdicated the throne. 

The Dukes of Parma are always Grand Masters. 

The Order is divided into Grand Cross Knights, Commanders, 
Knights, first and second classes, and Members decorated with 
the fifth class cross. 

The number of the Knights Grand Cross is fixed at twenty, 
of the Commanders at thirty, of the first class Knights at sixty, 
of the second class Knights at eighty, and of the fifth class 
members at one hundred ; exclusive of reigning princes, and 
distinguished foreigners. 


The Order is limited to Roman Catholics, though ex- 
ceptions may be made in favour of Protestants if they possess 
the other qualifications which entitle them to the honour. 

When the Grand or Commander Cross is conferred on a 
citizen or civilian, he receives with it a free patent of hereditary 
nobility of the State. The degree of first and second class 
Knights confers personal nobility, or nobility only for life. 

The claim to the Order is Merit generally, whether in civil 
or military spheres of life. 

The badge consists of a Greek cross, composed of four lilies, 
joined together by their leaves, the middle of the obverse con- 
taining upon a sky blue ground, three golden lilies, and the reverse, 
the motto as legend, ' Deus et Dies/ The figure of St. Louis 
of the Grand Cross, Commanders, and first class Knights, 
is of gold and enamel, surmounted by a golden crown ; 
of the second class Knights, of enamelled silver and with a 
silver crown ; and of the fifth class members, of enamelled 
silver without a crown. The first two classes wear besides 
a gold enamelled star. The ribbon is blue and yellow. The 
secular Knights of the Grand Cross wear the cross across 
the right shoulder, and the star on the left breast, while ' the 
Spiritual wear it round the neck, and the star on the left 
side of the mantle. The Commanders wear the cross round 
the neck, and the star on the left side, while all the other 
classes wear the decoration on the left breast. The Grand 
Master, alone, has the right to adorn his Order, without special 
permission, with precious stones. 



But little or nothing is known of this Order, and we must, 
therefore, content ourselves with an extract from F. von 
Hammer's work : ' Fundgruben des Orientes ' (Mines of the 
East). He says : 

" The Sultan Sclim III., among other innovations, created 
" towards, the end of the past century, the ' Order of the 
" Crescent/ which he divided into two classes. The great 
" one, which is worn as a star, represents the Crescent and 
" the Tuyra (Initials) of the Sultan in brilliants ; the smaller 
" one is a mere medal with the above sketches, and is worn 
" suspended by a fire-coloured ribbon. An imitation of that Order 
" — the Turkish Order of the Crescent, presented exclusively to 
" Europeans — was that of the Order of the Sun, founded by Feth 
" Ali Shah, (in 1808), and which was equally divided into two 
" classes ; a star and a medal, which Gardane, and other members 
" of the French Legation, received in Persia, and which was sub- 
" sequently transformed into ' The Order of the Lion and the Sun.' 
" The badge represents the Sun rising upon the back of the Lion 
" or the Sun in Leo, i. <?., the Sun in its fullest power in the zodiac." 

The form of the curious Eastern diploma is as follows : 

"The Emperor by the spirit of enterprise and high merciful 
" look, which always sees the truth by the solar life of his mind, 

P E I! S I A . 

I' I. \ I E (ill 

Hursl and Blai'kett, l.ouJun. 1858. 

PERSIA. 185 

" has resolved to distinguish the servants of his ever-happy 
" empire, and the confidants of his eternal excellence, with the 
" head ornament of glory, and the girdle of service, as also to 
"raise, and specially to favour with a gracious look, those 
" among their equals, who walk the straight path of the senti- 
" ments without a head of their own. In conformity with 
" these principles, the highly esteemed and loyal N. N., who 
" bears as an amulet upon the neck of the soul and spirit, the 
" cross of true sentiments, and good-will of the eternal court, 
" and has shewn himself by long honesty, worthy of the mild 
" sunny look of imperial favour, has been covered with the impe- 
" rial decoration of honour of the Sun and Lion, and distin- 
" guished and glorified amongst his equals, by the super- 
" abundant grace of the Emperor. 

" We therefore command, that the same should in perfect 
" good hope, give every day additional proofs of his good 
" sentiments, and will in the service of our glorious court, and 
" thus show himself worthy of the imperial favour and grace, 
" which may be showered upon him. We have resolved, 
" that the inhabitants of the empire, and of our imperial well- 
" preserved dominions, the inhabitants of the Islam town, 
" Teheran, and other towns of the empire, shall acknowledge the 
" above-named N. N., as possessor of the decoration of the 
" Sun and Lion, and make it their duty, continually to honour 
" and respect him. The high functionaries and dignitaries of the 
" Court, the experienced counsellors and confidants of the 
" Chakeva ; the chamber Presidents of the Sublime Divan, the 
" well-meaning Secretaries of the Exchequer, should register this 
" diploma in their books and act accordingly. 

"Given in the year 1823 (1811)." 


The three first orders of Portugal, those of Christ, St. 
James, and of Aviz, were originally spiritual Orders, but were 
secularized in 1789. Though the Kings of Portugal were 
Grand Masters of all the three, they used, nevertheless, to wear 
only the insignia of the Order of Christ. At present the usage is 
different, and that there may be no show of preference, the 
three decorations are now united into one medal, and divided 
into three equal spaces (Plate 61, Tab. I. No. 1). The medal is 
worn suspended by a three coloured ribbon, green, red and violet. 

On solemn occasions, the Knights of all the three Orders 
wear a white mantle, kept together at the breast by a long 
cord in the form of a rosette. On the left side of the mantle 
is embroidered the star. (Tab. I. No. 2). A red cap, sword, 
morocco boots, and golden spurs, complete the costume ; and 
in this costume the Knights are also buried. 

The red enamelled heart which is appended above the deco- 
rations of the two first classes, was instituted by Queen Maria in 
token of reverence of the Holy Heart of Christ under whose pro- 
tection she placed the Orders of the kingdom. 

The management and superintendence of the Orders are 
entrusted to the care of a particular court, called the ' Tribunal 
of Conscience and Orders.' 

POUT I G \ I. Table I. 

I'l. \T i: CI 

Hursl and Ularkell, London. 1S.".8 




(formerly called 'order of evora.') 

In the reign of the first King of Portugal, Alphonso I. 
in the year 1143 or 1147, several noble Portuguese formed 
themselves into a military fraternity, which they named the 
'New Knighthood,' having for its object the subjection of 
the Moors. Sanctioned by the King, and presented with the 
Castle Mafra, which they had conquered, the knighthood existed 
for a long time without solemn vows, and almost without any 
statutes, until 1162, when it was converted into a spiritual 
Order, and received from John of Cirita, the Papal Legate, 
a series ^of statutes, which bound the Knights to solemn 
vows of chastity and mercy, to the defence of the Catholic 
religion, to the observance of the rules of the Benedictine 
and Cistercian monks, and to the wearing of a costume 
consisting of a white military coat, with a black hood above it, 
to which was fastened a narrow black scapulary reaching below 
the sword belt, but without mountings of precious stones or 
gold on either weapon, spurs or apparel. 

In 1188, when Sancho I., son of Alphonso I., had availed 
himself of the presence of James of Avesnes, who, with an army 
of Crusaders, had been thrown by a gale upon the Portuguese 
coast, to reconquer a few provinces of his kingdom, he transferred 
to the new order of knighthood the reconquered town of Evora, 
and, by the name of Knights of Evora, they were subsequently 
known, until the reign of Alphonso II., the successor of Sancho I., 
(1211 — 1223), who put them into possession of the frontier for- 
tress, Aviz, in Alemtejo, a designation they thenceforth adopted. 

In 1213, Rodrigo Garcia de Aca, seventh Grand Master 
of the Order of Calatrava, ceded several important places and 


domains which his Order possessed in Portugal to the Knights 
of Aviz, who, in return, adopted the rules, statutes, and 
authority of Calatrava ; the union was, however, broken off in 
1385, and as neither the efforts of the Kings, nor even the 
decision of the Council of Basle were able to prevent the 
complete solution of the union, the Order stood, since 1550, 
with a few interruptions during the reign of Philip II,, under an 
Administrator, and the independent authority of the Kings of 
Portugal, who are Grand Masters of the same. 

In 1789, Queen Mary converted it into an Order of Merit, 
and divided it into three classes : six Knights of the Grand 
Cross, (who wear the decoration (Tab. I. No. 4) across the 
right shoulder towards the left hip by a broad green ribbon) ; 
forty-nine Commanders (who wear the same decoration round 
the neck) and an unfixed number of Knights (who wear the 
decoration (No. 5) fastened at the button-hole.) The first 
two classes wear, besides, on the left side of the breast the 
star (No. 3). 

At that period, the Order was in possession of eighteen 
villages, and forty-nine prebends, or benefices, while its annual 
revenue exceeded 80,000 ducats. 


This Order originated in Spain. After Henry of Burgundy 
had captured the province of Portugal from the infidels, and made 
it an independent state, his son, Alphonso Henriquez, who 
completed the conquests of his father, thought it advisable to 
withdraw the Portuguese Knights of the Order from the 
authority of the Spanish Grand Masters. The separation from 
Spain was confirmed by Popes Nicolaus VI. and John XXII. 

POllTUGA L. Table II 

r i. \ r i: iv>. 

Hursl .mil Blacken. Uimliin. 18">8. 


under the reign of King Dionysius, but the statutes remained 
the same in both countries. Afterwards, the Order shared the 
fate of those of Christ and Aviz, it came under the adminis- 
tration of James II., and finally under the perpetual Grand 
Mastership of the Crown. In 1789, it was secularized by 
Queen Mary, who divided it into three classes : six Knights 
Grand Cross, one hundred and fifty Commanders, and an 
unlimited number of Knights. 

The Order had its head-quarters at Palmella, and possessed 
forty-seven villages and boroughs, one hundred and fifty 
prebends, and four cloisters and convents in Santos, which 
enjoyed the same rights as did the cloister of Barcelona. 

The decoration (Plate 62, Tab. II. No. 7) is worn by the 
Knights Grand Cross across the right shoulder towards the left 
hip, by the Commanders round the neck, and by the Knights 
at the button-hole. 

The first two classes wear, besides, the star (No. 6) on the 
left breast. 


The Order of the Templars having been abolished in France 
by Philip le Bel, its property confiscated, and the members perse- 
cuted and expelled with the sanction and authority of Pope 
Clemens V ; it was revived in Portugal, where it flourished under 
the name of the ' Knighthood of Our Lord Jesus Christ.' The 
extreme persecutions which the Templars were subjected to in 
France, apparently for the mere sake of seizing hold of their 
property, under the pretext of their conspiring against the state, 
roused universal sympathy with the sufferers, while the Por- 
tuguese government needing, in addition, their support and 
valour, as a bulwark against the Spanish Moors at Algravia, King 


Dionysius devised a means of giving an asylum to the Knights 
and their Order in Portugal, without openly violating the decision 
of the Pope. He transferred (131 7), the castles and vassals, as also 
the statutes of the Order of the Templars, to a new Order which 
he founded under a different name, and for which he received, 
after two years' negotiations, the sanction of Pope John XXII. 

Nor was Dionysius deceived in his expectations. With 
grateful feelings, the Knights of the Order of Christ joined the 
Portuguese Kings in their crusades against the infidels, and 
accompanied them in their adventurous campaigns to Africa and 
India, while the Kings, on their part, acknowledged the im- 
portant services of the Knights, by increasing their possessions 
with the increase of their own conquests, and procured for the 
Grand Prior of the Order, from Pope Calextus III., an invest- 
ment of power, equal to that of a Bishop. As an encourage- 
ment to further conquests and discoveries, they were finally 
promised, also, the independent possession (under, however, 
Portuguese protection), of all the countries which they might 
happen to discover. 

Under such favourable circumstances, the new Order grew in 
power and wealth to such an extent, as to raise the fears of the 
subsequent Kings of Portugal, who began to endeavour to limit 
and curtail the concessions made by their predecessor, especially as 
regarded the eventual discoveries made by the Order, which 
instead of, as originally stipulated, being its own independent 
property, were now to be marked Crown domains ; leaving to the 
Knights only, the civil jurisdiction, and a certain military pre- 
ponderance in them. Nor was the limitation confined to the 
future conquests of the Order alone ; even the territories which 
were already in their possession, the Pope thought fit to include 
in the new contract, when laid before him for sanction. Sub- 
sequently, King John IIJ. even procured from Pope Adrian 
VI. (1522), an edict by which the functions of Administrator 


and Grand-Master of the Order were exclusively transferred to 
the Portuguese Crown. 

The principal seat of the Order was originally Castro- 
Marino, in the Diocese of Faro, but in 1366, it was transferred 
to Tomer (seven leagues from Santarem), where a fine cloister 
is still to be seen. 

No one could present himself as candidate who was not 
able to prove his noble descent, and a three years' military 
noviceship in the wars against the infidels. The members 
were originally bound to make the three vows of chastity, 
poverty, and obedience ; but Pope Alexander VI. released them 
from the two first, on condition that they should apply 
the third part of their revenues to the building and support of 
the To mar Cloister, the priests of which he bound to the whole 
of the three vows. It serves now, together with the Seminary 
at Coimbra, as a theological institution for the priests of the 
Order, as an immediate fief of the Crown. 

The Order possesses twenty-six villages and farms, and four 
hundred and thirty-four prebends. 

Since 1789, the members consist (besides the Grand Master 
and Great Commander) of six Knights of the Grand Cross, 
four hundred and fifty Commanders, and an unlimited number 
of Knights. 

Foreigners are exempt from the rules, but, at the same time, 
are excluded from the participation in the revenues of the 

Catholics, only, of noble descent can be admitted to the 

The Knights Grand Cross wear the decoration (Tab. II. 
No. 9) across the right shoulder towards the left side, by a 
broad red ribbon, while the left side of the breast is adorned 
with the star (No. 8). 

The Commanders wear the same cross and star round the 


neck, and the Knights have the cross (Tab. III. No. 12) 
suspended at the button-hole, though when in uniform they 
wear it now also round the neck. 

Members are allowed to adorn the badge with precious 



To solemnize his arrival at Brazil, the Prince Regent renewed, 
on the 3rd May, 1808, the Order of the Sword, which had 
been founded in 1459, by Alphonso V. 

The same Order was thoroughly renovated and reformed 
on the 28th July, 1832, by the Duke of Braganza, who gave 
it the name of ' the Tower and Sword/ and thus classified it : 
the Grand Master into Grand Officers, Knights Grand Cross, 
Commanders, Officers and Knights. The number of the last 
four classes is unlimited. 

The Sovereign or Regent is always Grand Master of the 
Order. The Grand Officers consist of the Great Commanders, 
Claveyro (treasurer), Great Ensign, and Great Chancellor. 

There are, besides, seven other Officers, viz., a King of Arms, 
(called Tower and Sword) who is always to be a Knight of the 
Order, two Heralds and four Pursuivants. 

The claim to the Order is Merit in the most extended 
sense of the term, distinction in military career, in civil life, or 
in literature of any description, without regard to birth, religion 
or country. 

The badge of the Order is a Medal (Tab. III. No. 11) 
containing in the blue middle of the obverse, a sword resting 
upon an oak wreath, with the legend : ' Valor, Lealdade 
c Merito' (Valour, Devotion and Merit). The reverse shows 
an open book, on one page of which are the Portuguese 

I'OKTIT. \ I.. Tablv HI 

PLATK (il. 

llursl »nd Dlwcketl. Loudon. \$'.JH. 


Arms, and on the other the words ' Carta Constitutional da 
Monarquia' (Constitutional Charter of the Monarchy), and 
the legend, ' Pelo rei e pela lei' (for the King and the Law). 
The other part of the medal consists of a pentagonal white 
enamelled cross, resting upon an oaken wreath, and of a 
Tower to which the ring of the badge is fastened. For 
the Knights, the decoration is of silver ; and for the other classes, 
of gold. The Knights of the Grand Cross, and the Commanders 
wear, besides, a star (Tab. III. No. 10) embroidered on the 
left side of the coat. 

Usually the decoration is worn suspended by a dark blue 
ribbon; but at Court and on gala days, the Knights append 
it to a silver, and the officers to a golden chain, in the form 
of a collar, while the other classes append it to a collar 
composed of swords and towers. 

The Knights enjoy the rank of Captain, the Officers that 
of Lieutenant-Colonel, the Commanders that of Colonel, the 
Knights Grand Cross that of Major General, and the Giand 
Officers that of Field Marshal. 

In the States'-budget, a sum of money is annually demanded 
for the support of the orphans and children of needy members 
of the Order, for the pensions of such members, and for 
the maintenance of an asylum for the poor invalids of 
the Order ; as also for the rent of a building where the 
archives are kept, the Chapter meets, and the festivals are 
celebrated. The festival day is the 29th April. 


This Order was founded on the 6th Feburary, 1818, by 
King John VI. and received its statutes on the 10th Sep- 
tember, 1819. 



It consists of the King as Grand Master, the Princes and 
Princesses of the royal house as Knights of the Grand Cross, 
twelve Honorary Grand Cross Knights, forty Commanders, one 
hundred Knights, and sixty Servant-Brothers, besides the Dean 
of the Royal Chapel at Villa Vicrosa, (who ranks among the 
Commanders), and the Canons, Priors, and Prebendaries of that 
Church who belong to the class of Knights. 

Only noblemen of high title are admitted to the Order. 
Its principal seats are the Chapel of the Madonna of Conception, 
at Villa Vicosa in Alemejo, and the Chapel of the royal resi- 
dence, where festivals are celebrated every year in honour 
of the Patroness of the Order; in the first, on Conception 
day; and in the other, on the succeeding day. The badge 
(Tab. IV. No. 1 5) consists of a nine-pointed white enamelled 
star surrounded by golden rays, upon which are placed nine 
little stars of white enamel. Above the star is a gold crown, 
while the middle contains, on a dull ground of gold, the 
letters in monogram ' M. A.' of polished gold, surrounded 
by a bright blue enamelled ring, with the legend : ' Padroeira 
do Reino,' (Patroness of the realm). 

This star is worn in different sizes by the various classes, 
suspended by a bright blue ribbon with two white stripes ; by 
the Knights of the Grand Cross, across the right shoulder 
towards the left hip; by the Commanders round the neck, 
and by the Knights and Servant-Brothers at the button-hole. 
The first two classes wear, besides, the star (No. 14) embroi- 
dered on the left side of the coat. 


This Order, designed for ladies only, was founded on the 4 th 
November, 1801, by the Prince Regent, who authorized, on 

I'OUTUGA I,. Tithlc IV 

PLATE i\\ 

Hurst and Blaekett. London. I80S 


the 1 7th December following, his Consort to frame the statutes, 
which were promulgated on the 25th April, 1804. 

The badge is a Gold Medal, (Tab. IV. No. 16) of which 
the obverse contains the figure of St. Isabella of Portugal 
with the subscription, ' Pauperum solatio.' (Comforter of the 
poor), and the reverse ' Real Orden do Santa Isabel/ 
(Royal Order of St. Isabella). On gala and festival days, 
the decoration is worn suspended by a broad rose coloured 
ribbon with white stripes in the form of a scarf; but on 
ordinary occasions, it is fastened at the left side by a bow 
of a similar but narrower ribbon. The Order is limited to 
twenty six ladies (besides the Princesses of the royal 
family, and of foreign reigning houses), married, or not 
younger than twenty-six years. 

On St. Isabella's day, the Grand Mistress, accompanied by 
the members, visit, after Divine Service, the Foundling Hospital, 
while the Orphan Asylum is inspected by them once every week. 

The insignia must be returned by the heirs after the decease 
of a member. 


1. Cross for the Peninsular War, was instituted by King 
John VI. on the 26th July, 1816. The war in the Peninsula 
having consisted of six campaigns, the officers who were present 
at all of them, wear on the left side of the breast a Roman 
cross of gold with six laurel branches, and the number 
six in the middle, suspended by a blue and red ribbon. 
Those who were present at only some of them, have the same 
cross of silver. The reverse contains the inscription, ' War 
of the Peninsula.' On the same day was also instituted the 

2. Commander's Cross. — It consists of as many stars as the 

o 2 


number of battles participated in by the commander of a 
regiment or battalion. The edge contains the name of the 
owner. It is worn in the same manner and by the same 
ribbon as the previous cross. 

3. Cross of Loyalty, was instituted after the Revolution of 
1823, on the 24th July. 

a. For all the officers under Count Amarant, (afterwards 
Marquis of Chaves), who first declared himself by force of 
arms against the Constitution of 1822, and in favour of 
Absolutism. The obverse contains the effigy of the King, and 
the reverse the inscription, ' Heroica fidelidade trans-mon- 
tana.' It is worn suspended by a green and white ribbon. 

b. For all who accompanied the King from the 30th May 
to the 5th June, 1823, to Villa Franca, as also for the military 
who had followed Don Miguel to Santarem. The obverse 
shows the effigy of the King, and the reverse the inscription 
'Heroica fidelidade ao rey e patria,' and is worn suspended 
by a tri-coloured ribbon, red green and white. 

4. Cross of Emigration of 1826-1828, was instituted in 
September, 1828, by the Infante Don Miguel, whose effigy 
it bears, on the obverse. The reverse shows the year of 
Emigration, and the number of battles participated in by the 
wearer, from the promulgation of Don Pedro's Constitution 
until the 7th March, 1827. It is worn by a ribbon, partly red 
and partly white. 

5. Medal of the Belgian Sharp-shooters, was instituted 
on the 24th December, 1835, by Queen Maria, for the sub- 
officers and soldiers who had greatly contributed to the Resto- 
ration of her throne. The obverse shows the effigy of the 
Queen with the legend, 'Amor et Obedientia Spes publica,' 
and the reverse, the Portuguese Arms, and the words on 
the edge, c Rainha, Patria, Liberdade.' It is worn suspended 
by a ribbon of the national colours, bright blue, and white. 


In 1810, a new system was introduced in Prussia, with 
regard to Orders and Decorations. 

They are now divided into two heads : civil and military. 
To the first belong : the Orders of the Black and Red Eagles, 
first, second, and third classes ; as also the gold and silver 
Medals of Merit, worn suspended by the ribbon of the Red 
Eagle decoration. 

The Cross of the first class of the Red Eagle is now in so far 
altered, that it has neither points nor gold mountings. 
It is white enamelled, and bears, in the round middle of 
the obverse, the Red Eagle, and of the reverse the initials : 
' F. W.' 

The second class, which has been introduced since 1810, 
has the same cross but a little smaller, and is, moreover, 
worn round the neck by a narrow ribbon of the same colour 
as that of the first class. 

The new third class suspends the same cross at the button- 
hole, but neither of the new classes are accompanied by a star 
on the breast. 

The general Medal of Merit, both the gold and silver, is 
worn at the button-hole suspended by the same ribbon as 
the former, which is white watered, with an orange stripe 
at each border. 



Each of the medals forms an exclusive category in itself, 
so that the gold naturally excludes, and renders superfluous the 
silver. To the second division belong, the old Order ' Pour le 
Merite,' and the gold and silver Medals which are worn sus- 
pended by a black ribbon with a white stripe near each border. 

The Order ' Pour le Merite ' as also the medals, are now 
strictly military decorations for merit in battle. 


The close of the seventeenth century was distinguished 
by an advance in the several ranks of the reigning houses in 
Europe. Brunswick was elevated to an Electorate, a Prince 
of Orange mounted the throne of England, the Elector of 
Saxony assumed the title of King of Poland, and the Elector 
of Brandenburg, that of King of Prussia, under the name of 
Frederick I. This last named monarch founded, on the day 
of his coronation, (17th January, 1791), the Order of the 
Black Eagle, the insignia of which are sketched (Plate 65, Tab. I. 
Nos. 1 to 3.) 

The number of the Knights, exclusive of the Princes of 
the royal family, is limited by the statutes to thirty, who 
must, at their nomination, have reached the age of, at least, 
thirty years. 

The candidates have to prove their noble descent through 
four generations by both parents. 

The Chapter is held twice a year, on the 18th January, and 
the 1 2th July. 

The insignia consist of an octagonal cross, blue enamelled, 
with the initials in monogram : ' F. R.' (Fredericus Rex), in 
the middle of the obverse, and a Black Eagle, with expanded 
wings, between each of the arms of the cross. The cross is 


I' I. ATI] (i?i. 

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worn across the left shoulder towards the right hip, by a broad 
ribbon of orange colour, accompanied by an embroidered silver 
star, fastened at the left side of the breast. The centre of the 
star represents a black flying eagle, holding in one claw a laurel 
wreath, and in the other, a thunderbolt, with the legend : 
' Suum Cuique ' (To every one his due). 

Every new member has to pay a nomination fee, fifty ducats, 
for the support of the Orphan Asylum at Konigsberg, while he 
receives, gratis, the costume and insignia of the Order. The 
costume consists of an undergarment of blue velvet, and over 
it a velvet mantle of flesh colour, lined with sky-blue watered 
silk ; the mantle has a train, long in that of the Crown Prince, 
but short in that of the other Knights, and is fastened in 
the front by long cords with tassels at the ends. Above 
is fastened round the shoulders a large chain or collar, which 
is composed alternately of the initials of the founder, and 
the Eagle with the thunderbolt in his claws, while to the 
front link of the same, is appended the real blue cross of the 
Order. On the left side of the mantle is fastened the silver 
embroidered star r and the whole costume is completed by a 
black velvet hat with a white plume. 

No member, with the exception of foreign princes, and the 
Knights of St. John, is allowed to wear any other Order at 
the side of the Black Eagle ; nor is he allowed to travel from 
home a distance of more than twenty German miles (about 
one hundred English), without due notice to the King. 

The seal of the Order bears on the obverse, the royal arms, 
surrounded by the chain of the Order, and on the reverse, 
the motto : ' Suum Cuique, ' and the legend : ' Magnum 
Sigillum Nobillissimi Ordinis Aquilke Borussicse. ' 

Time and circumstances have wrought various alterations 
in the statutes. The number of the members is no longer 
limited, nor is the costume any more in use, except at a funeral 



of one of the royal family, when the chain is allowed to be 

The Knights of the Black Eagle are, at the same time, also, 
Knights of the Red Eagle, first class, the badge of which they 
wear round the neck, suspended by a narrow ribbon. 


In 1705, George William, the hereditary Prince of Anspach 
and Baireuth, founded the ' Ordre de la Sincerite :' consisting 
of a gold cross set in diamonds, with wide edges. The 
middle contained the initials, ' C. E.' (afterwards ' G. W.') with 
a palm branch beneath a prince's coronet, while in the four cor- 
ners of the cross were seen golden rays, richly mounted with 
diamonds. The Chapel of the Order was always to belong to 
the Evangelical Church of the original Augsburg Confession. 

This Order was re-organized on the 13th July, 1734, by 
the Margrave, George Frederick Charles, under the name, 
' The Brandenburg Red Eagle. ' The number of the members 
was limited to thirty, who could show their noble descent 
through eight generations, by both parents, while the 
nomination fee was fixed at twenty ducats. In 1759, the 
same Margrave added to the Order a first class of the Grand 
Cross. In 1777, the number of the members was increased 
to fifty, and the nomination fee to 500 fl., Rhenish, while the 
candidates were, previous to their nomination, to bear the title 
of ' Excellency.' 

In 1791, Frederick William II. raised the Red Eagle to be 
the second in point of rank of the Orders of his house, and he 
changed the decoration into a golden white enamelled Maltese 
Cross, surmounted by a royal crown, with the Brandenburg Eagle 
in the corners, and the letters, ' F. W. R.' in the middle. It 


was worn across the left shoulder towards the left hip, by a 
white ribbon with two orange-coloured stripes. 

The embroidered silver star (Tab. I., No. 4), which still 
exists, contains in the centre, the Brandenburg Eagle, with 
the Hohenzollern Arms on its breast, a green garland in its 
claws, and the legend : ' Sincere et Constanter ' (Sincerely and 
with Constancy). 

All the Knights of the Black Eagle were received into this 
Order, the badge of which they wear round the neck; and 
to limit the number still more, it was latterly decreed that 
onlv those who are already decorated with the Red Easrle, 
can be received into the Black Eagle. The entrance fees 
were fixed at thirty Frederics d'or. 

The Order, as we mentioned in the Introduction, was 
re-organized in 1810, in the form as given (Tab. I., No. 6) 
while two more classes were added to it. 

The first class, it was enacted, was to continue to wear the 
badge across the left shoulder by a white ribbon with 
orange-coloured stripes. 

The Knights of the second class, who had advanced from the 
third, were to append to the ring on which the cross hangs, 
three golden oak leaves (Tab I., No. 8), while those of the 
first class, who had advanced from the two previous classes, 
were to have, also, this additional decoration appended to the 
upper part of the star (Tab. I. No. 4). 

In 1830, the second class was subdivided into two. The 
first division were allowed to wear at the side of the Order also 
a square star (Tab. I. No. 5) representing the cross of the Order 
with the middle of the star of the first class. The two divisions 
now pass by the name, second class with the star, and second 
class without it. 

By the same decree of 1830 (18th January), the insignia of 
the first class, Decoration of Merit, were made to be those of 


the first class of the Red Eagle, consisting of a silver cross 
with an eagle in relief, and worn at the button-hole suspended 
by the ribbon of the third class. 

An ordinance of the 22nd January, 1832, provides that 
the Knights raised from the fourth to the third class, shall have 
attached to the ring, a rosette or a bow (No. 7), instead of an 
oaken leaf, as is the case for the first and second classes ; the 
same decree also provides that no one is admissible to the 
latter classes with the oaken leaf, without being already in 
possession of the bow or rosette. 

(Tab. III. No. 13). 

Prince Charles Emil founded, in 1665, an 'Order de la 
Generosite,' conferring the Grand Mastership on his brother, the 
Elector Frederick III. The Order came, however, officially into 
force only in 1685. The decoration consisted of an octagonal 
cross enamelled sky blue, with small golden balls on the points, 
and with the golden letter F within the upper wing, surmounted 
by an Electorate hat, but this Frederick I. afterwards converted 
into a crown, while in the three other wings was distributed 
the word ' Generosite.' The corners of the cross were filled out 
by gold eagles with expanded wings ; the reverse was simply 
blue, and the ribbon on which the cross was suspended, was 
black and watered. 

On his accession, in 1740, Frederick II. converted the 
Order into that of ' Pour le Merite,' leaving the decoration, 
however, entirely unaltered, and allowing the possessors 
of the old cross to wear it for life. The Order consisted 
of only one class, both civil and military, until 1810, when it 
was reduced to one strictly military. It is now worn round 

V urssi V. Tahiti II 

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Hur>l and Blarkptl. London. ISS8. 

P R L SSI V Tiihte III 

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llursl and IllaekeU. London. 18."8. 


the neck, suspended by a black watered ribbon with a narrow 
silver stripe near the borders. 

In 1813, an ornament for special and distinguished merit 
was added to the decorations, in the form of three golden 
oak leaves. 

In 1819, the Order counted two thousand four hundred and 
sixty members. 

By decree of the 31st May, 1840, the Order of Merit 
was again extended to civil merit, viz. to the arts and sciences, for 
which, however, a new class was created. The number of that 
new class was limited to thirty members of German extraction. 
The decoration remained unaltered, with the exception of the 
form of the middle (Tab. II. No. 9), which contains in its round 
golden centre, the Prussian eagle, and in the ring round it 
two reversed ' F. II.' four times repeated. The motto of 
the Order in golden letters is seen in the blue enamelled 
circle which encompasses the whole, and connects the crown 
with the initials. It is worn as usual round the neck, by 
the same ribbon as the above for the military. Distinguished 
foreigners may become honorary members of the Order. 

The days fixed for nomination are the accession to the 
throne, or the birthday of the reigning monarch, or the 
anniversary of the death of Frederick II. 

The following members of European celebrity, were nominated 
at the first foundation of the new cross : 

1. Germans. 

a. Literary and scientific men ; W. Bessel, F. Bopp, L. von 
Buch, F. Diffenbach, F. Enke, F. Gauss, J. Grimm, A. von 
Humboldt, F. Jacobi, Prince Clemens Metternich Winneburg, 
E. Mitscherlich, J. Miiller, C. Bitter, F. Riickert, C. von 
Savigny, J. von Schelling, W. von Schlegel, L. Schonlein, 
L. Tieck. 

b. Artists : P. von Cornelius, F. Lessing. F. Mendelsohn 


Bartholdy, J. Meyerbeer, C. Rauch, G. Schadow, J. Schnorr, 
von Carolsfeld, M. Schwanthaler. 
2. Foreigners. 

a. Literary and Scientific men : Arago, Avellino, Berzelius, 
Count Borghese, R. Brown, Chateaubriand, Faraday, Count 
Fossombroni, Gay-Lussac, J. Herschel, W. von Jukoffsky, 
Kopitar, B. v. Krusenstern, Letronne, Melloni, T. Moore, 

b. Artists: Daguerre, Fontaine, Ingres, F. Liszt, Rossini, 
Thorwaldsen, Toschi, Horace Vernet. 


Was instituted on the 10 th March, 1813, by Frederick Wil- 
liam III. for peculiar military or civil distinction in the war then 
being carried on. The possessors of the decorations are, with the 
exception of the Knights of the Grand Cross, divided into two 
classes, though the cross is of the same form and character in both, 
being composed of cast iron with silver mounting, and bearing no 
inscription on the reverse (Tab. II. No. 11). The upper wing 
of the obverse contains the initials F. W. with a crown, while 
the middle is adorned with three oak leaves, below which is 
seen the cypher '1813.' It is worn at the button-hole, 
suspended either by a black ribbon with white borders, when 
given as a reward for military distinction, or by a white ribbon 
with black borders when presented for civil merit in that war 
of liberty. The first class wear, besides, upon the left breast 
instead of a star, a similar cross (Tab. II. No. 10). The 
decoration of the Grand Cross is double the size of the former, 
and is worn round the neck by a black ribbon with white 

The Grand Cross was presented exclusively for the gaining of 


a decisive battle, the conquest of an important position or place, 
or the brave defence of a fortress. 

By a royal order of the 5th May, 1813, the names of the 
heroes who had fallen in the war, and were consequently 
deprived of the reward of the cross, were to be inscribed on 
tables adorned with the decoration, and hung up for public 
show and honour in the chapel or church of the regiment to 

which they belonged. 

By a decree of the 3rd August, 1841, a pension for life 
was granted to a portion of the surviving owners of the Iron 
Cross, with the black ribbon, namely : 

Of the first class, to twelve seniors of the rank of officers, 
and to a similar number of the seniors of the rank of sergeants, 
and under, 150 thalers each (£22 10s.); of the second class, 
to thirty-six seniors of the rank of officers, and to a similar 
number of the rank of sergeants and under, 50 thalers each 
(£7 10s.). 


The general outlines of the history of that Order, and the 
sketches of its insignia are given under Austria, and we 
may add here its history and position as regards Germany in 


The Grand Prior of Germany, availing himself of a schism 
in the Order, in 1319, asserted the independence erf his 
sixty-seven Commanderies, and declared himself their inde- 
pendent Prince. His successors were, in 1546, nominated 
German Princes of the Empire, with seat and vote in ^ the 
Council of the Diet, and made sovereigns of their Princi- 
pality, Heitersheim, with the towns, Ginglingen, Bremgarten, 
Griesheim and Schlart, under the immediate protection of 



Austria. For the losses they had subsequently sustained on the 
left bank of the Rhine, they were amply compensated at the 
Diet of 1803. But the peace of Pressburg deprived them of 
all their possessions in favour of the German Princes, by which 
the Grand Priorate of the Order ceased to exist in Germany, 
and it was Austria alone that suffered its existence in 
Bohemia, with a few Commanderies in Austria, Moravia and 

The Grand Bailiwick or Commandry of Brandenburg had 
already, in 1319, separated from the Order, and elected a 
Grand Master of its own, but submitted, in 1382, to the 
principle of having the election of Grand Master each time 
sanctioned and confirmed by the Grand Prior of Germany. 
In this state it remained until the Reformation : that great 
movement joined by the greatest portion of the Knights of St. 
John, while the Elector of Brandenburg declared himself as 
the " Summus Patronus et Protector Ordinis." The Knights, 
however, though they had, in the peace of Westphalia, effected 
their release from the Order of Malta, by a ransom of 2,500 
gold florins, did not entirely separate from that fraternity, but 
re-united themselves, on the contrary, under their Bailiff, Prince 
Ferdinand, brother of Frederick II., once more with Malta, 
and even paid, of their own good-will, the responsions to the 
Order, without being prevented from the act by Frederick who 
had himself proposed, in 1775, a plan for an union with the 
Order of Malta, provided the latter would accept the principle of 
tolerance then adopted by all the German Knights, and con- 
tent itself with the general form of an oath which bound 
the Knights t<5 union and mutual defence. His plan was, 
however, rejected. 

The chief place of the Commander of Brandenburg was 
Sonnenburg. The Commander having sworn allegiance to the 
Elector (afterwards King), enjoyed the rank of first Prelate of 



the State, with a revenue of 40,000 thalers. The Knights 
were to be both Germans and Protestants, and count eight 
noble ancestors of both parents. 

On the 30th October, 1810, a royal edict abolished the 
Commandry of Brandenburg, and incorporated all the estates 
of the Order with the crown dominions. By way of com- 
pensation, Frederick William III. founded, on the 23rd May, 
1812, a new Order of St. John, having, in common with 
its powerful predecessor, only the name and a part of the 
insignia. This new Order now bears the name of 


The King is Sovereign Protector, and sole dispenser of 

the Order. 

Prince Ferdinand was appointed by the King, first 
Grand Master, and after him, Prince Henry (brother to 

the King). 

All the Knights belonging to the old, were invested with 
the insignia of the new Order, though new nominations 
also took place. 

The badge of the Order is a gold octagonal white 
enamelled cross, but without a crown over it. The four 
angles are filled with the Prussian Black Eagles, surmounted 
by gold crowns, and the whole is worn round the neck 
suspended by a black ribbon, and accompanied by a white 
star fastened to the left side of the coat (Tab. II. Nos. 
13 and 12). 

The costume of the Knights consists of a red coat with 
golden epaulettes, and with white collar, facings, and lining, as 
also of a white waistcoat and trousers. The collar and facings 
are trimmed with golden lace. The buttons are yellow, and 


have the cross of the Order stamped on them. The 
nomination fee was fixed at six Frederics d'or. 

On the 15th October, 1852, King Frederick William IV. 
gave it a new constitution. The Commandry of Branden- 
burg was thereby re-established, without, however, restoring 
to it the estates of which it was deprived in 1810. The 
new members have now to pay an annual contribution 
of, at least, 12 thalers, besides the entrance fee, which is 
fixed at 100 thalers. The sums, thus received, are to be 
employed for the support of the sick, and the establishment 
of an hospital of the Order, at its former castle at Sonnenburg, 
as soon as they are sufficient to cover the required outlay. 


This Order, which originally belonged to the Principalities, 
Hohenzollern, was incorporated with the Prussian Orders by a 
royal decree of the 23rd August, 1851. It is now divided 
into two sections : the Order of the Royal House of Prussia, 
and that of the princely House of Hohenzollern. The first 
was founded in commemoration of the origin and progress 
of Prussia, which now extends from the rocks of Hohenzollern 
to the Baltic, and across the rivers of the Northern Sea. 
In keeping with that political progress, is the motto of the 
Order: 'Vom Fels zum Meer' (From the rock to the sea). 
The decoration contains both the Hohenzollern Arms and 
the Prussian Eagle, while the chain is additionally adorned 
with the Burgrave Arms of Nuremberg, and the Electorate 
sceptre of an Archchamberlain of the German Empire. It is 
bestowed in the form of a cross, as a reward for military 
merit and devotion to Fatherland, and divided into three 
classes, Grand Commanders, Commanders, and Knights. 



The same Order in the form of an Eagle, and also divided 
into three classes, is conferred as a reward for civil merit, 
for distinction in the arts and sciences, in literature and more 
especially in the department of education, for which latter 
purpose certain funds are to be handed over to the Treasury 
to establish schools and seminaries, and appoint teachers in 
every province of the kingdom. 

The badge of the Order for Military distinction is a 
gold cross, with white and black enamel. The azure blue 
circle round the middle of the obverse, contains the legend : 
' Vom Fels zum Meer,' the motto of the Order, while 
in the centre is seen the royal Eagle bearing upon its 
breast the arms of Hohenzollern. The azure blue circle of 
the reverse contains: e Der 18 Januar, 1851/ the day 
of the foundation ; while in the white centre are seen the royal 
initials. The space between the arms of the cross is 
filled with a golden green enamelled wreath of partly (to the 
right side) oaken leaves, and partly (to the left side) laurel 
leaves. The cross is surmounted by the royal crown. 

This cross is worn by the Grand Commanders round th e 
neck, suspended by the silver chain of the Order, adorned 
with the arms of Hohenzollern and Nuremberg, as also 
with the electorate sceptre of an Arch-Chamberlain of the 

The Commanders wear the same cross round the neck by 
a broad white and watered ribbon, with three black stripes. 

The Knights wear it by the same ribbon in a smaller form 
and size at the button-hole, or upon the breast. 

The badge of the Order for Civil Merit consists of the 
Royal Eagle in gold, with black enamel, and the Hohenzollern 
arms upon its breast. The motto of the Order is inserted within 
a blue circle round the head of the eagle. The distinct marks 
of the three classes are the same as in the former, except that 



the Knights of this section have the Eagle in silver instead of 

An additional decoration of a medal (Plate 50, Nos. 3 
and 4) was founded for the officers, sub-officers and soldiers 
who had taken part in the engagements of 1848 and 
1849. The medal is cast of cannon metal. Its obverse 
shows the obverse of the Cross, and the reverse the inscrip- 
tion : ' Friedrich Wilhelm,' with 1848 above, and 1849 below 
it, in separate segments. The circle round the medal contains 
the legend : ' Seinen bis in den Tod getruen Kriegern,' (to 
his warriors, faithful unto death). 

The Princes of the Royal House of Prussia, or of the Hohen- 
zollern family have, by virtue of their birth, the right to wear 
the badge of the Grand Commanders' Cross. The Presidency 
in the Chapter is vested in the Crown, who may appoint as 
a deputy any of the Royal Princes. 


This Order was founded on the 3rd August, 1814, and is a 
decoration for services rendered by women in the hospitals, 
and otherwise to the wounded and sick military in the 
war of 1813 and 1814. The badge is a small gold cross 
with black enamel. The middle of both sides is enamelled 
sky blue, and contains on the obverse the letter L. with a 
wreath of stars round it, and on the reverse the cyphers : 
' 1813, and 1814.' The Order is worn upon the left breast, 
suspended by the white ribbon of the Iron cross, and fastened 
by a bow (Tab. III. No. 14). It was presented equally to 
single or married females, Prussians by birth or naturalization 
The number was limited to one hundred. The chapter 
was composed of four ladies, the Countess Arnim, the wives 


of General Buguslowsky, and of Welper (merchant) and 

finally of the widow of the Statuary Eben, under the 
presidency of the Queen. 


This is the oldest of all the Prussian Orders. It existed 
in the fifteenth century, under various names, such as : ' The 
Society of the Madonna of the Swan, ' ' The Society for 
the honour of the Holy Mother of Christ, ' ' Order of the 
Blessed Mary, ' ' Order of the wearers of the chain of St. Mary,' 
' Order of the Swan/ &c, and had its seat in the Saint 
Maria Church near Brandenburg. 

This church was, most probably, built towards the" year 
1140 by the Vandal Prince Pribislaw, and was presented 
by the Prince of the House Ascania, to the Canons of the 
Castle of Brandenburg, in 1166. Jt stood in great repute 
for sanctity, and drew for a long time a number of pilgrims 
from various quarters, enriching thereby the revenue of the 
Canons. This source of income soon, however, ceased with 
the rise of a new church in the village Nykamer, which 
by its miraculous workings eclipsed the glory of the former, 
and drew the stream of pilgrims to its own walls. 

To restore the ancient glory of the St. Maria Church, 
the Elector Frederick I. added to it, in 1435, a cloister, 
instituting therein a chapter consisting of a Dean, Prior 
and four Priests, which he richly endowed, while his suc- 
cessor Frederick II. founded, in continuation of his father's 
work, on the 29th September, 1449, a corporation, consisting 
(besides the Prince himself) of thirty noblemen and seven 
ladies, who were bound to say daily, in honour of the Blessed 
Virgin, seven Paternosters and Ave-Marias, or distribute in 

p 2 



default seven pfennige daily amongst the poor. They were, 
however, to prepare themselves by fast and prayer for the 
solemn celebration of the festival of the Virgin, and pay four 
groschen to the Canons on every quarter day, in return for 
which the latter were to read mass on the same days for the 
departed souls of the members, whose names were read 
over aloud on that occasion. 

The badge which the members were bound to wear daily 
by fine of eight pfennige for the poor, consisted of a neck 
chain of thirteen links, joined together by rings, and each of 
which represented (a martyr-instrument), two saws and a 
red heart between them, the figure of the Blessed Virgin, with the 
infant Jesus in the moon, surrounded by rays in oval form 
appended to that chain, and of a swan with expanded wings 
placed in a towel tied in the form of a bow, the two ends of 
which were adorned with small golden chains and fastened 
under the figure of the Virgin. 

The statutes explain the symbolic insignia as follows: the 
chain with the bleeding heart between, signifies contrition, true 
repentance, confession, penance, and chastisement. The towel 
is the symbol of unspotted purity and innocence; the small 
golden chains or fringes point to good works. The free 
unconquered swan, ' called Frank,' reminds us that the founders 
of the Order had, at the period, ruled as free and noble Francs ; 
while the Madonna with the Child constitute the principal 
symbols, and the moon and sun-beams are the heralds of 
their glory. 

At the death of a member, the chain was returned to 
the St. Maria Church, where a funeral procession took 

After the lapse of three years, new statutes were pub- 
lished in consequence, as it appears, of complaints made, 
by the monks about the scanty and insufficient income derived 


from the endowment and other sources. The new statutes did 
not limit the number of the members ; but required the 
proof of four generations of noble descent. At their nomination, 
the members paid to the Provost of the church, or cathedral, 
who handed them over the insignia, eleven florins, Rhenish; 
the wives of the members could also be admitted to the 
Order on the payment of one florin entrance fee, while single 
women were subject to the full amount. 

At the death of a member, all other members were bound 
to attend in person, or by proxies the funeral mass at the St. 
Maria Church, or pay in default a fine of eight ounces 
of silver to the church. 

If a member were, in his travels, attacked or taken prisoner, 
the Order was obliged to demand satisfaction of his assailants, 
or effect his release. A member falling into needy circumstances, 
was, by promise of the Elector, to be received at court, or at 
one of his castles, as an inmate for life. 

The son, or next heir of a deceased member, might claim 
the right of taking his place in the Order on payment of 
eight ounces of silver and one florin. 

The Canons were bound to attend, daily, divine service, and 
pray for the welfare of the members, while the officiating 
priest prayed for the union of Christendom, for the Elector, 
for the living and dead members of the Order and their 
families. Upon the members was, on the other hand/ the 
duty imposed to protect the rights, liberties, revenues and 
reputation of the Canons. 

A tribunal of arbitration was also instituted by way of elec- 
tion, for the maintenance of the statutes and the settlement of 
disputes among the members. The Elector had the casting 
vote in the decisions. 

Pope Nicolaus V. confirmed these statutes. The Order 
counted, at that period, forty-nine members in Brandenburg, 


twenty in Brunswick, Anhalt, Mecklenburg and Lusatia, and 
thirty-four in Upper Germany. The number of the unmarried 
female members was twenty-three. 

In 1450, the Knights in Franconia having represented to the 
Margrave Albert, brother of the Elector Frederick II., that the 
distance of their homes from the seat of the Order was too 
great for them to attend regularly the meetings of the society, 
it was arranged, by sanction of the Elector and of Pope Pius II., 
that the Chapel of St. George in the Cathedral of Anspach, 
should be declared a branch church, where all the Knights in 
the countries beyond the Thuringian Forest were to attend on 
festival days, though the nomination remained as before the 
privilege of the principal church. 

The Grand Master of the Teutonic Order, Albert of Bran- 
denburg, intended to introduce the Order of the Swan in the 
Baltic provinces ; he, in consequence, contrived to procure from 
Pope Leo X., the permission of using his own private chapel as 
the second branch church of the Order. Albert's conversion 
to Protestantism, however, soon put an end to the scheme, 
and, with the progress of Luther, the Order entirely dis- 
disappeared from Northern Germany, where it had existed for 
upwards of a hundred years, and its estates fell to the 

At the date of its extinction, the Order numbered 
three hundred and thirty-one members, among whom were 
twenty-four Princes, twenty-one Counts, eight Barons, nine- 
teen Knights, and two hundred and twenty-nine nobles of 
both sexes. 

The fall of the Order caused the decline of the Chapter 
in Brandenburg. In 1539, they were forbidden to supply 
the ranks by new members, and the consequence was, that, 
shortly afterwards, the only inmate of the deserted cloister, 
was the Provost of the Church, who at last died in the equally 


deserted cloister of the Franciscan monks. Though stripped of 
all its monuments, the Church of St. Mary was still in existence 
in 1722, but the adjoining cloister had long previously become 
a heap of ruins. 

The Church of St. Gumbertus, at Anspach, yet remains. 
Several of the monuments of St. George's Chapel have been 
transferred to the chancel. 

The Order of the Swan was in connection with many religious 
societies, and more especially with the Convent of the ' Madonna 
Congregation,' at Chatelleraut. As late as the beginning of the 
past century, the nuns of that community used officially to report 
to the members of the Order of St. Mary, the death of any of their 
sisterhood, for whose souls they requested mass to be said. Well 
might they have been under the impression of the continued 
existence of the Order, since it had never been formally 

In recent times, the Order was revived by the King of 
Prussia, on the 24th December, 1843, exactly four hundred 
years after it was first founded by the Elector Frederick II. 

The following is a literal translation of the decree concerning 
its revival. 

" We, Frederick William, by the Grace of God, King of 
Prussia, &c, &c, &c. 

" Of the many gratifying things produced by our time, under 
" the blessings of a long peace, may Heaven preserve it to us 
" nothing deserves greater acknowledgment and consideration, 
" than the far spread efforts of societies to alleviate, by educa- 
" tion and civilization, the physical and moral sufferings of 
" mankind. These efforts are one of the proofs which evidence 
" Christianity, not in theological controversies, or outward 
" manifestations, but in truth and in spirit, by life and by action. 
" Impressed with the conviction, that many of those respectable 


" societies can only arrive at the full and perfect extent of the 
" operations of which they are capable, by being closely united 
" round a guiding and animating central point, we have resolved 
" to revive and re-model, according to the requirements of the 
" age, the oldest Order of our House, ' The Society of the 
" Order of the Swan,' which was founded exactly four hundred 
" years back, by one of our glorious ancestors, the Arch-Cham- 
"berlain and Elector Frederick II., but was never formally 
" abrogated. Even the sense in which the statutes of the 
" Order were composed, in 1443, is no other than the 
" ' Acknowledgment of Christian truth by action.' We have 
"given orders for the construction of new statutes, and the 
" formation of a managing Board of the Order, divided into 
" various sections. Our first care to promote the practical 
" activity of the Society of the Order of the Swan, will be the 
" establishment of an evangelical head institution at Berlin, for 
" the attending on, and nursing of the sick in the large 
" hospitals. 

"We have wrought such modifications in the original 
" insignia of the Order, as we deemed more in harmony 
" with present circumstances. The members who are imme- 
" diately engaged in the labours of the Order, such as : the 
" male and female attendants on sufferers, fallen penitents, 
" punished criminals, &c, as also the spiritual members of the 
" Order, who are entrusted with the immediate conduct and 
" management of the establishments of the Society, and the 
" salvation and care of the souls of their inmates, are not to 
" wear the decoration. 

" With the exception of the golden chain, which is presented 
" as a mark of honour only to crowned heads, the insignia of the 
" Order of the Swan are not intended to be like those of other 
" Orders, an ornament of merit, a mark of distinction, but a mere 
" sign of recognition, a mark of connection with the society, the 


" entrance into and departing from which is entirely left to the 
" discretion of the members, without entailing any dishonour to 
" those who, feeling themselves incapable of performing the task 
" before them, think proper to leave the Order. The various 
" officers and ranks of the Order only point to the sphere of ope- 
" ration allotted to the individual members, and the distance of 
" their removal from the central point of activity. Individuals 
" of both sexes, and all creeds, may be received into the Order, 
" if they bind themselves to undergo the labours of the 
" Society. 

" We, ourselves, in conjunction with our Consort, Her 
" Majesty the Queen, have taken upon us, as did our ancestors, 
" the office of Grand Mastership of the Order, and therewith the 
" head management of its concerns. We thought of deeply 
" acknowledging the virtue, which at the side of valour is the 
" finest ornament of our people, by intruding our personal 
" efforts into the sanctuary of silent benevolence peculiar to the 
"glorious Order. Our only object is to produce, by united 
" powers, great results upon the productive field of humanity. 
" Everything depends on the blessing of the Almighty. We 
" beseech his help upon this our work, that the renewed society 
" of the Order may grow up and flourish for the alleviation 
" and healing of manifold sufferings, and that men and women 
" of all creeds, ranks and descent among our subjects, may show 
" by numerous associations and most noble emulation, that they 
" have at heart the words of our Lord : ' By their fruit ye shall 
" know them.' In the conviction that the object for which we 
" have restored the ' Order of the Swan ' is good, being chiefly di- 
" rected towards the removal of many defects, and the promotion 
" of salutary establishments, we commend our Institution con- 
" fidently and joyfully to the King of Kings. Under his 
" blessing, a truly noble host will gather, conceive, and on 
" the one hand energetically accomplish all that is great 


" salutary and effective in all directions of our present age, and 
" on the other, remove and remedy chivalrously all that is evil 
" and obnoxious in society, not by means of the sword and 
" combat, not by secret workings, but solely by those means 
"in which all Christian confessions might and should unite, 
" by active exercise of the will of God, in the consciousness of 
" success and divine love. 

" The motto of the Order is to be : c Gott mit uns ' (God 
with us). 

"Frederick William. 
"Berlin, Christmas Eve, 1843." 


1. Medal for 1813 and 1814. — This bronze medal was 
instituted on the 24th December, 1813, at Frankfort-on-the- 
Maine, by King Frederick William III. It was presented to 
all the military who were present at any one of the battles or 
sieges during the war in 1813 and 1814. The obverse shows 
beneath the crown the initials of the founder, with the inscrip- 
tion : ' Preussen's tapfern Kriegern' (To Prussia's brave war- 
riors), surrounded by the legend : ' Gott war mit uns, ihm sei 
die Ehre' (God was with us, to him the honour). The reverse 
exhibits a cross upon rays, and in the middle surrounded by a 
laurel wreath, are the years: ' 1813 or 1814/ or both, accord- 
ing to the share the recipient has had in either or both of those 
campaigns. On the edge is the legend : ' Aus feindlichem 
Geschiitze' (From the enemy's guns). (Tab. III. No. 18). 

2. A similar medal of iron, containing the inscription ' Fur 
Pflichttreue ' (For faithful duty), was instituted for the civil 
officers who had taken part in the above campaigns. (Tab. III. 
No. 17). 

P It V S S I A . Tuhlr I V 

I' i. \ I (• r,x 

llursl and (Marked, London. 18">S. 

PRUSSIA.. 219 

3. and 4. Distinction in Service. — On the 18th June, (the 
anniversary of the battle of Waterloo), 1825, King Frederick 
William III. founded : 

a. A golden cross for officers who had served twenty-five 
years, bearing on the obverse the crowned initials : ' F. W. 111/ 
and on the reverse the number ' XXV.' It is worn on the left 
breast suspended by a blue ribbon. (Tab. IV. No. 23). 

b. Buckles with the initials * F. W. III.' worn on the left 
breast by sub-officers and privates, suspended by a blue ribbon 
with yellow borders, for twenty-one years' service. (Tab. IV., 
No. 24), by a blue ribbon with white and blue borders for 
fifteen years' service, (Tab. IV. No. 25), and by a blue ribbon 
with black borders for nine years' service. (Tab. IV. No. 26). 
Years of war count double. 

5. Medal for Military Merit in 1793, was founded on the 
14th of June, 1793, by Frederick William II. for the military 
who had distinguished themselves in that campaign. It is of 
gold for officers, and of silver for sub-officers and privates. 
The obverse shows the initials of the King with a crown above, 
and the year '1793' below, and the reverse, the inscription 
within a laurel wreath : ' Verdienst um den Staat' (Merit of the 
State). It is worn suspended by a black ribbon. (Tab. IV. 
No. 20). 

6. The Silver Medal of Military Merit, or the Military 
Decoration, second class. — King Frederick William III. 
founded on the 30th September, 1806, a gold and silver 
medal as a military decoration of honour for the soldiers who 
might distinguish themselves by valour in the pending war. 
The first distinction was to be rewarded by the silver, and the 
second by the gold medal. By a government ordinance, however, 
of the 27th March, 1807, it was determined that he who 
should capture a General, a cannon, or a standard, should 
receive the gold Medal of Merit, with the additional 


pay, though he should not be in possession of the silver 

The obverse of the medal contains the initials : ' F. W. R. III. 
beneath a crown, and the reverse the inscription within a laurel 
wreath : c Verdienst um den Staat ' (Merit of the State). It is 
worn suspended by a black watered ribbon with white stripes. 
(Tab. IV. No. 21). 

The, gold medal has been discontinued since the 30th Sep- 
tember, 1814, and replaced by a silver cross in the form of 
the Red Eagle fourth class, under the name : 

7. Military Decoration of Honour, first class. 

8. General Decoration of Honour, first class. — By the 
same decree of 30th September, 1814, the golden medal of 
Civil Merit instituted in 1810, was substituted by a silver 
cross under the above name, and worn by the ribbon of the 
Red Eagle, while the silver medal of Civil Merit, also instituted 
in 1810, is now worn as: 

9. General Medal of Merit. (Tab. IV. No. 22). 

10. The Decoration of Merit for saving from Danger, was 
founded by Frederick William III. on the 1st February, 1833, 
as a brilliant mark of public acknowledgment. It consists of 
a silver medal, and shows on the obverse the effigy of the 
King, and on the reverse the inscription within an oaken 
wreath : 'Fur Rettung von Gefahr' (For saving from danger). 
Unlike a similar medal instituted in 1802, for a similar purpose, 
which the owner was not allowed to wear publicly, this new 
one is worn at the button-hole suspended by an orange 
coloured ribbon with two narrow white stripes. (Tab. IV. 
No. 19). 

11. Medal of Neufchatel. — This silver medal was founded 
on the 18th January, 1832, by King Frederick William III. - 
as sovereign Prince of Neufchatel and Valanmn. as a reward 
for those who had taken part in the military operations of 1831. 


The obverse shows the initials of the founder, and the inscrip- 
tion : ' Treuc gegen Pflicht und Vatcrland ' (Faithfulness to 
duty and fatherland) ; and the reverse, the arms of the princi- 
pality, Neufchatel and Valangin. It is worn at the button- 
hole, suspended by a ribbon of the Prussian and Neufchatel 


12. Decoration for dutiful service in the Landwehr.—The 

patent says : 

1. "This decoration consists of a blue hyacinth or blue- 
" bottle coloured ribbon, in which is worked with yellow silk 
" thread the initials ' F. W. IV.' It is worn upon the left 
" breast by an iron clasp. 

2. " It is the same for officers, sub-officers or privates. 

3. " The claim thereto is founded on the correct fulfilment 
" of the duties in the two arri^re-bans of the Landwehr, after 
"having accomplished the prescribed term of service in the 
" standing army. 

4. "The decoration is usually bestowed at the discharge 
" from the second arriere-ban in the autumn of every year, 
" beginning with those who were discharged in the autumn of 
" 1842. 

5. "It is required from candidate officers, that they should 
"have strictly fulfilled their duties through all the above 
"stations (§ 3), and most punctually attended the exercises 
" to which they were summoned, as also the target-shootings 
" and control-assemblies, and never been punished by a court- 
" martial, &c, &c, &c." 

Medal for Agriculture was founded in 1847, by King 
Frederick William IV., for the agriculturists who may distin- 


guish themselves in their calling by inventions, writings, or any 
other act tending to improve agriculture and husbandry. It 
consists of three degrees ; the nomination to the first is reserved 
to the King himself for the higher classes, while that to the 
two others is left to the decision of the Commission for Agri- 
culture for the lower classes. The obverse of the decoration 
contains the effigy of the King, and the reverse the name of 
the recipient, with the inscription: * Fiir Verdienst um den 
Ackerbau ' (For merit in agriculture). 



Was founded by the united Princes (Henvys) of the lines Reuss- 
Lohenstein, and Reuss-Ebersdorf, to whose memory the cyphers : 
XIII, LI, LIV, XLII upon the four arms of the cross are 
devoted. It is worn between the first and second button- 
hole on the breast, by sub-officers and civilians in a plain 
and simple way, and by officers, appended to a small bow. 
It was presented as a reward for devotion in the cause of 
German liberty, during that stormy period. The owner does 
not lose the decoration on retiring from military service, but 
forfeits it by desertion, insubordination, or degradation of 
rank, by crimes, such as theft, perjury, &c, though not with- 
out due judgment pronounced by the Military Tribunal or 
Court Martial. Civilians forfeit the decoration by betraying 
sentiments against German liberty, or agitating against the 
laws of the land, though also not without a judgment 
pronounced against them by the competent authorities. 
The Iron Cross of Henry XIII. is given Plate 94. 



The Emperor is Grand Master of all the Russian Orders, 
with the exception of that of St. Catherine, which is an Order 
for ladies. The Grand Dukes become, at their baptism, Knights 
of the Orders of St. Andrew, Alexander Newsky, the White 
Eagle, and St. Anne. The other Imperial Princes receive them 
on attaining majority. In like manner do the Grand Duchesses 
receive, at their baptism, the Order of St. Catharine, while 
the Princesses receive it only when of age. 

The administration of all the Orders belongs to a Chapter, 
consisting of a Chancellor (elected from the Knights of the 
Order of St. Andrew), a treasurer, and the Master of Ceremonies 
of the Imperial Court. Every Order has, however, a Master 
of Ceremonies, a secretary and two heralds, as also a peculiar 
costume of its own. The Chapter is in possession of funds 
to the amount of 200,000 roubles, for the education of the 
daughters of poor Knights, who are received into the educational 
Institution at St. Petersburg, established for the children of 
noble families, under the patronage of the Empress. 

The nomination to an order confers nobility upon the 
member, which becomes hereditary, if the latter is not born a 
serf. Bashkeers obtain personal nobility, with the Order, 
and Russian merchants (since 10th April, 1832), hereditary 
honorary freedom of a citizen. 

. Russia. 225 

Pensioned members is the only class, the number of which is 
limited. Every member has to pay an entrance fee at his 
nomination, according to the Order and class of his reception. 
The sums thus received pass into the Exchequer, established 
for invalid officers. Foreigners, Circassians, and all those 
who receive the decoration adorned with brilliants, are exempt 
from the tax. 

St. Michael's day (8th November), is fixed for the general 
festival of the Orders. On this day, all the Knights domiciled 
at St. Petersburg and Moscow, elect six members of every 
Order to serve in the managing committee of the charitable 
institutions existing in the two capitals. 

With the exception of active service in Siberia and Cir- 
cassia or some peculiar merit of distinction, when the term of 
service is shortend by five years, no Order is conferred on 
any one who has not been fifteen years in the army. 
Every Order confers a certain rank, and imposes certain duties 
on the member. 

The decorations are classified in degrees, so that no one can 
be favoured with a higher Order without first possessing the 
inferior ones. Deviations from this rule are, however, of 
frequent occurrence. By deeds of crime or disgrace, the 
owner forfeits the decoration. Degraded officers or suspended 
clergymen can only resume the decoration with the resumption 
of their degree or office. 

The Academy of Science at St. Petersburg is bound to 
publish every five years, a complete list of the members of all 
the Orders. 

Besides the Orders and medals, there exists in Russia a 
variety of other decorations, or badges of honour. For the last 
forty-seven years, military distinction of officers and generals 
was not unfrequently rewarded with swords mounted with gold, 
or adorned with brilliants, and bearing the usual inscription : 



' To courage,' and sometimes even a statement of the special 
service rendered. 

The ladies-in-waiting on the Empress wear her portrait set in 
diamonds, and the court ladies generally a medal with her 
initials equally adorned with diamonds, and suspended by a blue 
watered ribbon. 

By an imperial ukase of March, 1834, the pensions attached 
to the respective Orders, were divided into the following 
scales : The Knights of 

1. St. Andrew receive from . . 800 to 1000 roubles. 

2. St. Catherine first class „ 350 „ 460 „ 

3. „ second class „ 90 to 130 or 200 „ 

4. St. Alexander Newsky „ 500 to 700 

5. St. George from 150, 200, 400 or 1000 

6. St. Vladimir „ 100, 150, 300 or 600 

7. St. Ann first class from . . 200 to 350 

8. „ second „ „ 120 „ 150 „ 

9. „ third „ „ 90 „ 100 „ 

10. „ fourth „ „ 40 „ 50 „ 

11. St. Stanislaus „ 86, 115 or 143 
Foreigners not in the Russian service, receive the decorations 

without pension. The number of the pensioned Knights of 
the Vladimir Order, is fixed at sixty. The total amount of the 
pensions is 158,660 R.S. (about £26,444). 


Was founded on the 20th December, 1698, by Peter the 
Great, to initiate his own court in the refinement of the 
civilized courts of Europe, as also to encourage his nobility 
in the pending war with Turkey. The first who obtained 
the Order was the Chaneellor, Field-Marshal and Great 
Admiral Golovin, who, in his turn, performed the same 

U U S S I A . Table I . 

PI. \'l !• (>!). 

Hurst and Ulurkell. London. 18. v iS. 



ceremonies of investiture with regard to the Czar himself 
after his naval victory over the Swedes. The next who received 
it were the officers who had distinguished themselves at the siege 
of Azoff. Still later, when the Czar formed an alliance with 
King Augustus of Saxony against Charles XII., he rewarded 
with it the Generals of Augustus who had been stationed in 
Livonia and Poland. 

St. Andrew is the patron saint of the empire, who, according 
to Muscovite traditions, first preached the gospel to the 
Slavonians in Novogorod. He was, therefore, chosen as the 
patron of the Order, the highest in Russia, which is only bestowed 
by special favour of the Emperor. It is usually confined 
to members of the imperial family, foreign princes, or 
individuals who are already in possession of the other Orders. 
With the Order, the nominee receives, also, the Alexander 
Newsky, St. Ann, and St. Stanilaus decorations. 

Every Knight pays 240 silver roubles (£40) entrance fee. 
Twelve of the members (inclusive of three spiritual members) 
divide among themselves the annual pension of 6092 roubles 
(about £1000). 

The decoration has undergone manifold alterations, and con- 
sits now (Plate 69, Tab. I. No. 2) of the blue enamelled figure 
of St. Andrew on the cross, bearing on each arm the initials 
S. A. P. R. (Sanctus Andreas Protector Russiae), and resting 
upon the Eagle of the Empire with three crowns. It is worn 
across the right shoulder towards the left hip, by a sky blue 


The costume of the Knights, at festivals, consists of a long 
cloak of green velvet, lined with white taffetas, and with silver 
facings, cords and shoulder belt, of a white jacket and black 
velvet hat adorned with a red feather. The badge is 
appended to a collar (Tab. I. No. 6), the links of which 
now represent alternately the cross of the Order, (an Andrew 

q 2 


cross with red and golden flames in the angles), and 
the initials of Peter I. upon a bright blue field surrounded by 

The star (Tab. I. No. 1) which is fastened to the left side 
of the coat, shows in the golden centre the double Eagle of the 
Empire, round which a dark serpent is winding itself. This 
centre is encompassed by a bright blue ring, containing the 
legend (in Russian) ' For Faith and Loyalty.' 

The Knights present at St. Petersburg are bound by fine of 
50 roubles, to attend in costume the annual festival of the 
Order, usually held on the 30th November. 

As a mark of special favour or particular distinction, the 
decoration is presented adorned with diamonds. 


It is a well known fact, that a certain Martha Rabe, a young 
Livonian woman, after having been married to a Swedish 
dragoon, and after living subsequently as mistress alternately 
under the protection of the Generals Bauer, SheremetofT, and 
Menshikoff, inspired, at last, the Czar Peter with such intense 
affection for herself as to induce him to make her Empress 
of Russia, under the name of Catharine I. In raising her 
to the throne, the Czar declared that he owed her that 
reward, for the great services she had rendered him in various 
dangers, and more especially at the battle near the Pruth 
(1711), where his army had been reduced to twenty-two 
thousand men. He had, however, already at a much earlier 
date, shown his gratitude by the foundation of the Order 
of St. Catharine, on the 25th November, (7th December), 

Originally, men were received into the Order, though 
Catharine herself was the first who was decorated with it, and 



had, moreover, the privilege of bestowing it on any of her sex 
whom she might deem worthy of it. At a later period, 
however, the decoration was strictly confined to ladies, and the 
Empress was instituted Grand Mistress of the Order. 

It is divided into two classes. The Grand Cross (Tab. I. 
No. 4) adorned with diamonds, exhibits in the middle the 
figure of St. Catharine, and is worn across the right shoulder 
towards the left side, by a broad (formerly blue) now poppy red 
ribbon with silver stripes, and with the silver embroidered 
inscription (in Russian) ' For love and fatherland.' 

The reverse shows an airie on the top of an old tower, at 
the foot of which two eagles, with serpents in their beaks, are 
seen in the act of carrying them up as food to their young. 
Above are the words: ' Aequat munia comparis' (She is 
equal to the duties of a consort).* 

The number of the members of the Grand Cross is limited, 
besides the Princesses of the Imperial family, to twelve noble 
ladies of the highest Russian aristocracy. 

In the second class may also be received, foreigners of high 
rank, though that class consists chiefly of the Court ladies 
of the Imperial household, to the number of about ninety-four 
members. The decoration of the second class (Tab. I. No. 5) 
chiefly differs from that of the first class, by its size and 
number of diamonds, and is worn on the left breast appended 

to a bow. 

The silver octagonal star (Tab. I. No. 3) has in its red 

* The inscription is probably in allusion to the services rendered by 
the young Catharine to the much older Peter, and is composed after the 
following verse of Horace. (Ode 5, II). 

" Nondum subactaferre jugum valet 
Cervice, nondum munia comparis 

— Note by the Translator. 


middle an Imperial diadem, surrounded by the motto of the 
Order, and is equally worn on the left breast. 

The costume consists of silver stuff with gold embroidery, 
and of hat and bow of green velvet. 

The members are, by the statutes, bound to render daily 
thanks to God for the deliverance of Peter I., and pray for 
the health of the reigning Czar and his family, to say 
every Sunday three paternosters, to try to convert infidels 
to the Greek Church, to free, at their own expense, Christians 
from the hands of barbarians, and to serve in the Committee 
of Management of the St. Catharine institution, into which 
every member of the Grand Cross is free to place one pupil. 

The annual festival of the Order is celebrated on the 25th 


Novogorod was once under the rule of Alexander, son of 
Yaroslaw, one of the numerous Princes of Russia. 

The town was then (1240) at war with the Tshudi, the 
Finns, the Swedes, and the Livonian and German Knights. 
The Swedes, who had forced their way as far as the Neva, 
were beaten by Alexander, whence he received the surname 
Newsky. Peter I., after having established his new capital on 
the Neva, resolved to found an Order in commemoration and 
under the patronage of that great warrior and national saint. 
He died, however, before he had carried out his inten- 
tion. It was realized by Catharine, who invested with 
the decoration, ' her intimate friend, Menshikoff, on the 8th 
April, 1725. 

The insignia consist of an octagonal red enamelled cross, 
showing in its corners, the Imperial Eagle in gold, and in 
the white enamelled middle, the figure of St. Alexander on 

TtUSSIA. ~ , ° l 

horseback (Tab. II. No. 8). It is worn across the right 
shoulder towards the left hip, by a flame-coloured ribbon. 
The silver star (No. 8) is worn on the left breast, and 
contains the initials, < S. A.' (Saint Alexander), beneath an 
Imperial crown. In the red ring round the initials, is seen 
the motto of the Order (in the Russian language) : " For 
Merit of the Fatherland. ' 

The Order is both civil and military, and consists of only 
one class. The rank of the candidate must, at least, be that 
of Major- General. 

The Knights of St. Andrew wear, usually, the present 
cross round the neck suspended by a narrow ribbon, 
but on solemn occasions, they must carry it by the large 
ribbon, and must also dress in the costume of the Order, which 
consists of a mantle of red velvet with white facings, of a 
jacket of silver stuff, and of a black hat with a white 


Twelve Knights, including five spiritual members, divide 
among themselves the annual pension of 7014 roubles, and 8 

copecks (£1169). 

Every member pays 180 roubles entrance fee. 

The annual festival of the Order is held on the 30th 
September (old style). 

The decoration, set in diamonds, is a high mark of honour, 
granted by the Emperor only for peculiar services or 


This Order belonged originally to the House of Holstein- 
Sleswig, and was founded on the 14th February, 1735, 
at Kiel, by Duke Charles Frederick, in memory of the 
Empress Ann, and in honour of the Duchess Ann Petrowna, 


daughter of Peter III. It consisted of only one class, of 
fifteen Knights, and was brought to Russia by the son of 
the founder, the Emperor Peter III. Under the reign of the 
Empress Catharine II., the dispenser of that Order was the 
Grand Duke, afterwards Emperor Paul I., who, after his acces- 
sion to the throne, in 1796, declared it a Russian Order, 
and divided it into three classes, indiscriminately for natives 
and foreigners, decreeing that the Knights of St. Andrew 
should also wear the decoration of St. Ann. 

In 1815, the Emperor Alexander added to it a fourth class, 
exclusively for the military, and ordered that the members 
of that fourth class should wear the enamelled decoration 
upon the hilt of the sword. 

The annual festival of the Order is celebrated on the M* 



The decoration (Tab. II. No. 10) is worn by the Knights 
of the first class, across the left shoulder towards the right 
hip, by a broad bright red ribbon, with small yellow borders, 
accompanied by a star (No. 9) on the breast. The Knights 
of the second class wear the cross round the neck suspended 
by a similar, but narrower ribbon, and those of the third 
class at the button-hole. The middle of the cross contains 
the initials of St. Ann, and that of the star, the inscription : 
1 Amant. just. piet. fidem ' (To the friends of the fear of God, 
justice and fidelity). 

The Emperor Nicholas frequently presented, for special 
merit, this decoration of the first and second classes set in 
rubies, and the corners adorned with brilliants, or with the 
imperial crown of white enamel. 

Of all the Russian Orders, c St. Ann ' is mostly conferred on 
foreigners who are not in the service of the country. In 1818, 
the Order counted (by the Court Almanack) one thousand and 
twenty Knights of the first class, five thousand four hundred 

1UISSIA. Table II. 

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Hursl and ltlarkelt, London. I80S. 

Russia. 233 

and ten of the second, thirty-one of the third, and ten thousand 
two hundred and twenty of the fourth classes. 
It may, by the statutes, be conferred : 

1. On every ecclesiastic who has converted, at least, one 
hundred infidels, or heretics, to the Greek Church ; who 
has brought back to loyal obedience some revolted peasants, 
or given important assistance to the soldiery. Also on those 
ecclesiastics, who have built cloisters or churches from other 
than Crown or State resources, vvho have served the State 
without pay for at least five years, or who have distinguished 
themselves in the arts and sciences. 

2. On Military Commanders of a corps (stronger than a 
company or squadron), or of one thousand recruits, though in 
various divisions. To entitle the Commander to the decoration, 
the corps under his command must have occupied a distinguished 
position in the army for, at least, three years, and the number 
of its sick, or of the soldiers dismissed from service for bad 
conduct, ought not to have exceeded one in one hundred. 

3. On persons in the Civil Service, who have managed to 
settle amicably, within three years, ten pending law- suits ; on 
justices of peace who have arranged all the disputes before 
them; on those who have secured the future subsistence of 
widows, orphans, or the poor ; who have procured to govern- 
ment an unexpected important advantage ; have risked their 
life or property for public good ; or have conducted satisfac- 
torily an educational establishment for, at least, ten years, 
without any support from government. 

The deliberations on the merits of the proposed candidates 
take place with closed doors, and are secretly voted in the Chapter 
of twelve Knights, composed of the eldest of each class residing 
in St. Petersburg. In war, the General-in-chief has the right 
to confer, at discretion, the decorations of the three lower classes. 

The entrance-fee of the Knights of the first class is 60, of 


of the second 30, of the third 18, and of the fourth 
9 roubles. 

The Emperor Nicholas instituted a yellow medal (Tab. 
II. No. 11) for long and faithful service in the army, which 
may be considered as the fifth class of the Order. 

The obverse shows a red cross within a ring of the same 
colour, and with the name of the possessor. The Emperor 
distributed it also amongst foreigners, and more especially 
amongst the whole company of the sub-officers of the Royal 
Guard at Berlin. The cross thus distributed had a crown 
above it. 


This Order was founded by Catharine II. on the 26th 
Nov. (7th Dec.) 1769, as a reward for Officers of the army 
and navy. The biographer, Castera, says : " It cannot be 
denied that the hope of this reward has greatly contributed 
to the many victories of Russia during that period, and no 
one knew better than that Empress the great power which 
vanity exercises on the actions of men." 

Emperor Paul I. who was dreaming and planing great 
reforms in his empire, never thought of distributing the Order 
amongst his soldiers, and it was only restored to practice by 
an ukase of his son Alexander I. on the 12th December, 1801. 
In gratitude, the Chapter offered the same insignia to the Czar 
the restorer of the Order, which the latter, however, modestly, 
refused to accept until after the campaign of 1805, when 
he accepted the Cross of the lowest, the fourth class. Whatever 
the cause of hesitation may really have been, there can be 
no doubt that the circumstance of the modest refusal, greatly 
enhanced the value of that Order in public opinion. 


V I. A IE 71. 

^ ,1 



-i, mm 



ml \W 

llnr>l diM Itiai'kell, Lo<nlun IWIiS 

Russia. 235 

Two colleges, selected from the army and navy, prepare 
after every campaign, the list of officers who deserve the cross. 

The Order is divided into four classes. The members 
of the first two, have the rank of Major- Generals ; and those 
of the last two, the rank of Colonels. 

It is conferred, for the taking of a fortress, for the defence 
of a place in the empire, for the capture of vessels, cannons 
and standards, or for the capturing high officers, such 
as generals, &c. It is also bestowed on those by whose 
counsel a victory has been gained, or who had forced their 
way through the lines of the foe, as also on those who have 
served in the army or navy twenty-five years,* or have shared 
the dangers of twenty campaigns on land, or eighteen at sea. 
In the two latter cases, the cause of the honour thus conferred 
is inscribed on the cross. Despite, however, these severe con- 
ditions, the number of the members exceeds now ten thousand. 
The Field- marshals and Generals-in-chief, possess the discre- 
tionary power of conferring the decoration of the fourth and 
fifth classes in times of war. The decoration of the two first 
classes, however, must be presented by the Emperor himself. 

There is no entrance fee for this Order. The whole of 
the pensions attached to it, amounts to ten thousand nine 
hundred and seventy-one roubles. 

The festival of the Order is solemnized on the anniversary 
of its foundation. The Generals are bound to appear at that 
festival in uniform without its embroidery, while the other 
members may attend as they like. 

The St. George Cross (Tab. III. No. 13) can never be 
adorned with diamonds, and is worn by the Knights of the 
first class across the right shoulder towards the left side, by 

* Since 1855, military services of twenty-five years are rewarded with 
the Vladimir decoration, fourth class, adorned with a bow, and containing 
in golden letters the number of years of service. 


a broad orange coloured ribbon with three black stripes, and 
by the second class round the neck. 

The cross of the third and fourth classes is of smaller 
size, and is worn by the former round the neck, and 
by the latter at the button-hole. 

The Knights of the first two classes have besides, fastened 
to the left side of the coat, a star (No. 12), bearing in its 
middle the initial of St. George, and in the Russian 
language, the motto of the Order : ' For military merit and 

As a fifth class, may be considered the Silver Cross of 
St. George (Tab. III. No. 14), instituted in 1807 by the Emperor 
Alexander, as a reward for the sub-officers and men who 
had distinguished themselves in those warlike times. An 
additional pay of one third accompanied the grant of the 

By a decree of the 22nd October 1814, the Russian crosses 
which had been distributed amongst the Prussian soldiers, 
after the campaigns of 1813 and 181-4, were to be transferred, 
after the death of the first recipients, to those who stood next 
on the list of proposed candidates. 


Was founded on the 22nd September, (4th October,) 1782, 
by the Empress Catharine II. on the anniversary of 
her coronation, to the memory of the Great Vladimir, who 
introduced, in 976, Christianity into his States, and received 
from his people the prefix of Apostle. 

Paul I. suffered this Order also to fall into disuse, while his 
son Alexander renewed it together with that of St. George. 

It is an Order of general merit in Military or Civil life, 
in literary, artistical or scientific spheres of study. It consists 

uussia. 237 

of four independent classes, (as the entrance into the higher class 
does not necessarily require the passing through the lower.) The 
claims of the candidates are investigated by the Chapter, held 
for the purpose once every year. 

The decoration of the first class, (Tab. III. No. 16.) is 
worn across the right shoulder, towards the left hip by a 
broad ribbon with crimson red and black stripes. If 
the Knight is not yet in possession of another higher 
Order, the ribbon is thrown over the dress coat, otherwise 
across the waistcoat. 

The Knights of the second class wear the same cross 
round the neck, while those of the third class have it in a 
smaller size, also suspended round the neck, and those of the 
fourth class at the button hole. For Military merit, the 
ribbon is besides adorned with a bow. The Order is never 
presented adorned with diamonds. 

The reverse of the cross shows (in Russian language) the 
date of the foundation of the Order. 

In addition to the Cross, the Knights of the two first 
classes wear a Star (No. 15) on the right breast. The four 
Russian letters in the middle, ' S. R. K. W.' signify : ' St. 
Vladimir the Apostle,' while the Russian motto in the ring 
round the middle, means : ' Utility, honour, glory.' 

The annual festival of the Order is held on the 27th Sep- 
tember. The claim to the Order, besides the services rendered 
to the Emperor personally, rests on the following merits : 

1. Removal of abuses in any department of the admi- 

2. Encouragement and preparation for State services. 

3. Amicable settlement or prevention of law-suits. 

4. Saving ten persons from danger. 

5. Assistance rendered to a place visited by famine, or any 
other calamity. 


6. Co-operation for the increase of National wealth, by 
agricultural invention or otherwise. 

7. Any scheme which enriched the public Treasury, by 
at least 3000 roubles. 

8. Any work of classical distinction. 

9. Thirty-five years active and faithful civil service, (in the 
trans-Caucasian provinces, only twenty-five years). Every demon- 
stration of high satisfaction, shortens the period by one year. 

Also physicians who have vaccinated in one year, three thou- 
sand children, are entitled to the decoration, as are also 
noblemen who have three times been elected, or filled the functions 
of Chancellor of a College or University, deputy-chairman, or 
secretary, &c. 

In time of war, the General-in-Chief is authorized to confer 
the fourth class at discretion. 

The entrance fee of the first class is 180, of the second 
60, of the third 30, and of the fourth 9 roubles. 

Candidates for thirty-five years service, are exempt from the tax. 

The widow of a Knight receives the full pension for one 
year after the death of her husband. 


The general outlines of the history of this Order will be 
found under Austria. 

The two Russian Grand Priorates still preserve the appear- 
ance of the old Constitution and form, under the protection 
and patronage of the Emperor, who is head of the Chapter. 
Its connection with the Chapter at Rome is of a very loose 

The Grand Priorate of Poland, established in 1776, was 
for a long time connected with the English and Bavarian 
branches, and was composed of twenty Commanderies, which 



brought to the Grand Master an annual revenue of 15,000 
thalers, while under Paul I. the revenues were even increased 
to 300,000 florins. At present, it is united with the Russian 
Priorates, and the whole is now divided into two Grand 
Priorates, for the Knights of the Greek and those of the 
Roman Catholic confession. The former now counts ninety- 
eight Commanders, while previously it had three hundred and 
ninety-three Commanders, and thirty-two Knights of the Grand 


There are also Grand and small crosses for female members. 


In the time of Vladimir IV., one of the Princes of that 
period, when the nobility had already consolidated their own 
power, and the Kings found it, in consequence, advisable to 
introduce for the safety of their thrones an aristocracy in the 
ranks of the nobility, George Ossilinsky, Great Chancellor of 
the Republic (Poland), having inherited the Seignory of Teneczin, 
assumed the title of Count, which he thought was attached to 
his new estates. He, at the same time, solicited the Emperor 
and the Pope to bestow upon him the dignity of Prince, which 
he no sooner obtained, than he projected the foundation of a 
new Order, of ' the Immaculate Virgin,' and the statutes of 
which Pope Urban VIII. confirmed in 1634. 

Public opinion was, however, against such innovations, and 
it was therefore an easy task for the more ancient family of 
the Radzivils to agitate the nobility against this act of 

In 1638, the States passed a law, that every distinction and 
decoration should amount to an offence against the equality of 
Knighthood ; and they accordingly issued a direct prohibition 
for any one to accept any foreign title, decoration, escutcheon, 


or any marks whatsoever of honour, declaring at the same time all 
titles as null and void, except those which the Union of Lublin 
had in 1569 conferred on the Princes of Lithuania and Russia. 
The consequence was, that the new Order of Ossilinsky 
was soon condemned to extinction, while those who were 
already in possession of the decoration, dared no longer wear 
it in public. 

In 1703, when Augustus II. was obliged to flee from the 
Polish provinces, which were then occupied by the Swedes, he 
distributed amongst a number of high personages who had 
remained true to him, a medal appended to a narrow blue 
ribbon, and which bore on the obverse a white eagle, with the 
legend : ' Pro Fide, Rege, Lege ' (For Religion, King and Law), 
and on the reverse, the initials, 'A. R. ' 

The real foundation or rather constitution of the Order, 
however, only dates from the year 1713. 

To obviate the necessity of repealing the prohibitive law of 
innovation, it was alleged that the new Order was only the 
revived one of the ' Immaculate Virgin,' which was supposed 
to have been founded as early as 1325, by Wladislaw the 
Short, on the occasion of the marriage of his son Casimir with 
Ann, a Princess of Lithuania. 

The decoration, not unlike that of the Maltese Cross, consisted 
of a cross containing upon its face the White Eagle with 
expanded wings, and gold flames in the corners. It was worn 
suspended by a light blue ribbon. The King was to receive it 
with the crown as Grand Master. The number of the Knights 
(divided into four classes) was limited to seventy-two. 

During the reigns of the Saxon Kings, however, the party 
opposed to the Order, was yet too strong to be trifled with, and 
the Kings dared not accept the decoration at their public coro- 
nation, without defying public opinion, and the strong party of 
the ancient nobility ; the decoration was indeed more seen abroad 

KliSSI A. Table IV 

PLATE 72. 

Hui>l and Blarketl, London. IS08 

KUSS1A. 241 

than at home ; it shone at foreign courts, but was hardly ever 
exhibited at Warsaw, and throughout the whole extent of the 
kingdom. It was only under the reign of Stanislaus 
Poniatowsky, that the Order apparently received a more solid 
footing, when it had only to contend against the antipathy of the 
old aristocracy, while the lavish and scandalous abuse in the 
distribution of the decoration was but ill calculated to weaken 
the prejudice against it. 

After the division of Poland, in 1795, the Order like the king- 
dom itself, was nigh extinction, none of the three conquerors 
having thought proper to accept it with their respective shares of 
the territory. In this passive state, it remained until 1807, when 
the Constitutional decree of the Duchy of Warsaw, which was 
issued on the 21st July, proclaimed the restoration, at the same 
time, of the ancient Orders of Poland. Frederick Augustus, King 
of Saxony, declared himself Grand Master, but was subsequently 
superseded in that dignity, by the Emperor Alexander of Russia. 

The Revolution of 1831 having annihilated the last vestige 
of Poland's independence and constitution, her Orders were 
united with those of Russia, and the ' White Eagle ' with altered 
insignia (Tab. IV. Nos. 1 7 and 1 8), occupies now the rank next to 
the ' Alexander Newsky.' It has at present only one class. 

The diploma of presentation is always signed by the Czar 
himself, and written for Russians in the Russian language, and 
for Poles in both Polish and Russian. But as all the Russian 
Orders are placed under the patronage of saints, the White 
Eagle is usually conferred on non-christians, such as the Shah 
of Persia, and other eastern Princes. 

An ukase of the 29th March, 1835, ordered, that all those 
Knights who are in possession of the decorations of Alexander 
Newsky, White Eagle, St. Stanislaus, and St. Ann first class, should 
wear round the neck the Polish cross, at the side of the Russian. 

The entrance fee of the Order is 150 roubles. 




Was founded on the 7th May, 1765, by Stanislaus Augustus 
Poniatowsky, to procure friends and adherents to his throne. 
He placed it under the patronage of St. Stanislaus, the patron 
saint of his country, as also of his own name. 

The number of Knights was fixed at one hundred, exclusive 
of foreigners. The badge was a red enamelled cross, attached 
to a poppy red ribbon with white borders, worn across the 
right shoulder towards the left side : the middle of the cross, 
rested upon the Polish White Eagle, and on the obverse 
appeared a representation of the patron saint of the Order 
clad in the episcopalian ornaments, with the initials ' S. S.' 
(St. Stanislaus) at the side, while the reverse showed the 
initials of the King. The star which the Knights wore on the 
left side of the breast, was of silver, and exhibited in the middle 
the red initials of the King twisted round a lancet, and in 
the red ring, with golden edges, the legend : * Preemiando 
incitat ' (Encouraged by reward). 

The lavishness, however, with which the Order was dis- 
tributed, soon lost it all due respect, while the division of Poland 
brought it into entire oblivion, though it reappeared on the stage 
for a while on the restoration of the other Polish Orders in 1807. 

When the Duchy of Warsaw, subsequently, united her ill fate 
with that of France, the Emperor Alexander, as King of Poland, 
confirmed the Order on the 1st December, 1815, but wrought 
various modifications in it ; he divided into four classes, and 
imposed upon the Knights (16th December, 1816) the annual tax 
of 4, 3, 2 and 1 ducats (according to the respective four classes), 
in support of the Foundling Hospital at Warsaw, a contribution 
that had indeed been instituted already at the first foundation of 
the Order. 

Russia. 243 

After the Revolution of 1831, the Emperor Nicholas united the 
Order of St. Stanislaus (on the 29th November, 1831) with the 
Russian ones, placed it next in rank to St. Ann, first class, 
and made various alterations in the insignia. 

Eight years afterwards, the Order was limited to three classes. 

With the third class decoration, are rewarded all those who 
have sacrificed their property for the good of the country, or 
have served the state gratuitously for a whole year in some 
function or other. It is also presented to the trustees of private 
institutions under the same conditions, and with the same 
privileges as the Order of St. Anne ; useful works or inventions, 
as also detection of serious abuses, or crime, equally entitle in- 
dividuals to the decoration. 

The Commander of an active army has the right to bestow 
the second and third class decorations for deeds of valour. 

The entrance fee is 90, 30 or 15 roubles, according to the 
respective classes. The money thus collected, is applied to 
certain useful objects suggested by the Emperor. Those who 
have been invested with the Order since 1831, become 
thereby hereditary nobles. Previously, that favour was confined 
to members of the first class alone. 

Russian priests are excluded from the Order, and it is 
unnecessary to add that the nobility thus conferred on Roman 
Catholic priests cannot become hereditary. 

Thirty members of the first class, sixty of the second, and 
ninety of the third class receive respectively annual pensions 
of 142, 114 and 85 roubles. Those who advance to a higher 
class lose their previous pensions, and must wait until their turn 
comes in the new class. Members who turn monks lose their 
pensions. Widows receive the full pensions of their husbands 
during the first year of their widowhood. 

In case of death, the insignia must be returned, or the value 

paid in money. 

r 2 


The annual festival of the Order is held on the 23rd 
April (7th May). 

The sketch of the cross will be found in Tab. IV. No. 20, 
and that of the star, first class, under No. 19. 


The new constitution proclaimed in Poland, on the 3rd 
May, 1791, met the approval of Prussia, Saxony and other 
foreign courts, and was received with unfeigned applause by the 
nation at large. Its opponents, however, whose selfish dis- 
content with the new arrangements fully met the ambitious 
views of the Empress Catharine II., concluded with her Majesty 
on the 24th May, 1792, the secret convention of Targowitz which 
induced the Empress to send her troops across the frontier of 
Poland. The Poles courageously accepted the challenge, and 
investing Stanislaus Augustus with the chief command, 
provided from their own resources all the necessary means for 
the defence of the state. Stanislaus then founded the Order 
of Miltary Merit, but having at the head of the troops transferred 
the chief command to his nephew Joseph Poniatowsky, he 
ordered him to retire before the Russians. 

Soon afterwards (25th August) he acceded, himself, to the 
Targowitz convention, subscribed to all its conditions, annulled 
the constitution, and even abolished the Order of his own 
creation, instructing the Knights who were in possession of it, 
to return the insignia to the treasury. 

The establishment, however, of the Duchy of Warsaw, in 
1807, restored the ephemeral existence of the Order, under 
the Grand Mastership of King Frederick Augustus of Saxony. 

The Emperor Alexander did not interfere with the Order, even 
after his having taken possession of Poland ; it thus dragged on its 

It US SI A. Tab/i' V. 

PLATE 7o. 

Uurstaud Bhir-kett, Loudon. 1S5S. 

Russia. 245 

nominally independent existence until 1831, when it shared the 
fate of all the other Polish Orders. The Emperor Nicholas gave 
it a new form, placed it in the third rank of the Russian Orders, 
and, having divided it into five classes, decreed the discon- 
tinuance of new distributions, thus condemning it, as it were, 
to a slow extinction. 

The badge of the first class consists of a star (Tab. V. 
No. 21) worn upon the left side of the breast, and of the 
decoration (No. 22), appended to a ribbon thrown under the 
uniform across the right shoulder towards the left side. The 
Knights of the second class wear the same cross suspended by 
a ribbon round the neck, while those of the three other classes 
wear it at the button-hole, the only distinction consisting in the 
appearance of the cross, which is in the third class, of enamelled 
gold, in the fourth class, of gold with enamel, and in the fifth 
class of silver (Tab. V. No. 23 . 


1. The Maria Medal, was founded on the 14th October, 
1828, in memory of Maria Feodorowna, by her son, the 
Emperor Nicholas. It is a decoration reserved solely for ladies of 
unblemished character, for faithful service. It consists of 
two classes. The decoration of the first is worn on a scarf 
across the shoulder, and the second on the breast. The 
badge of the first class consists of a gold blue enamelled 
cross, the middle of which contains the name ' Maria ' and a 
laurel branch with the number (in Roman cyphers) of the 
years of service, while that of the second class consists of a blue 
medal, also with the name and number on it. The ribbon 
is that of the Vladimir Order. The decoration is usually conferred 


on the directresses and inspectresses of the institutions under the 
immediate management of the Empress Maria. 

The first class decoration is bestowed on ladies who have 
acted in the above capacities for twenty-five years and upwards, 
and the second class for fifteen years' service. The claims 
of the candidates are examined by a board of the charitable 
institutions, and submitted to the Emperor for approval. The 
possessors cannot, under any circumstances, be deprived of the 

2. The Ismail Cross was founded by the Empress Catharine 
IT. The Russian inscription signifies : ' Ismail taken on the 
2nd December, 1790 ' (Tab. V. No. 24). 

3. The Gold Medal was founded by the Emperor Alex- 
ander, as a reward for officers. It is worn at the button-hole, 
suspended by the St. George's ribbon (Tab. VII. No. 30), 
and counts for three years, as regards the title to pension, 
or to the St. George's Cross. 

4. Medal for 1807, is of gold for officers, and of silver 
for the militia (dissolved in September of that year), who 
took part in any one of the battles of that period. It is 
worn suspended by the St. George's ribbon. To officers 
who were not present at any battle, it was presented with the 
St. Vladimir ribbon. 

5. Cross of Bazardjick, was also founded by the Emperor 
Alexander, and worn by the St. George's ribbon. It bears on 
the obverse, the inscription (in Russian) : ' For the storming 
and taking of Bazardjick, on the 22nd May, 1810,' and on 
the reverse, ' For distinguished Merit ' (Plate 74, Tab. 
VI. No. 25). 

6. Medal of 1812, was distributed amongst the Russian 
troops who shared in the campaign of 1812. It is of 
silver for the officers, and copper for the men ; it is worn by 
the military, suspended by the Vladimir ribbon, and by 

RUSSIA. Table VI. 

1' I.ATi; 7A. 

llursl and Blacken, London. I8."»8. 

IU1SSI A. 7W/)/e MI. 

I» !. A I E 7.1 

husl ,m<i rtlitrkclt. I.onclnn. IK.VJ 



civilians (surgeons, &c.) by a blue ribbon. It bears the 
inscription (in Russian) 'Not to us, but to thy name, O 
Lord, are praise, honour and thanks due' (Tab. VI. Nos. 

26 and 27). 

7. Medal of 1814, is of silver, and worn by a ribbon, 
partly blue, and partly of the colour of the St. George's ribbon. 
The obverse contains the Russian inscription: 'For the 
taking of Paris, on the 19 th March, 1814,' the reverse is 
sketched in Tab. VI. No. 28. 

8. Medal for the Persian campaign, is also of silver, and 
worn by a ribbon composed of the colours of St. Vladimir 
and St. George. It was founded by the Emperor Nicholas 
as a reward for the troops who made that campaign. 
The obverse exhibits the eye (Omnipresence) of God, and 
two laurel branches, between which are placed the years: 
1826, 1827, and 1828 (Tab. VI. No. 29), and the reverse 
shows the words : ' For the Persian War. ' 

9. Medal for the Turkish campaign, is equally of silver, 
and shows on the obverse, a radiant cross over a half-moon 
or crescent, and the years: '1828, 1829,' and on the 
reverse, the words: 'For the Turkish War' (Tab. VII. 

No. 31). 

10. Medal for the taking of Warsaw. It is of silver, 
and was distributed amongst the troops who were present at 
the storming of that city. The obverse shows the Imperial 
Eagle, with the inscription: 'For the taking of Warsaw 
on°the 26th September, 1831.' The reverse contains the 
words: 'Utility, Honour, and Glory.' It is worn suspended 
by a blue ribbon with black borders (Tab. VII. No. 32). 

11. Decorations of Service. The Emperor Nicholas in- 
stituted decorations of honour for long and faithful service, of, at 
least, fifteen years. It shows the years of service 'XV.' in 
Roman cyphers, and is worn fastened to the left side of 


the breast, by military persons suspended by the St. George's 
ribbon (Plate 75, Tab. VII. No. 33), and by civilians, by the 
St. Vladimir ribbon (No. 34). 

Merchants are presented, for various services, with a gold 
medal of moderate size, which bears on the obverse the 
portrait of the Emperor, and on the reverse the words ' For 
zealous services ' or ' For utility, ' the former words are 
inscribed on the medals of those who have distinguished 
themselves in their civic or government functions, and the latter 
on the medals of those who have effected much in manufactures 
and industry. These medals are worn round the neck by 
ribbons of the advancing degrees of the following Orders, viz. 
St. Ann, Alexander Newsky, St. Vladimir and St. Andrew. 
For those who are already in possession of all these ribbons 
the inscription is further adorned with diamonds. Even 
mechanics and country people are not, with the exception 
of the diamond adornment, excluded from the medal, or 
any of the ribbons. 

Mahometans in civil or military service, are presented, if 
they have served against the enemy, with a gold or silver 
medal, which bears the inscription ' for valour, ' and is worn round 
the neck attached to the St. George's ribbon. 

For saving from fire or drowning, noblemen, functionaries 
and merchants receive a gold medal with the inscription 
' For saving the emperilled,' while sub-officers, privates, mechanics 
and peasants receive the same medal in silver. It is worn 
at the button-hole, suspended by either the St. Ann or St. 
Vladimir ribbon. 

The latter decorations, when obtained for deeds of humanity 
towards fellow- creatures, are subject to no fee whatever, while all 
the other medals are to be paid for, according to the ribbon 
by which they are suspended, with a sum varying from 
seven to a hundred and fifty roubles. 

Russia. 249 

Persons in possession of any of the medals worn round 
the neck, are exempt from military service, while the owners 
of any of the other medals are, at least, exempt from corporal 

There are besides various decorations of cloth, velvet or 
damask, chiefly given as rewards to country people or rural 



Historians, though they seem to agree that this Order 
was founded by Count Amadeus VI. of Savoy, under the 
name of: 'the Order of the neck-chain or collar,' are yet at 
variance about the cause of its foundation ; some attribute 
it to an act of gallantry, and others to a sentiment of piety. 
Possibly it owed its origin to both causes combined, since the 
spirit of that age usually blended together the two feelings 
of love and religion. 

Count Amadeus ordered in his will the establishment of a 
cloister at Pierre Castle in Bugey, where fifteen Carthusian 
Priors were to read mass daily in honour of the fifteen Joys 
of the Blessed Virgin, and for the welfare of fifteen Knights. 

The Cloister was finished in 1392, and the fickle Amadeus 
VIII. first Duke of Savoy, who first exchanged the crown 
for the tiara, and then again resigned the chair of St. Peter 
to enjoy the pleasures of Rippaille (at the Geneva Lake), 
held in the latter place, 1410, the first Chapter of the Order, 
and proclaimed its first statutes. 

The Order which was placed under the Grand Mastership 
of the Dukes of Savoy, was only accessible to the high and 
ancient nobility of unblemished repute in virtue and honour, 
nor was it allowed to to be worn with any other decoration. 

S \K 1)1 N I A. Table I. 

I' I. ATK 7U. 

Hurst and BU'kolt, London 1R5?< 


The chief duties of the Knighs were : 

1. To assist the Dukes of Savoy by word and deed on every 
occasion, and at any time they should stand in need of that 

2. To protect the oppressed. 

3. To submit their own disputes to the judgment of the 

4. To wear constantly the collar or chain of the Order, 
which is composed alternally of love-knots and the old- 
fashioned letters : ' F. E. R. T.' * 

5. To present the Church of Pierre Castel with a chalice, a 
surplice and all the other articles requisite for the celebration of 

6. To bequeath, at their death, 100 livres for the support of 
that Church, and to enjoin their heirs to have read one 
hundred masses. 

At funerals of members, the whole fraternity used to be 
present, dressed originally in white, and subsequently in black 
cloaks, which they abandoned, after the ceremony, to the Car- 
thusian monks. On all other occasions, the colour of the cloak 
or mantle was crimson, trimmed with fringes and embroidered 
with love-knots. 

Charles III. of Savoy, proclaimed, on the 11th September, 
1518, new statutes, and, at the same time, he gave to the 
Order, a new name : that ' of the Holy Annunciation ;' 
he also added, round the motto of the collar, fifteen 
roses, (seven white, seven red, and one of both colours), 
and to the fifteen Knights, five Officers : a Chan- 

* They have reference to an old motto of the Counts of Savoy, and 
supposed to be the initials of : 'Fortitudo ejus Rhodum tenuit' (Rhodes 
was kept by his bravery), in allusion to the exploits of Amadeus V. against 
the Turks. 


cellor, Secretary, Master of Ceremonies, Treasurer and 

The statutes received further modifications under Emanuel Phi- 
libert (on the 18th October, 1577), and under Charles Emanuel. 

The latter having in 1620 ceded to Henry IV., Bresse and 
Bugey in exchange for the Marquisate of Saluzzo, transferred the 
Chapter, first to the St. Dominican Church at Montmeillan, 
and thence to the hermitage of the Camaldali Monks upon the 
Turin mountain. 

The costume under Emanuel Philibert consisted of a sky 
blue mantle, lined with white taffetas, and trimmed with rich 
gold embroidery. Since 1627, however, the colour of the 
mantle is amaranth, lined with blue silk, and embroidered 
with silver. 

Victor Amadeus on becoming, by the peace of Utrecht, 
ruler of Sicily, which he was, however, afterwards obliged to 
restore in exchange for Sardinia, placed upon his own head the 
royal crown, raised the ' Order of the Annunciation' to the first 
rank of the Orders in his kingdom, abolished the limitation 
in the number of Knights, accorded to the latter, the title 
of " Excellency," and decreed that they should be chosen 
from amongst the Knights of St. Lazarus and Mauritius, 
as also from the ancient pure nobility. 

The Order has only one class. The decoration (Plate 76, 
Tab. I. No. 2), is a gold medal, on which is represented the 
Annunciation, surrounded by love-knots. It is usually worn 
suspended by a simple gold chain, except on the nomination 
and the two following days, on the great festivals of the year, 
the Corpus Christi, the festivals of the Blessed Virgin, the Cir- 
cumcision, the festival of St. Maurice, (the patron of Savoy), as 
also on the day when the Knights take the sacrament, and on 
the eve of a battle, when the Knights are wont to assemble 
round a standard, and lastly at the meeting of the Chapter, 


on all which occasions it is worn appended to the gold collar, 
which, however, can never he adorned with precious stones or 

Since 1680, the Knights wear, on the left side of thehreast, 
a star (No. 1). emhroidered in gold. 

The costume has heen frequently altered. At present it 
consists of a garment of white taffetas, with golden embroidery, 
of a sword, of a cap edged with fur, and with a long flap of sky 
blue velvet, and finally of a mantle over the whole. 

Three months after the death of a member, the decoration, 
costume, and the volume of the statutes must be returned to 
the Chapter by his heirs. 

The Abbots of St. Gallen were always exempted from that 
rule, their successors being the legitimate inheritors of the collar 
and rank of the Order. 

The four supreme officers of the Order : the Chancellor, 
(who must always be a Bishop or Archbishop), the Secretary, 
(usually the Minister of Foreign Affairs), the Almoner, (usually 
first Almoner of the King), and the Treasurer, wear the deco- 
ration round the neck, suspended by a sky blue ribbon, accom- 
panied by a star on the left side of the breast. 

The Herald, usually the first brigadier of the royal guard, 
wears a cross, exhibiting the Annunciation, at the button-hole, 
suspended by a sky blue ribbon. 

All the officers of the Order have separate costumes of their 

The annual festival is held on Annunciation Day (25th 


When the Reformation had crossed the German frontier, and 
began to find adherents in the South of Europe, the Roman 


Church, and the Catholic Princes attached to her, saw the 
necessity of increasing their means of defence. To arrest the 
progress of the Calvinistic doctrines in Savoy, the Duke 
Emanuel Philibert founded in 1572, the Order of St. Maurice, 
imposing upon the Knights, the duty of defending the Catholic 
religion. The Order was confirmed by a Bull of the 14th 
September of the same year, by Pope Gregory XIII., and to 
increase still more the strength and power of this new chivalrous 
militia, the Pope united with it a part of the Order of St. Lazarus, 
transferring to the new Order the Commanderies, which the 
latter had possessed in Spain and Italy. The Grand Mastership 
he vested in the crown of Savoy ; while, in the new decoration, 
were also inserted the white cross of St. Maurice, and the green 
one of St. Lazarus. 

In this form, the Order existed until the incorporation of 
Piedmont with France, but was subsequently reinstituted anew 
with the restoration of the old monarchy, though only in the 
character of a mere Order of Merit, indiscriminately for all 
subjects. This new organisation as proclaimed by Victor Ema- 
nuel, on the 27th December, 1816, was somewhat modified 
by Charles Albert, and was by a later decree of the 9th Decem- 
ber, 1831, divided into three classes: Knights, Commanders, 
and Knights Grand Cross. 

The Knights are subdivided into Cavalieri di Giustizia, 
(Knights by right), and Cavalieri di Grazia (Knights by 

The former must undergo the strict probations prescribed 
by the statutes, and receive the diploma on payment of entrance 

The latter receive it as a reward for long military service, 
in the grade of Lieutenant-Colonel ; it is also granted to 
civilians, who have rendered important services to chari- 
table institutions by rich donations, establishment of benefices, 


or voluntary official service. The honorary, or members by 
favour, are not subject to any fee, or vow, except on receiving 
a pension from the King. The diploma is the same as with 
the former. All members indiscriminately may aspire to the 
highest degrees of the Order. 

The badge consists of a green ribbon. The smaller cross 
is sketched in Plate 76, Tab. I. No. 4, and that of the 
Commanders in No. 5. The latter is somewhat larger, and is 
worn round the neck. The number of the Commanders is fixed 
at fifty, who receive the cross after having made the necessary 
vow of the Order, which must be done within six months 
after their nomination, if not already made by them as simple 

The number of the Knights Grand Cross is limited to thirty. 
Their cross is surmounted by a crown, and is worn across the right 
shoulder towards the left side by a broad ribbon, and accom- 
panied by a star on the left side of the breast, embroidered 
in gold and silver (Nos. 1 to 3). They may make use of the 
small cross when not wearing the insignia of their proper class. 

The Royal Princes, Knights of the Annunciation Order 
and Foreigners, are not included in the number fixed for the 
two first classes. 

The Grand Dignitaries of the Order are : the Grand Prior, 
Grand Hospitaller, Grand Guardian or Conservator, Grand 
Chancellor, and Grand Treasurer. 

Their respective tasks are defined by the statutes of 1816, 
while the oldest of them usually occupies the chair. Only 
Knights of the Grand Cross can aspire to any of these digni- 
ties. The Council is composed of the above five dignitaries, 
of the Auditor-General, of the first Secretary, of the Grand 
Master, and of the Secretary appointed by the Council. With 
the exception of the five Dignitaries, the members of the 
Council, must, at least, belong to the class of Commander. 


In each of the provinces of the Kingdom : in Turin, Coni, 
Alessandria, Novara, Aosta, Savoy, Genoa, and Nizza, a Knight 
Grand Cross or Commander, bearing the title of Provincial 
Chief, is entrusted with the management or superintendence 
of the estates of the Order. 

When a member shows himself, by some action, unworthy 
of the Order, the Provincial Chief reports the circumstance 
to the first Secretary, and the Council, empowered by the 
Grand Master, pronounce sentence upon the accused. 

The aspirants to the Order, or those who wish either to found 
or enjoy a prebendary, by family right, must apply to the 
Provincial Chief by petition, which is forwarded to the first 
Secretary, whose duty it is to prevent the admission of 
unworthy individuals. 

The Knights and other officials who are entrusted by the 
Grand Master with the direction of hospitals, independent of 
the Order, receive a proportionate remuneration. 

With the exception of a sum of 30,000 lire, the revenues 
of the Order are divided into five parts. 

1. Costs of building and administration. 

2. Gratuities for real or honorary Knights. 

3. Funds derived from nomination fees, &c. applied for 
the institution of new pensions. 

4. Sums for the maintenance of the hospitals of the 
Order, &c. 

5. Reserve fund for miscellaneous outlays, and accidents. 

A commission is appointed by the King to review occa- 
sionally the Administration of the Order with a view, possibly, 
to diminish the expenses on the one hand, and increase the 
reserve fund on the other. 

The sum fixed for the Commanderies and pensions, amounts 
to 200,000 lire, which are divided as follow : five Comman- 
deries at 4000, six at 3000, ten at 2500, twenty-five at 1000, 


and one hundred and twenty pensions at 600 each. The 
reserve fund receives 20,000 lire. 

The officers of the Order are remunerated by the Grand 
Master with either Commanderies or pensions. 

The entrance fee is fixed at 1500 francs. 

No alteration can be made in the administration of the estates 
of the Order in Sardinia. 


This Order was founded by King Victor Emanuel. The 
warrant is dated Genoa, 14th August, 1815, in which the 
Order is described as a purely military one, given as a reward 
for prudent valour upon the field of battle or elsewhere. 

The King and his presumptive successor is chief, or Grand 

The decoration consists of a red enamelled cross of gold, or 
silver, resting upon a green enamelled garland, upon which 
is placed another white enamelled cross. The reverse is not 
enamelled, and shows the crowned initials of the King, ' V. E.' 
Above the cross is a crown, and the whole is worn by a blue 
ribbon. (Plate 77. Tab. II. No. 7). 

The Order is divided into four classes. 

The first class, that of the Grand Cross, wear the decoration 
across the right shoulder towards the left side by a broad ribbon 
about two inches and a half wide, and have a star on the left 
side of the breast. (Tab. II. No. 6). 

Except on solemn occasions, the ribbon is worn under the 

If already a Knight of the Order of the Annunciation, the 
new star is fastened below that of the latter. 

The second class, or the Commanders, wear the decoration 



of one inch in diameter round the neck suspended by a ribbon 
about one inch three quarters wide. 

The third class, or Knights, suspend the decoration of three 
quarters of an inch in diameter, at the button-hole by a ribbon 
about one inch wide. 

The decoration of the fourth class, or privates, is of silver, 
three quarters of an inch in diameter, and is worn by a ribbon 
about one inch wide without bow or rosette. 

The Order has three functionaries, a Chancellor, a Treasurer, 
and a Secretary. ' The two first must be Commanders, the third 
is chosen from amongst the Knights. The salary of the Chan- 
cellor is 2000, of the Treasurer 1500, and of the Secretary 
1800 lire. There is also a Herald with a salary of 800 lire. 

With the exception of the Crown Prince, who may without 
further ceremony be nominated by the King, provided he has 
been present in one or more campaigns of the country, no one 
can be admitted to the Order without first submitting to the 
following formalities : 

The candidates must apply direct, or through their superiors, 
to the War Chancellory, which then communicates the request 
to the Secretary. This functionary submits the petition to a 
tribunal composed of two members of each class, always 
chosen by the Grand Master from the resident Knights of the 
place. The oldest member of the first class is invariably 
President of the Tribunal. Having examined the merits of the 
petition, and found them well founded, the tribunal reports 
the case to the Grand Master, and proposes the class to which 
the candidate ought to be admitted in conformity with the 
following principle. 

To the fourth class, for a deed of personal valour. 
To the third class, for personal valour and skilful guidance 
displayed on occasions wherein the candidate commanded a 

SA RD1N I A. Tabic II. 


llursl and Blarkell, London. IS. V :8. 


To the first and second classes, for distinguished merit in 
those entrusted with the command of a regiment, division, or 

Should the Grand Master approve of the proposal, the 
candidate receives from the tribunal the diploma or patent, 
while he is decorated with the insignia by a Knight specially 
commissioned by the Grand Master for the purpose, in 
the presence of the troops, after having had read to him the 
following oath : 

" You swear that you will live and die true to the King and to 
" honour, that you will never bear arms in foreign service, nor 
" ever belong, without royal permission, to any sect or associa- 
" tion, contrary to the loyalty you have sworn to your King, or 
" in opposition to the laws of the land." 

Whereupon the candidate laying his hand upon his heart, 
answers : " I swear it." 

The nomination of a new Knight is made known to all regi- 
ments, and to the public at large by the public press, in which 
the merits of the claim are given in full detail. 

Knights, who are not officers by rank, receive an annual pen- 
sion of 120 lire. 

The claim to the Order is not confined to Catholics alone. 
Christians of any denomination may aspire to it. 

All Knights are allowed to adorn the decoration with their 
own crests. 

The annual festival is held on St. Amadeus' day. 


Was founded by King Charles Albert, at Turin, on the 30th 
October, 1831. The statutes say: 

"The history of past ages, as also the events of recent 

s 2 


" and the present times, have incontestably shown, that rewards 
" of Merit, when impartially granted, lead to emulation, and, 
" thereby, to the rapid promotion of the glory and welfare of 
" states, by imparting to all talents and capacities, a precise 
" direction towards all and everything that is useful, grand, 
"and beautiful. 

" Our predecessor, King Victor Emanuel, of glorious 
"memory, founded, in 1815, the Order of Savoy, to 
" reward brilliant military merit, by honourable distinction. 
" We are of opinion, that it behoves us to imitate his 
" example, and complete his work, by bestowing another 
" decoration on those of our subjects who have chosen a 
" different, but not less useful, career in life, than the military, 
" and have become the ornaments of our country, to which 
" they have rendered important services by long study, and 
"great efforts of mind. Our attention has particularly been 
" drawn to those who have devoted themselves to education, 
" and produced great results, on which we place the more 
" value, as we are convinced that the well-being of indi- 
" viduals, of families, and of the whole nation, depends chiefly 
" on the good education of youth. 

" Our intention is, therefore, that the rewards which we 
" have resolved to institute for Civil Merit, should be granted 
" only, after a strict and careful examination of the claims 
" thereto, for which purpose we have entrusted the task to 
" those who are mostly interested in the preservation of our 
" institutions. The decoration, we are sure, will the more 
" command respect, the more it is confined exclusively 
" to individuals of known merit, and unsullied name, in 
" principle and practical life ; as, also, to those who are attached 
" to our person, and devoted to our laws. We therefore 
" decree that : 

" 1. In founding for ever the Civil Order of Savoy, we 



" declare ourselves Grand Master of the same, which dignity 
" shall pass, after us, to the successor and heir of our throne. 

" 2. There shall be only one class of Knights in the Order, 
" consisting of natives, or resident foreigners. 

" 3. The Knights shall wear a blue enamelled cross, 
" the round middle of which shall bear on the obverse, 
" the initial of the founder, and on the reverse, the words : 
"'Al Merito Civile, 183L ' (Plate 77. Tab. II. Nos. 8 
" and 9). 

" 4. This cross shall be worn on the left side of the breast, 
" suspended by a blue ribbon with two white stripes. 

"5. The decoration shall be conferred : 

" a. On the higher functionaries of our government, for zeal 
" displayed in their respective departments, b. On literary men 
" and authors, who shall have published at home, or (with our 
" permission) abroad, some important work of literary merit. 
" c. On engineers, builders, and artists of distinguished merit. 
" d. On those who have discovered a new useful invention, or 
" wrought important improvements in the old. e. On professors 
" who have effected much good in education, and acquired a 
" great name by their knowledge and writings on subjects 
" connected with it. 

" 6. The candidates for the Order shall submit to us their 
"request, accompanied by the necessary testimonials, through 
" our Secretary of the Interior. The petition shall then be for- 
" warded by us to the Council, composed of seven Knights, 
" and a President appointed by ourselves. 

" 7. The Council shall take proper information of the 
" social position, merits, and principles, both moral and political, 
" of the aspirant. 

" 8. This done, a secret vote is to be taken, and report 
" made of the result of the votes. 

" 9. Our Minister of the Interior shall then communicate to 

262 decorations. 

" us the decision of the Council in all the details, which we may 
" sanction or not, according to our view of the case. 

" 10. The same Minister shall lay before us, for signature, 
" the diploma of the approved candidate, who is to take the 
" oath in his presence, binding himself to be true to us, to 
" obey our laws, not to violate morals and decency in his 
" works, and not to teach anything that may clash with the 
" Roman Catholic creed, or with the principles of our 
" monarchy. 

"11. The Knights of the Civil Order of Savoy shall be 
" admitted to Court, and the same marks of honour shall 
" be shown to them as to the Knights of St. Maurice, 
" St. Lazarus, or of the Military Order of Savoy. 

" 12. The following pensions shall be attached to the 
"Order, namely: 1000 lire to ten Knights, 800 to ten, and 
" 600 to twenty, making a total of forty members, enjoying 
" pensions amounting in all to 30,000 lire." 


1. Cross of Loyalty. — It was founded in 1814, by Victor 
Emanuel, for those of his subjects who gave proofs of loyalty 
and devotion to him during the French occupation of the 

2. Military Medal. — As the rigour and strict limitation of 
the statutes frequently interfered with the bestowal of the 
Military Cross for noble and heroic deeds, which had proved of 
important benefit to the country and the army, King Charles* 
Albert instituted, on the 26th March, 1833, for the army 
and navy, a decoration consisting of a gold and silver medal, 
(Plate 77. Tab. II. Nos. 10 and 1 1), of which the obverse shows 
a cross beneath a crown, with the legend : ' Al valore militarc/ 


and the reverse two laurel branches, with the name of the 
recipient engraved between them. On the edge is stated the 
deed for which, and the day on which, it was bestowed. 

The medal may be claimed by any military person in active 
service, and the recipient is entitled to the same rights and 
display of honour as are the possessors of the ' Military Order of 
Savoy.' In addition, a pension is attached to the possession of 
the medal, viz. : 100 lire to the owner of the gold, and 50 
lire to the possessor of the silver medal. Both medal and 
pension pass to the widow of the deceased owner, so long as 
she remains single, or to his children until they pass the 
fifteenth year of their age. 



Napoleon having raised Saxony to a kingdom, the new 
King, Frederick Augustus, yielded to the general wish and 
founded a separate Order for his monarchy. The sugges- 
tion, in fact, emanated from Napoleon himself, whose portrait 
adorned the original decoration. In the warrant, dated 20th 
July, 1807, the King says: "that it was his intention to 
bequeath to his successors a remembrance of the time when 
Providence showed itself so favourable to Saxony, and his 
own house ; and to furnish them, moreover, with the means 
of rewarding in a brilliant manner those of their subjects who 
might distinguish themselves in devotion to fatherland." 

The King is Grand Master, and his sons and nephews are 
born Knights of the Order. 

To the King, is reserved the exclusive right to admit into 
it other Princes of his house, as well as foreign Princes and 

The obverse of the decoration (Plate 78. Tab. I. No. 2) 
shows the initials F. A. surmounted by the royal crown, and 
the reverse, the motto : * Providentise meraor,' (Mindful 
of Providence). It is worn across the right shoulder, towards 
the left hip by a broad green watered ribbon. 

In the octagonal radiant star which the Knights wear on 
the left side of the breast, is a medal surrounded by the 

SAXONY. Table I. 

PL All: 7.x 

Hursl and Ulackctl, London. ISoR 

saxony (kingdom). 2G5 

lozenge crown, and containing, upon golden ground, the motto 
of the Order. (Tab. I. No. 1.) 
It has no statutes. 


This Order, destined as a reward for distinguished merit 
upon the battle field, was originated by Augustus III. King 
of Poland, and Elector of Saxony, who decorated with it, on 
his fortieth birth-day (7th October, 1739), at Hubertsburgh, 
himself, the Crown Prince and several of his Generals. At 
that time the Order consisted of only one class, while the 
badge was a red enamelled cross, with the Polish white eagle 
in the angles, and the figure of St. Henry in the middle, 
It was worn upon the breast suspended by a dark red ribbon 
with white borders. 

In this state and form, it remained until the 4 th 
September, 1768, when Prince Xavier, administrator of the 
Electorate, divided the Knights into three classes, altering at 
the same time the shape and form of the decoration. No 
further distribution took place until 1796, when seven more 
Knights were decorated with the Order. In 1807, how- 
ever, numerous distributions were made in all the three classes. 

On the 23rd December, 1829, King Antony added a new 
class to the former, that of second class Commanders, and 
proclaimed also the following statutes : 

1. The Order is to bear the name of the Saxon Emperor 
St. Henry. 

2. The Grand Mastership to be vested in the Crown of 

3. The Military Members to be divided into four classes : 
Knights, Grand Cross Commanders, first and second classes, 


and Knights. The number is unlimited, while the Com- 
manders previously nominated are to belong to the first class. 

4. The badge to consist of a gold octagonal cross, with wide 
edges enamelled white. The middle, to show a round yellow 
enamelled scutcheon, containing the portrait of the Emperor 
Henry in armour and full imperial state robes, as also the 
name ' St. Henricus/ beneath it. The blue ring round it, 
to exhibit the legend : ' Frederick Augustus/ D. G. Rex 
Saxonise instauravit.' 

The reverse of the cross to be blue enamelled, and to show 
the royal Saxon arms, with the inscription 'Virtuti in Bello.' 
The four angles round the middle to be filled out with 
green branches of the Saxon rue wreath. This decoration 
is to be of three different sizes, for three different classes. 

5. The Knights of the Grand Cross, to wear the decoration 
of the largest size across the right shoulder, towards the left 
hip, by a wide (three inches wide) sky blue ribbon, with 
citron coloured stripes near the borders, and accompanied by 
an octagonal radiant star, embroidered in gold, and fastened 
to the coat on the left side, and measuring four inches from 
point to point. The middle of the obverse to show the above 
motto : ' Virtuti in Bello.' 

The Commanders, of both classes, to wear the cross of 
middle size round the neck suspended by a similar ribbon three 
inches wide, and those of the first class to have, in addition, 
fastened to the left side of the coat the above star of smaller 
size, measuring only three inches from point to point. 

The Knights to wear the small cross at the second button- 
hole suspended by a similar ribbon of only two inches wide. 

These decorations are to be constantly worn by the members. 

6. With the exception of the monarch as Grand Master, 
and the royal Prince, no member to be allowed, without special 
permission, to adorn the decoration with precious stones. 

SAXONY (kingdom). • 267 

7. The right of nomination is vested in the Crown of 
Saxony, though the opinion and recommendation of the com- 
manding Generals is each time taken into consideration on 
the subject. 

This military Order is instituted solely for superior officers 
in the Saxon service, without regard to religious persuasion, 
birth, or length of service. Its sole claim rests on merit, or 
distinction in the field, added to loyalty to the King and devo- 
tion to the country : no officer is allowed to petition for it. 

In promotions, the Knights Grand Cross are selected from 
the class of Commanders, and the latter from that of the 
Knights, so that no one can be admitted to a higher class 
without having first belonged to the inferior. Promotion, as 
stated above, depends solely on renewed distinction, without 
regard to seniority in years or service. The Grand Cross is, 
however, strictly limited to Lieutenant-Generals who have com- 
manded a corps in the field, while the Commander-Cross, first 
class, is confined to Lieutenant-Generals, or Major-Generals 
who have commanded a brigade in the field, and that of the 
second class Commanders is reserved for staff-officers who 
have acted as such in a campaign. 

With this Order, are connected as a fifth class, the gold 
and silver medals of military merit, which were first instituted 
on the 17th of March, 1796, for sub-officers and men. They 
are usually distributed on the field of battle, on the recom- 
mendation of the Commander-in-Chief. 

These medals bear on the obverse the portrait of the founder 
with the usual inscription, and on the reverse a garland adorned 
with arms, and within it the words : ' Verdienst um das Vater- 
land' (Merit of the fatherland). They are worn at the second 
button-hole, suspended by a blue ribbon with yellow stripes at 
the borders, but narrower by one-third than that of the Order 
of St. Henry, The gold medal can only be granted to those 


who are already in possession of the silver, in which case the 
latter is returned, and the owner receives for it a gratuity of 
25 thalers. 

After the death of the owner, the medal is restored to the 
War Chancellory, and the widow, children or parents of the 
deceased, receive in return a gratuity of 100 thalers for the 
gold, and 25 thalers for the silver medal. 


After the battle of Leipsic, King Frederick Augustus 
remained for twenty months a prisoner in the hands of the 
allied powers, while Saxony was, during that period, governed 
partly by Russia and partly by Prussia. He was at last, on 
the 7th of June, 1815, allowed to return to his capital, and 
resume the independent government of his now greatly cur- 
tailed kingdom. On the same dav, he founded the Order of 
Merit, the first distribution of which took place on the 23rd 
December in that year. 

Representations of the cross are given in Plate 79, Tab. II., 
Nos. 6 and 7, and that of the medal of the fourth class, either 
gold (weighing 8 ducats) or silver, will be found in No. 8 of 
that Table. If the cross is presented to foreigners, it bears the 
simple inscription : ' Dem Verdienst ' (To merit). 

The right of conferring the Order, belongs exclusively to 
the King. 

Every subject who has rendered useful services to the state, or 
otherwise distinguished himself by civil virtues may aspire to 
the Order. Nor are foreigners who have claims on the 
acknowledgment of the King or state, excluded. 

The Order consists of three classes : Knights of the Grand 

SAXOfl Y. Table II. 


Hurst and Blackclt, London. 185S. 

SAXONY (kingdom). 2G9 

Cross, Commanders, and Knights. The fourth class comprises 
the recipients of the civil medal. 

The badge of the Order is : a gold octagonal cross 
enamelled white. The round white middle has a gold rins:, 
and shows on the obverse the Saxon arms, and the legend : 
' Friedrich August, Konig von Sachsen, den 7ten Juni, 
1815,' and on the reverse an oaken wreath, in which are 
intertwined the words : ' Fur Verdienst und Treue ' (For merit 
and loyalty). 

The civil medal exhibits, on the obverse, the royal effigy 
with the above legend, while the reverse is precisely the same as 
that of the Order. 

The 7th June is generally fixed for the distribution of 
the decoration, and promotions in the Order. 

The Knights of the Grand Cross wear the badge across the 
right shoulder, by a broad white watered ribbon (four inches 
wide), with two grass-green stripes, and accompanied by a 
silver sextuple and radiant star on the left side of the breast, 
containing the oaken wreath and inscription as above. 

The commanders wear the same cross round the neck 
by a similar ribbon three inches wide, while the Knights have 
the cross in smaller size, fastened to the second button-hole by 
a bow of the same ribbon, two inches wide. 

By a decree of the 24th September, 1849, the Order of 
Civil Merit was extended to Military and other distinctions, 
and it passes now by the simple name : Order of Merit. 
It has undergone the following alterations : 

1 . It now consists without the medal, of five classes : Knights 
Grand Cross, Commanders, first and second classes, and 
Knights, first and second classes. 

2. The medal is also divided into two classes for the gold 
and silver ones. 

3. The Commanders first class, wear now in addition, on 


the left side of the breast a square silver star, similar to that 
of the Grand Cross. 

4. The small cross is of silver, with the white enamelled 
middle of the cross of the Knights. 



It is represented in Plate 78. No. 2, and was founded on the 
31st December, 1850, by King Frederick Augustus, in 
memory of the founder of the Albert line, of the House 
of Saxony, Duke Albert the Bold. 

The claim to this Order is founded on merit in general, 
civil, military, literary or scientific. 

It consists of five classes : Grand Cross Knights, Commanders, 
first and second classes, Knights, first and second classes. 

The decoration for the first four classes consists of an 
oblong gold cross, enamelled white, with the lower arm 
much larger than the others. It has small mountings 
of gold, and a white enamelled middle, the obverse of 
which exhibits, within a blue enamelled centre, the effigy of 
Duke Albert in gold relief, while the circle round it contains 
the legend : c Albertus animosus.' The reverse shows the Saxon 
arms, and within a blue ring, the year * J 850.' The cross 
is, moreover, placed on a green enamelled oaken wreath worked 
in relief. 

The decoration of the first three classes is of the same 
size, and surmounted by a gold crown, which is omitted in ! 
the somewhat smaller crosses of the two other classes. 

The small cross is of silver. Its obverse shows the effigy 
of Duke Albert, and the engraved words : ' Albertus animosus,' 
while the reverse exhibits the Saxon arms and the year of 
the foundation of the Order. 

SAXONY (kingdom). 271 

The Knights of the Grand Cross wear the decoration across 
the right shoulder by a green watered ribbon, three and a half 
inches wide, and with two white stripes across the whole 
length. They have also, by an octagonal radiant silver star, 
fastened to the left side of the breast, and containing, on its 
white enamelled middle, the effigy of the Duke in gold, 
surrounded by a blue enamelled ring with the words ' Albertus 

The Commanders, first class, wear the same decoration round 
the neck by a similar ribbon, two and a half inches wide, and 
accompanied by a rather smaller square star fastened to the left 
side of the breast, as described above. 

The Commanders, second class, wear the same decoration, 
but without the star. 

The Knights of both classes wear the cross of a smaller 
size, at one of the left button-holes, suspended by the 
ribbon of the Order, about one inch and a half wide. 

Several medals are conferred in Saxony under various titles 
and for various merits, but as they are not allowed to be 
worn in public as a decoration, they do not belong to the 
category of insignia. 





This Order (Plate 80. Tab. I. Nos. 1, 2, 3) was restored 
conjointly by the Dukes Frederick, Ernest, and Freund of the 
Saxe-Duchies, in remembrance of the line of Saxe-Coburg 
Altenburg which became extinct in 1825, as well as in honour 
of the common ancestor of their illustrious houses, Duke Ernest, 
the Pious. The Order was originally founded as a reward for the 
distinguished services of high State functionaries by Frederick I. 
Duke of Saxe-Gotha and Altenburg, eldest son of Duke Ernest, 
ml 690, under the name of the c Order of German Integrity,' and 
with the motto: 'Fideliter et constanter.' In 1825, as just 
stated, it was renewed under its present name, and the statutes 
then underwent various modifications. 

The Order now consists of four classes, Knights Grand 
Cross, Commanders, first and second classes, and Knights. 

In connection with it are the decorations of the Cross and 
Medal of Merit. 

All the Princes of the Ducal line, as given at the head of 
the article, are born members of this family Order, though 
they are not actually received as Knights of the Grand Cross 
before the completion of their eighteenth year, when they are, in 

DUCII1 ES OF S A.\E. Tabic 1. 

]'l. \! E 80 


lluisl ami niarkoll, London. IS."i8. 


due form proposed by the head of the House to which they 

Distinguished State functionaries of, at least, the rank of 
Privy Counsellor, are admissible to the first class. 

Each of the three Ducal Courts is allowed to distribute 
three Grand Crosses only to their respective high function- 

If a commoner is honoured with the Grand Cross, he enters 
into all the rights and privileges peculiar to the hereditary 

The total number of native Commanders, first class, js 
limited to twelve, that of the second class, to eighteen, and that 
of the Knights, to thirty-six. Of this total, each of the three 
courts can nominate one third for each class. 

The number of members of the Cross and Medal of Honour 
is unlimited. 

The decoration of first class Commanders ought by right 
to be presented only to functionaries of the rank of privy 
counsellor, or to members of the cabinet. 

The decoration of the second class Commanders is bestowed 
on civil functionaries of the rank of President, Director of the 
Board, &c, and to military persons of, at least, the rank of 
Colonel or Lieutenant-Colonel. 

The claim to the decoration of first class Commander is 
founded on fifteen years' faithful and distinguished service, 
and that to the second class Commander, on ten years' similar 
service. Exceptions in rank and term of service are usually 
made in favour of persons of special merits, or of those who 
have rendered peculiar services to the state or the King. 

Foreign functionaries who enter inland service, may include 
the years of their service abroad, in the term required for 
the decoration. 

The number of foreign members is unlimited, though the 



nomination of a foreigner requires the unanimous consent of 
the three courts. 

The three reigning Dukes are Superintendents of the Order ; 
they usually meet, for the transaction of business, once in every 
two or three years, by rotation in their respective capitals. 

The badge of the Order consists : 

a. For the Knights of the Grand Cross, of an octagonal 
white enamelled cross encased in gold, and with small gold 
balls at the points. The angles of the cross are filled out 
with gold lions, two of which are red, and the other two 
black. The round middle of the obverse contains the effigy 
of Ernest the Pious, in gold, surrounded by a blue ena- 
melled ring with the legend in gold : ' Fideliter et Con- 
stanter. ' The ring is, in its turn, encircled by a green 
oaken wreath, intertwined with golden ribbons. The middle 
of the reverse contains the Saxe family crest of the rue 
garland, surrounded by a blue enamelled ring, indicating in 
golden letters the date, ' 25th December, 1833.' This ring 
is also in its turn encompassed by a green oaken wreath, 
intertwined with golden ribbons. Above the two upper 
points of the cross is a gold crown. Within the upper arm 
of the cross is inscribed, in golden letters, the name of the 
founder, in whose line and state the decoration is each 
time conferred. 

In the crosses presented to foreigners, the oaken wreath 
round the blue ring is omitted, while in those presented to 
military persons for distinguished valour, &c, the laurel 
wreath is now substituted for the oak, and the space between 
the pales of the cross is filled with two crossed swords. 

The badge is worn across the right shoulder towards the 
left hip, by a red watered ribbon about three inches wide, with 
a green stripe near the borders. 

The Knights of the Grand Cross carry, besides, on the 


left side of the breast, an octagonal star partly of gold 
and partly of silver. Upon this star is placed the white 
cross with gold mountings and balls, while the round gold 
middle exhibits a green rue crown. This scutcheon is 
encompassed by a blue ring with the golden inscription : 
* Fideliter et constanter/ and is, in its turn, surrounded 
by a green oaken wreath,- intertwined with golden ribbons ; 
this wreath is omitted in the stars presented, to fo- 

b. For the Commanders first class, the badge is the same 
cross as the former, and is worn round the neck suspended 
by a similar ribbon, about one and a half inches wide, while the 
cross on the left side of the breast is deficient of the star. 

c. For the Commanders second class, the badge is the 
same cross and ribbon round the neck, but without the cross 
on the breast. 

d. For the Knights, the same cross, but of smaller size, 
worn at the button-hole, or on the left side of the breast, 
by a ribbon about one inch wide. 

The silver Cross of Merit, contains on the obverse, the 
effigy of Ernest the Pious, and, on the reverse, the arms 
and motto of the Order. 

The silver Medal of Merit shows upon the obverse the 
effigy of the founder of the line, by which it is distributed, 
while the reverse exhibits the cross and legend of the Order. 


1. Cross of distinguished Service, for officers of the 
Saxe-Altenburg troops, was instituted by Joseph Frederick 
Ernest, on the 1st Januury, 1836, for twenty-five years' 
service (years of war counting double, and those on leave 

t 2 


of absence, only half). It is distributed twice a year, on 
the 1st January, and 27th August, and consists of a silver 
cross with gold encasement, bearing in the middle of the 
obverse, the cypher ' XXV. ' and of the reverse, the initial 
of the founder in gilt relief. It is worn upon the uniform, 
between the first and second button-hole, suspended by a 
green ribbon with silver stripes at the border (Plate 81. Tab. II. 
No. 6). 

2. Medal for the Campaign of 1814, was instituted 
in 1816, by Duke Ernest, at Coburg-Saalfeld, by Duke 
Frederick at Altenburg, and by the Duchess Louise Eleonore, 
at Meiningen, and distributed amongst the troops of those 
Duchies who had participated in the campaign of 1814. It is 
of silver, and bears, on the obverse, the Maltese Cross, 
surrounded by an oaken wreath, and on the reverse, 
the inscription: 'Dem Vertheidiger des Vaterlandes, 1814' 
(To the defender of the Fatherland), round which are 
the words : ' Ernst, H. z. S. C. S., ' or ' Friedrich, H. z. S. H. ' 
or 'Louisa Eleonora, H. z. S. 0. V. u. L. R. ' (Plate 81. 
Tab. II. No. 7). 

3. The War Medal of the Duchy Saxe-Gotha-Alten- 
burg, was instituted, in 1816, by Duke Emilius Leopold 
Augustus, for the troops who were engaged in the campaigns 
of 1814 and 1815. For the private soldiers, it was entirely 
of bronze, and for the officers of bronze plated with gold. 
The obverse contains the Altenburg rose ; and the reverse, 
a ducal crown with the legend, in old German characters : 
' Im Kampfe fur das Recht ' (In the struggle for right). 
Round the edge are the words : ' Herzogthum Gotha und 
Altenburg, MDCCCXIV and MDCCCXV (No. 9) 

4. Medal of Military Merit, was instituted in 1814, by 
Duke Ernest of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, for the troops then 
under his own command (as General of the 5th German 

OUCH! F.S 01- SA.\ K. Table II 

I' I. \TK SI. 

Iiirsl and llWkcll , London. IKiS 


corps) who had distinguished themselves in that campaign 
(No. 10). 

5. The Iron Medal, was founded by the same Duke, for 
the volunteers under his command. The obverse shows a 
bundle of arrows tied together by a laurel wreath, and the 
legend : ' Einigkeit macht stark, Vaterlands-Liebe 
uniiberwindlich ' (Union makes strength, and patriotism in- 
vincibility). The reverse contains the inscription: 'Den 
freiwilligen Vaterlandsvertheidigern des 5. Deutschen Armee 
corps, von ihrem commandirenden General E. H. z. S. ' 
(To the voluntary defenders of the Fatherland, from their 
commanding General of the 5th German army corps). 
(No. 8). 


Cross for the Battle of Eckern-forde, was founded in 
1851, for the troops of that Duchy who had taken part 
in the Sleswig-Holstein campaign. It consists of a cross 
of bronze for privates, and of silver for officers. The 
obverse shows a crowned ' E, ' and below it the word : 
'Eckern-forde,' and the reverse: '5th April, 1849.' It 
is worn on the left side of the breast, by a tri-coloured 
ribbon (orange, green and black). 


This Order was founded by Ernest Augustus, Duke of Saxe- 
Weimar and Eisenach, commanding General of the whole 
imperial Cavalry, on the 2nd August, 1732, and was bestowed 
on twenty-four exalted personages — princes and chevaliers — 
who were in charge of some high functions in the civil or 
military service. The duties imposed upon the members 
were : " To be true to God : to practice virtue and avoid vice ; 
" to promote as much as lay in their power, his Majesty's glory 
" and interest, and to be ready to sacrifice for the Emperor, 
" life and property, if called upon by circumstances to do so ; 
" to live with the other Knights of the Order in union, love 
" and perfect confidence, without deceit and falsehood, 
" and to assist them in their emergencies and necessities, 
" as also to afford relief to the poor and oppressed generally, 
" but, more especially, to poor officers and soldiers/' 

The decoration underwent but little alteration in process 
of time, except that it was originally adorned with four 
diamonds, and worn by a ribbon drawn through a ring set 
in diamonds, across the jacket. The ribbon was of poppy-red 
colour, with double golden stripes near the border. "The 
" reason," say the statutes, " that the Falcon has been chosen 
" for the insignia of the Order, is because the illustrious founder 


" directed his own look towards the eagle, the Imperial 
"escutcheon, and, in the same way as the falcons follow in 
" the track and flight of the eagle, in like manner are the 
" wishes of the members of the Order directed towards his 
" Majesty, to approach him by loyal service and willing 
" obedience. The whiteness of the falcon indicates sincerity 
" which the members are bound to show to the illustrious 
" founder, and to each other on all occasions. As regards 
" the name and symbol, it has been chosen from the circum- 
" stance that the falcon is by instinct, a very watchful 
" and attentive bird ; and that it, therefore, behoves every 
" Christian and honest man to watch over himself, lest he 
"should fall into vice, suffer injury in his honour and 
" good name : or fail in the duties of his office and station." 

On the 18th October, 1815, the statutes of the Order 
were remodelled by the Grand Duke Charles Augustus. 

The following are the principal provisions of the new statutes. 

1 . The name and symbol of the Order remain the same. 

2. The Orders constitute the only one existing in the 

3. It consists of three classes. The first is formed of the 
Grand Master, the reigning Grand Duke of Saxe-Weimar, or 
the princes of the house, and twelve Knights of the Grand 

4. The recipient of the Grand Cross must possess the 
rank of privy Counsellor or Major-General. 

5. The second class consists of twenty-five Commanders, 
who must bear the title of honorary Privy Counsellors, or 
possess the rank of Major in Military service. The third 
class consists of fifty Knights. The principal duties of the 
members of the Order are : 

1 . Loyalty and devotion to the common fatherland, Germany, 
as also to the supreme legitimate authority of the nation. 

S \ A E W K I \i \ i; . 

I' I. \ II'. H-J. 

Hurst and Uliu-kelt , London. lS,"iS 


2. To contribute as much as lies in their power to the 
development of the German spirit, of the arts and sciences, 
as also to the improvement and perfection of the social 
Institutions, Political Constitution and Legislative Adminis- 
tration of the fatherland, and not less to the diffusion of 
truth and light, worthy of the sober character of the German 
nation : 

3. To assist their needy brethren who had suffered by the 
calamities of the war, but more especially those who were 
wounded in the defence of their country, or the widows and 
orphans of the warriors who fell in the struggle. 

The badge of the Order is now, a golden white enamelled 
falcon, with gold legs and claws, and placed upon a gold 
octagonal star, enamelled green. Between this star and 
the falcon is another red square star of smaller size, 
and with white enamelled points. At the side of the 
star is seen a gold Royal Crown. The reverse exhibits 
the same octagonal star, but in white colours, as also the 
square one, but enamelled green. The blue enamelled 
middle contains a motto : ' Vigilando ascendimus.' The 
same is mounted with a golden laurel wreath, (for the 
military, with an armature), and surmounted by a gold Royal 
Crown, (Plate 82, Tab. I. Nos. 3 and 4). The silver 
star (No. 1) belongs to this decoration, and is worn on the 
left side of the breast. The middle exhibits a flying white 
falcon, upon a gold ground, and is surrounded by the motto 
of the Order in blue enamel. The gold ring round it rests 
upon the green enamelled star, and the latter, in its turn, 
upon the larger silver star of the Order. 

This decoration is worn by the first class, Knights Grand 
Cross, across the right shoulder, by a broad bright red 
watered ribbon, accompanied by the star fastened to the left 
side of the breast. 


The second class Commanders wear it round the neck, 
suspended by a narrow red ribbon which reaches down to the 

The third class Knights suspend it in smaller size at the 
button-hole, by a similar ribbon. 

The annual festival of the Order is now celebrated on the 
18 th October, which is also the national festival day of the 
liberation of the country from foreign rule. 

A. subscription is then made for the widows and orphans 
of fallen soldiers, as mentioned in § 3 as one of the duties 
imposed upon the members. 

On the 16th February, 1840, Duke Charles Frederick 
introduced the following modifications in the statutes : 

1. As a mark of special distinction, the Commanders may 
sometimes be favoured with a star (No. 2) to be worn on the 
left side of the breast. 

2. Those specially favoured must occupy the rank (in civil 
service) of a privy counsellor, president, &c, and, in military 
service, of, at least, a Colonel. 

3. The third class Knights are divided into two sections. 
The decoration of the first section remains unaltered, while that 
of the second now consists of a cross of honour, the middle of 
the obverse exhibiting a white falcon, and that of the reverse 
the initial of the reigning Grand Duke and dispenser of the 
Order. The cross is to be fastened to the button-hole by a 
narrow red ribbon (No. 5). 

No. 6 represents the collar of the Order. 


1. Cross of Distinction. — It was instituted by the Grand 
Duke as reward for military service and discipline. 


The following are the principal provisions of the statutes : 

a. The decoration for officers, sub-officers, and privates to 
consist of a black cross, the middle of the obverse to exhibit the 
initials in monogram of his royal highness the Grand Duke, 
and above it the royal crown, while the reverse is to contain 
within an oaken wreath the number of years service. 

b. The cross -to be divided into two classes, the first having 
for distinction a silver edge. Both are to be worn fastened 
to the left side of the breast by a ribbon of the national colour. 

c. The claim to the first class is founded on twenty years' 
and to the second on ten years' service, and good conduct. 

On receiving the cross of the first class, that of the second 
must be returned. For officers, the years served as sub-officers 
or privates count in the term required for the decoration. 
Years of campaign count double. 

2 Medal for Faithful Warriors. — It was founded by the 
Grand Duke Charles Augustus, on the 4th December, 1815, 
for the troops who had distinguished themselves in the 
campaigns from 1809 down to that period. 

After the death of the possessors, the medals are ordered 
to be suspended in the churches of their respective birth- 

3. Civil Medal of Merit. — During his stay at Paris in 
1815, the Grand Duke Charles Augustus had a medal struck, 
the obverse of which represented his effigy, and the reverse 
exhibited the words : ' Carolus Augustus Magnus Dux Saxonise,' 
or ' Mitescunt Aspera Ssecula ' (The severity of the times is 
ameliorated). The medal was either of bronze, silver, or gold, 
and was allowed to be appended to the red ribbon of the 
Falcon decoration. 

At the same time with the above, was also struck at Paris a 
smaller medal, the obverse showing the effigy of the Grand 
Duke, and the reverse the words : * Doctarum frontium prsemia* 



(The reward of cultivated intellect.)* It was distributed in gold 
among literary men. 

The same Grand Duke instituted, besides the above, another 
small medal with the inscription on the reverse ' Meritis nobilis ' 
(Ennobled by merit) surrounded by an oaken wreath. It 
was to be appended to the ribbon of the Falcon Order. Since 
1329, however, the medal forms an independent decoration; 
is distributed in gold and in silver, and is worn at the button- 
hole, by a ribbon of the national colour. 

Each of the above medals remains, after the decease of the 
person decorated, the property of his family, who are, however* 
not allowed to dispose of it except to government, for which 
they receive the intrinsic value of the metal. 

The Grand Duke Charles Frederick likewise instituted gold, 
silver, and bronze medals, which show on the obverse his effigy, 
and on the reverse the words : { Dem Verdienste ' (To merit), 
surrounded by an oaken wreath. They are equally worn at the 
button-hole, suspended by a ribbon of the national colour. 

* Hor. Ode I. L 29. 



It was founded in 1 8 1 6 for the troops who participated in 
the campaigns of 1814 and 1815. It consists of a simple 
cross of dull or unpolished silver, placed upon an oaken 
wreath ; the obverse shows the inscription : ' Schwarzburg's 
braven Kriegern fur Deutschland's Befreiung ' (To Schwarzburg's 
brave warriors, for the liberation of Germany), and the reverse, 
the years '1814 and 1815.' It is worn suspended by a bright 
blue watered ribbon with white borders (Plate 83, No. 1). 



1. Cross and decoration for distinguished service were in- 
stituted on the 22nd May, 1838, by Prince Giinther, for 
long military service. 

Years of war for the Principality count double, while those 
spent in active service, among the troops, of other German 
states, are included in the term required for the decoration. 
This latter consists for officers of a gold cross, showing on the 
obverse the initial of the Prince, surmounted by the coronet, 
and on the reverse the No. XX. (Plate 83, No. 2). It is worn 
at the left side of the breast, by a blue and white ribbon, after 
twenty years faithful service and irreproachable conduct, and 
passes by the name of the Cross of distinguished service. 

The decoration for privates or sub-officers, is a buckle 
with the initials of the Prince on it, and is worn in the 
same manner as the previous (No. 3). It passes by the name 
of ' Distinction of Service,' and is divided into two classes, for 
fifteen and ten years' service (No. 3). 

The decoration of the first class is of gold, and that of the 
second, of silver. 

2. Medal of War; was instituted for the campaigns of 

1814 and 1815, and distributed amongst all the military of 
the line, as also volunteers and militia, who shared in them. 
It bears on the obverse the inscription : Schwarzburg-Sonders- 
hausen (as legend), 'Im Deutschen Freiheit's Kricge, 1814 und 

1815 ' (In the German War of Liberty, 1814 and 1815), while 
the reverse shows the initials of the Prince in monogram (No. 4). 

S C II \Y A I! Z, 15 1 KG- It U l> I. S I A 1) T a SO \ I) K U S II \ L S F. \ 

i' i. \ i i: s.i. 


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This Order was founded by King Charles of Sicily (afterwards 
King Charles III. of Spain), on the 6th July, 1738, on the 
occasion of his marriage with the Princess Amelia, daughter of 
King Augustus III. of Poland. 

The reigning Kings of Sicily are Grand Masters of the 
Order, which consists of only one class ; and he nominates the 
Knights, whose number is now unlimited, though it was 
originally fixed at sixty. 

After the invasion of Naples by the French in 1806, the 
Order was abolished in that kingdom, though it continued to 
flourish in Sicily, whither Ferdinand had fled ; and it was re- 
introduced into both countries, on the return of the fugitive 
Prince in 1814. 

The badge of the Order is a gold octagonal white and 
red enamelled cross (Plate 84, Tab. I. No. 2), with golden 
lilies in the upper and side angles. The obverse represents 
the patron saint of the Order, St. Januarius, in episcopal 
garments, and with an open book in the left hand. The round 
middle of the reverse shows a golden open book and two 
phials partly filled with blood. 

This cross is worn across the right shoulder, towards the left 
hip, by a broad poppy red ribbon, accompanied on the left 


breast with a similar but silver cross, with the motto : ' In 
sanguine fcedus ' (The covenant in blood) (No. 1). 

On solemn occasions, the Knights appear in their costume, 
consisting of a purple coloured mantle, figured with golden lilies, 
and lined with pearl coloured taffetas; of a coat, waistcoat, 
and breeches of drap d'argent (cloth of silver), with white 
lining and golden buttons ; of a black hat, adorned with a red 
feather, of white stockings spotted with gold, and, finally, of 
black shoes. 

The badge of the Order is on such occasions worn on a 
collar, composed of mitres, crooks, lilies and the letter ' C ' 
(No. 3). 

The principal duties of the Knights consist in the defence of I 
the Catholic religion, and in inviolable loyalty to the King of 
the Two Sicilies. 

The Knights are either real Knights (Cavalieri di Giustizia), I 
who must count four noble generations, or honorary Knights, 
(Cavalieri di grazia). 


In 1799, when the united forces of England, Russia, 
Austria and Turkey, had succeeded in wresting Italy from 
the hands of the French, Cardinal Ruffo, at the head of 
the armed Neapolitans, brought back, triumphant to Naples, 
King Ferdinand IV. who had fled to Sicily, and, in com- 
memoration of the happy event, the restored monarch founded, 
on the 1st April, 1800, this Order: ' Ordine di San Ferdinando 
e del Merito.' 

After the re-occupation of Italy by the French, in 1806, this, 
in common with the other Orders of the kingdom, was abolish- 
ed in Naples, but, like that of St. Januarius, it found refuge in 

TWO SI CI LI ES. Table I. 


Ilnrsl and Itlackctt , London. 1WS. 


Sicily, where it continued its circumscribed existence until 1314, 
when it was again extended to Naples. 

The Order was originally composed of only two classes: 
Knights of the Grand Cross, and Commanders. In 1810, 
however, a third class was added, that of Knights, consisting 
chiefly of Officers of all degrees who had distinguished them- 
selves by valour, wise conduct or in any other way. 

The reigning monarch is always Grand Master of the 
Order, and in him alone is vested the power of nomination. 
The number of the first class; is, by the statutes, limited 
to twenty-four, including the royal family; while that of the 
two other classes is unlimited. 

The badge of the Order is a star formed of six bundles 
of golden rays, of six Bourbon lilies in the intervening 
angles, and a royal crown above it. The obverse shows 
upon a gold ground, the figure of St. Ferdinand in 
regal robe and mantle, with the crown upon his head, and 
holding a naked sword in his right, and a laurel crown in 
his left, hand. Round it, within a dark blue circle are in 
golden characters, the words : ' Fidei et Merito ' (to fidelity 
and merit). The reverse of gold, contains the inscription: 
'Fed. IV. inst. Anno 1800,' (Plate 84, Table I. No. 4). 

With the exception of the size which decreases with each 
inferior class, the star is the same with all the three classes. 
It is worn, by the first class, across the right shoulder towards 
the left hip, by a dark blue ribbon with red borders (the 
colours of the royal house), accompanied upon the left side 
of the breast by a star, the contents of which being, with 
the exception of the colours, the same as those of the obverse 
of the Order (No. 3). 

The costume consists, for novices or honorary members, 
of a coat, waistcoat and breeches, of drap d'or (cloth of gold,) 
of white silk stockings with golden lilies, and of a round 



hat with upturned flap, trimmed with gold and adorned 
with a red silk cockade and three large feathers, two red 
and one blue in the middle. The actual or professed mem- 
bers wear besides a mantle, neck-chain and sash. The mantle 
is of blue watered silk interspersed alternately with embroi- 
deries of golden lilies, and the initials of the founder: 
' F. Q.' (F. within a Q) ; it is lined with white taffetas and 
ermine stripes, and tied at the front of the neck by two 
long cords of gold and blue and white silk. The sash 
above the coat is of blue watered silk with red stripes near 
the borders, embroidered like the mantle : 

The neck-chain (Plate 86, Tab. III. No. 15) is composed 
of crowns, lilies, mural-towers, and the letter ' F.' with flags at 
the back. 

With this chain, the Grand Cross Knights adorn their shields 
of arms. Thev receive the title ' Excellency,' have free access to 
the King, like the officiating Chamberlains, take on solemn 
occasions their place on the right side, close to the steps of the 
throne, and have the privilege of the Spanish Grandees of the 
first class, to stand covered, in the presence of the King, on 
all occasions. A general who has gained a complete victory 
in a battle is, de jure, entitled to the Grand Cross. 

The Commanders wear the decoration round the neck, 
without the star on the breast. On solemn occasions they 
occupy a place next to the Knights of the Grand Cross, and 
are by the statutes entitled to pensions. The claims to that 
class rest on the merits of having so vigorously maintained the 
defence of a place as to compel the enemy to raise the siege, or, 
vice versa, of having taken a place, despite the obstinate defence 
of the garrison. 

The Knights suspend the decoration at the button hole, 
and place themselves, on solemn occasions, next to the Com- 

TWO sir. I LI i:s. Tubk! II. 

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Hurst and Blarkclt , London. IKjS. 


The principal duties of the members are : the defence of 
the Catholic religion, and loyalty and obedience to the Grand 

By a decree of the 25th July, 1810, King Ferdinand IV. 
added to the Order a subdivision, consisting of a gold medal 
and a silver medal (Plate 85, Tab. II. No. 10). The first 
to be bestowed on Aide-de-Camps, sword-bearing ensigns, 
Graduated mates and head sailors, and the other, on sub- 
officers and privates of distinguished service. 


The historical description of this Order, has already appeared 
under ' Parma, ' from which place it was transplanted, in 1734, 
to Sicily, but has, since 1816, been re-introduced into the 
former state. 

Together with the other Sicilian Orders, that of Con- 
stantine was abolished by Joseph Bonaparte in Naples, but it 
followed the Neapolitan monarch to Sicily, whence it was again 
brought back, in 1814, to Naples, with the King, who restored 
to it all its previous rights and privileges. 

The King is Grand Master of the Order in the kingdom 
of the Two Sicilies. It is divided into three classes: 
Knio-hts of the Grand Cross, simple Knights, and serving 
companions or brethren. 

The two latter are subdivided into various sections: into 
Cavalieri di Giustizia, or Donatori, (i. e., members who 
make a present to the institution at their nomination) 
Cavalieri di Grazia, (Honorary Members), Cavalieri Capellani 
(Chaplains), and Cavalieri Scuderi (Shield-bearers). 

The badge has already been described and sketched 
under 'Parma. 5 The Knights of the Grand Cross wear 

u 2 


it round the neck, or embroidered upon the left side of 
the coat, while the Knights suspend it at the button-hole. 
Another distinction between the two classes, consists in the 
addition of the figure of St. George, which is appended to 
the lower point of the cross, worn by the Knights of the 
Grand Cross. The chain for the latter is described under 
'Parma/ while that of the Knights is simply of gold, to 
which they append the decoration, when in full costume. 

The costume consists of a mantle of sky blue silk, lined 
with white taffetas, and held together by long white and blue 
cords ; of a white robe, and sky blue waistcoat and breeches ; 
of white stockings, similar shoes with blue ribbons ; of a sash 
of crimson velvet ; of a red velvet hat with feathers and white 
silk flaps, and with, in the front, the golden letters in 
monogram : ' I. H. S. V.' (In hoc signo vinces). 

The Cavalieri Capellani wear under the mantle a blue surplice 
trimmed with white lace. 

The conditions required for the admission to the first class, 
are : ancient, true nobility, the profession of the Catholic religion, 
a certain degree of wealth, and an age not under sixteen years. 

The Cavalieri di Giustizia (Knights by right), must prove 
their noble descent through four generations. The Cavalieri 
di Grazia (Knights by favour), have only to prove their merits 
of the State or King. 

The duties imposed upon the Superior Knights are : to 
practice virtue, to follow the Grand Master in war, to maintain 
two soldiers at their own expense, to appear always with their 
swords at the side, not to play any game of hazard, or to engage 
in any mercantile speculation and trade. 



Joseph Bonaparte founded on the 24th February, 1808, an 
Order which he named ' the Order of the two Sicilies,' though he 
was then master of only one of the two States, but it was done no 
doubt to increase his adherents, and fortify himself upon the throne 
of Naples. The Order was divided into three classes, Dignitaries, 
Commanders, and Knights, and their respective numbers limited 
to fifty, one hundred, and six hundred. The Knights took, at 
their nomination, an oath to defend the throne and the state with 
their blood and property, and they received in return a pension 
derived from the revenues of the Orders which Joseph had 
abolished in Naples. His successor on the throne of Naples, 
Joachim Murat, retained the Order, in its integrity, with a few 
slight modifications in its statutes, and, in that state, it existed 
until the return of Ferdinand from Sicily in 1815. It was 
then generally believed that he would deal with the Order 
created by the French, in the same manner as they did with 
the Sicilian Orders, eight years previously ; owing, however, to 
some political considerations, Ferdinand thought proper to retain 
and array it among the other Sicilian Orders, though he gave to 
it a new shape, form and character, as decreed in the new 
statutes which were promulgated on the 1st January, 1819. 
The Order then received its present name, in commemoration 
of the reunion of the two kingdoms, and in requital of 
military distinction and loyalty. 

Besides the Grand Master (the King), the Great Constable 
(the Duke of Calabria), and the Great Marshal, the members 
are divided into six classes. 

I. Knights of the Grand Cross (Plate 85. Tab. II. No. 7, 
and the star No. 6). 


2. Commanders (decoration No. 8). 

3. Cavalieri di dritto (decoration No. 8). 

4. Cavalieri di Grazia (decoration No. 9). 

5. Gold medal (No. 14), and, 

6. Silver medal. 

The decoration, together with the ribbon, decreases ia size 
with each lower degree. It is worn by the first two classes 
round the neck, and by the Knights, at the button-hole. 

The decoration of the first three classes is considered as 
a distinction of valour, and is conferred upon officers and 
generals for some exploit in war, in the same way as the gold 
medal is bestowed upon sub-officers and privates. 

The degree of a Cavaliere di Grazia and the silver medal are 
rewards of merit for brave conduct in war, or for forty years 
service, during which at least two campaigns must have been 
shared in by the candidates. Sub-officers and privates are only 
entitled to the silver medal. 


Was founded on the 28th September, 1829, by King 
Francis 1., as reward for civil merit in public offices, the arts, 
sciences, agriculture, industry, and commerce. Nor are military 
persons precluded from receiving the decoration on the above 

The monarch is chief and Grand Master, which is divided 
into five classes. 

1. Knights of the Grand Cross (Plate 86, No. 12, and the 
cross No. 11, embroidered upon the coat). 

2. and 3. Commanders and Knights, wearing the same 
cross, but smaller in size, and the Knights without the cross 
as a star. 


4. and 5. Members wearing the gold or silver medal (No. 13). 

The badge is a gold cross of four broad points, enamelled 
white, the angles being filled with gold lilies. In the centre, on 
a gold field, is the initial of the founder, F. L, surmounted 
by a crown, and surrounded with a laurel wreath, and on a 
second circle upon a blue ground is the motto : ' Optime merito 
de Rege ' in gold characters, the whole being surmounted by a 
royal crown. It is worn by the Knights Grand Cross round the 
neck by a deep red ribbon with blue borders. The star, which 
is a silver cross of four points, presents the obverse of the 
badge, and is worn at the left breast. 

The cross of the Commanders is a little smaller, and is worn 
round the neck. 

That of the Knights is yet smaller, and is worn from the left 

The gold and silver medals are also worn from the button- 



Since 1530, when the Emperor Charles V. {vide "Austria)" 
ceded to the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem the islands of 
Malta and Gozzo, together with Tripolis, the ' Order of St. 
John ' has continued under the suzerainty of Spain, the Knights 
having engaged themselves, by oath, on taking possession of 
those islands, among other things, never to abuse their authority 
there to the prejudice of Spain, to consider the King of Spain 
as the patron of the Malta diocese, to restore the island to Spain 
in the event of the Knights re-conquering Rhodes, or settling 
at some other place ; and, finally, to despatch annually, by two 
Knights, a tribute of one falcon to the Viceroy of Naples, as a 
token of acknowledgment of Spanish suzerainty. Subsequently, 
when Sicily ceased to be a Spanish province, that tribute 
was regularly discharged and sent direct to the King of Spain. 

After the Peace of Amiens, in 1802, the Portuguese and 
Spanish languages (Aragon and Castile) separated from the 
Order, and formed a college of their own, under the supreme 
authority of their respective monarchs, who, in consequence, 
exercised essential influence in all matters connected with nomi- 
nations, benefices, &c, the Grand Mastership being thus, in 
effect, though not by right, vested in the Crown. 

A description of the insignia of the Order will be found 
under Papal States, Plate 56, Tab. II. Nos. 7, 8 and 9. 


Hursl and BUn-kolt , Lonilon. IS.'iS. 

spain. 297 

The spiritual elements and ecclesiastical possessions of the 
Order are nearly annihilated in Spain and Portugal by the 
political events of the present century. 


Spain cherished, in early times, a lively reverence for 
the relics of St. James the elder, which were preserved at 
Compostella. She had adopted him as her patron saint 
after the victory of Clavijo, while the marvels, connected 
with those relics, continually drew vast numbers of pilgrims 
from distant parts to Galicia, long before the beginning of 
the twelfth century. To support these pious wanderers 
in their journey, the canons of St. Eloy established hos- 
pitals under their own management. The high roads 
being subsequently rendered unsafe by the vicinity of the 
Moors, thirteen noblemen united their strength and wealth 
for the protection of the Christian pilgrims, and, in accord 
with the canons, resolved to found an Order similar to that 
of the ' Hospitalers ' or ' Templars.' For that purpose, they 
delegated a deputation to Rome to seek the Papal consent. 

Pedro Hernandez de Faentes, head of the deputation, returned 
with the desired Bull, dated 5th July, 1175, in which the 
statutes were framed in seventy-one paragraphs, himself insti- 
tuted Grand Master of the Order, and the possessions and 
conquests of the Order guaranteed to it by the Holy Chair. 
A council of thirteen Knights was instituted with authority, 
not only to elect a Grand Master, but even, with the consent 
of the Prior and the Chapter, to depose him, should he be 
found guilty of mismanagemant or neglect of duty. The 
inspection of the hospitals was confided to four visiting 
members, who had full power to remedy all sorts of abuses 


and evils in the establishments, or to report them to the General 
Chapter, which was to meet annually on All Saints' Day. 
The Order obtained many spiritual privileges, and was entirely 
independent of the Bishops. 

At their nomination, the Knights made vows of poverty, 
obedience, celibacy, protection and support of poor travellers, 
and belief in the Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin. 
They also promised not to listen, in their combats with the 
Saracens, to the voice of ambition, glory, covetousness, or 
bloodshed, but to have only one single object in view, the 
protection of Christians, and the conversion of infidels. 

The candidates were bound to prove that they had descended 
from a purely Christian race, without any intermixture of 
Moorish, Jewish or infidel blood, and they were, besides, obliged 
to undergo a six month's probation or noviciate, to learn the 
rules of the Order. The Canons of the Order were subject to 
the rule of St. Augustin, and ^were bound to prove at the 
nomination, that none of their ancestors, either paternal and 
maternal were, through four generations, engaged in any 
mercantile trade, or even acted as agents, brokers, money- 
changers, &c, and that none were condemned by the Holy 
Inquisition as Jews or infidels. 

The Order soon proved exceedingly useful to the State, and 
acquired much reputation abroad. The members were inde- 
fatigable in their warfare against the Moors, and the red cross 
of the Order shone at the side of the royal standard in all the 
engagements, and great battles which Christendom fought 
against the professors of Islam, or Europe against Africa. 
Nor did the grateful piety of the Kings and nations, added to 
the conquests made by the Order itself, less contribute to 
increase its power, for it counted, towards the end of the 
fifteenth century, besides the three large Commanderies of 
Leon, Castille and Montalvan, nearly two hundred other 

spain. 299 

CommanderieSj comprising more than two hundred priories, 
fiefs, cloisters, hospitals, castles, boroughs, two towns, and 
one hundred and seventy-eight villages, exclusive of its 
possessions in Portugal. The extent, however, of such power 
and wealth (the revenue of the Grand Master alone amounted 
to 15,000 pistoles) naturally roused the envy and fear of the 
Kings, and more especially, when they (the Kings) considered 
the important part which the Order had played during the 
internal disturbances in Spain in the fourteenth and fifteenth 
centuries, as also in the disputes between the crowns of Leon 
and Castille. Nor was the reluctance evinced by the members 
to accommodate themselves to the new order of things, as 
introduced by the preponderate power of the monarchs into all 
the political and civil affairs of the State and society, more 
calculated to allay those fears and suspicions. The conse- 
quence was, that the Order had recourse to cabals and intrigues 
to maintain its own authority and power, especially after the 
Moors had been expelled from Spain, when its existence had 
become less necessary, and when its practical utility for the 
State was almost nugatory. At last, after the death of the 
forty-third Grand Master, Don Alfonzo de Cardenas, in 1493, 
Ferdinand and Isabella assumed the administration of the Order 
on the strength of a Bull of Pope Alexander VI. — which 
was but a prelude to that of Pope Hadrian VI., of the 12th 
May, 1522 — in which the Grand Mastership was for ever 
vested in the crown of Spain. 

In consequence of the latter Bull, the Emperor Charles V. 
established a council, composed of a President and six Knights, 
to manage and conduct all the affairs of the Order, and with 
full povver to appoint ecclesiastical commissioners in all matters 
purely spiritual. The only appeal from the tribunal was to 
the Holy Chair at Rome. 

The Order, having thus become dependent on, and subject to 
the arbitrary power of a secular sovereign, rapidly decreased in 


respect and importance. In 1652, many of the previous severe 
provisions in the statutes were abolished, while others were, by 
some means or other, evaded. It was, on the other hand, 
required that the candidates should in future prove their noble 
descent through four generations, on both parental sides. The 
Order having thus gradually assumed a worldly, or rather courtly 
character, though under a religious guise, finally degenerated 
into a mere decoration of military merit. 

The costume consists of a white mantle, upon the left side 
of which is fastened a cross of red cloth, in the form of a 
sword, with lilies carved on the hilt (Plate 87, Tab. I. 
No. 1), and of a shield (No. 2) worn round the neck by a 
treble chain of gold. Without the costume, the decoration is 
suspended at the button-hole by a red ribbon. 

The escutcheon of the Order is the same cross on a gold 
field, and with a gold shell upon it. 

The flag was yellow, and adorned with the same cross and 
shell, in addition to the four golden shells at the angles. 

Since 1312, the Order had been increased by an institution 
for ladies, through the bounty of Pelago Perez and his wife Maria 
Mendez, who instituted seven canonesses for each of the seven 
convents, the inmates of which were divided into professed 
and lay sisters, dressing in black, and wearing the same 
decoration as the male Knights. Their duty was, to give shelter 
and food to all the pilgrims journeying to St. lago de Cam- 
postella. They were formerly allowed to marry or leave the 
institution ; but since 1480, they have been forced to make the 
vows of poverty, chastity and obedience. Those in the two 
convents of Barcelona and Santos (Portugal), however, retained 
their original more liberal constitution. 

SPAIN. 301 


(for a long time known as : ' ORDER of salvatierra.') 

One single campaign had, in 711, reduced the whole of the 
Pyrenean peninsula under the power of the Moors. In 718, 
however, Pelagius once more raised the banner of the Goths ; and 
after an uninterrupted warfare of three hundred years, Catalonia, 
Navarre, Aragon, Castile, Leon, Galicia and Portugal were once 
more ruled by Christian Princes, while numerous dynasties, in- 
ternal dissensions, and civil and religious wars gradually under- 
mined the power of Islam. In 1130, Alphonso Raimond 
advanced the devastated frontiers of Castile, as far as Sierra 
Morena, imposed tribute upon Cordova, and attacked the 
kingdoms of Murcia and Jaen. Calatrava, which covered the 
frontier of Andalusia, fell into his power in 1147, and he 
confided its custody to the brave and valorous Templars. 
Subsequently, however, when the invincible Emir Almohade, 
the ruler of a great part of Northern Africa, led his ever 
victorious army into Spain, and subjugated (in 1157) 
Cordova, Jaen, Grenada and Almedia, the intimidated Templars 
restored Calatrava to Don Sancho III., son and successor of 
Alphonso Raimond, who was at first unable to find any one 
bold enough to venture upon the defence of a place which had 
been despaired of by the renowned warriors who had abandoned it. 
At that time, two Cistercian monks, Don Raimond, Abbot of Fitero 
in Navarre, and Don Diego Belasquez, were staying at Toledo, on 
some business of their community. The latter, an old soldier of 
Alphonso, roused the enthusiasm of his colleague the Abbot, whom 
he persuaded to accept the offer of the King, to give Calatrava to 
whatever valiant soldiers would undertake its defence. The Arch- 
bishop of Toledo, in whose diocese the town was situated, supplied 


the adventurer with money, and summoned, in an open assembly, 

all men, high and low, to support the efforts of the Abbot, and arm 

themselves in behalf of the Christian religion and their native 

land. Roused patriotism, and a delay in the arrival of Almohade, 

whom important matters retained for a while in Africa, greatly 

contributed to promote the rapid and complete organization of 

the measures of defence, the town was saved ; and Calatrava with 

its vast but desolate district, soon after received a colony of nearly 

twenty thousand inhabitants from Fitero, whom Raimond 

helped to settle on a solid footing, and amongst whom he 

created a new religious Order. This Order received statutes 

from the Chapter-General of the Cistercian monks, which were 

sanctioned by the Archbishop of Toledo (1 164), and subsequently 

also by Pope Alexander III. Numerous privileges, civil and 

religious, were gradually added, such as the undisturbed 

possession of all the provinces and districts taken from the 

Moors, exemption from taxes and royal jurisdiction, and 

permission for the cattle belonging to the Order to pasture 

everywhere in the kingdom, and for their herdsmen or shepherds, 

to fell wood for their own use wherever they might please, &c. 

After the death of Raimond (1163), those Knights who 
were unwilling to obey any longer the commands of an Abbot, 
separated themselves from the Cistercian monks, and elected 
Don Garcias de Redon, as Grand Master. Subsequently, 
they again reunited, and even more closely than before, with the 
Cistercian Order, and received in 1187 new statutes from the 
Abbot Guy, after they had acquired many rich possessions in 
Spain and Portugal, the result of their victories over the Moors. 

When Castille had fallen into anarchy, after the death of 
Sancho, and the other kingdoms of Spain were weakening 
themselves by incessant feuds amongst themselves, the war 
of religion was almost exclusively carried on by the Knights 
of Calatrava alone. To protect his European subjects against 

SPAIN. 303 

the continual pillages of these knightly warriors, Emir Jacub 
ben Yuseff crossed the strait with an African army, and met 
the Castilians near Fort Alarcos. Alphonso IX. would have 
acted wisely had he delayed the battle until the arrival of the 
troops from Leon and Navarre, which kingdoms had likewise 
armed themselves against the common enemy, ' but, in his 
eagerness to obtain the glory of victory for himself, he 
hastened to the field, and was completely routed. Nearlv 
all the Knights who were present, and the best soldiers of 
Alphonso fell in the battle, and Calatrava was soon after 
occupied by the Moors. The Knights then transferred their 
seat to the Castle of Salvatierra, and under that name they 
passed for a long time afterwards. 

The peace of twelve years, which was concluded after this 
fatal battle, terminated in 1208, when the Christians again 
began to prepare for a renewal of the national war. The 
•Knights of Calatrava opened the campaign by the invasion of 
the kingdom of Valencia ; and the victory they gained over 
the enemy on the 16th July, 1212, near Las Navas de 
Tolosa, fearfully avenged the defeat of Alarcos. According to 
the account of Archbishop Rodriguez, the Moors lost 
thirty-five thousand horse, and one hundred and seventy 
thousand foot soldiers, while the loss of the Spaniards 
barely amounted to one hundred and thirty-five men. During 
two resting days which followed the battle, the conquerors are 
said to have maintained the bivouac fires, with the lances 
and arrows left on the battle field by the enemy. 

The Knights again returned to Calatrava, which had been 
reconquered already in 1210, whence they soon, however, 
transferred their seat to the new town of the same name. 
Despite the vast conquests made by the Knights, the Order 
was never in possession of the great wealth and riches, for which 
the Knights of St. James of Compostella were so famous. Its 


moderate income was probably owing to the circumstance 
that it had ceded a part of its conquests to the Orders of 
Alcantara and Aviz. The Order of Calatrava possessed only 
sixteen Priories and-fifty six Commanderies, the largest of which 
yielded no more thak 10,500 ducats of revenue, and the others 
of no more than 7000 to 9000. Notwithstanding, however, 
these scanty resources, the Grand Masters, whose incomes 
amounted to about 40,000 gold thalers, became very powerful 
and influential, chiefly owing to their having been elected from 
the highest Spanish families, by which means they exercised 
great influence on the public affairs of the country, though 
they frequently paid for it with their lives. Two of them 
died on the scaffold, accused of high treason, while after 
the death of the thirtieth Grand Master Garcia Lopez de 
Padilla, when the Chapter was about to elect a successor 
in 1489, Ferdinand and Isabella, produced a Bull of Pope 
Innocent VIII., by whicli he transferred for ever the ad- 
ministration of the Order to the King and his heirs, alleging 
that he was led to the measure by the conviction that 
the Order was, in its existing constitution, entirely incom- 
patible with the power and unity of the State, and that it 
continually acted in opposition to the will and intention of 
the monarch, retarding thereby the growing welfare of the 
nation at large, and lending support and encouragement 
to the usurping and ambitious aristocracy. Ferdinand ac- 
cordingly reserved to the Crown the right of appointing a 
Grand Master, and became himself the manager of the property 
of the Order, with the view— as the Jesuit Mariana said — to 
apply the revenues of the Commanderies to the honourable 
support of brave soldiers in their old age. 

Afterwards, when the Emperor Charles V., as Administrator 
of the Order, held in 1523, the first general Chapter of 
the Order, Pope Hadrian VI. he vested for ever in the Spanish 

SPAIN. 305 

Crown, the Grand Mastership of the three Orders : Calatrava, 
Alcantara, and St. James of Compostella, thus putting an 
end to the independence of those Orders, even as regarded 
the nomination of members, &c. which thenceforth became 
a mere matter of Court favour, irrespective of merit or 
distinction. By way of compensation, Pope Paul III. 
granted, in 1540, permission to the Knights to renounce 
celibacy, and to marry once, though they were still bound 
to make vows of poverty, obedience and conjugal chastity, 
and after the year 1652, to profess belief in the Immaculate 
Conception of the Blessed Virgin. 

Until 1397, when the Anti-pope Benedict XIII. granted 
them the permission to wear, in battle, a civil apparel, instead 
of the cumbersome dress of the Order, their costume consisted 
of a white coat-of-mail with a white scapulary, and of a 
black cap, with a pilgrim's hood. The present costume 
is a white mantle with a red cross cut out in the form of 
lilies, upon the left side of the breast. (Plate 87, Tab. I. 
No. 3), while the Cross of the Order has the same symbol 
upon silver ground (No. 4). 

The Grand Master Don Martin Fernandez, who built 
the new town, Calatrava, about thirty-five English miles 
distant from the old one, and who transferred to it the 
seat of the Order, intended to have added a convent 
for nuns, but, his death intervening, the plan was carried 
into effect, in 1219, by his successor Don Gonzalvo Yanes. 
The cloister Barrios at St. Felix, near Amaya, was the first resi- 
dence assigned to the nuns, who were, however, afterwards trans- 
ferred to Burgos. A second convent was established in 1479, 
in the cloister of St. Salvador at Pinilla, but the most magnifi- 
cent one was founded by the Grand Master Walter of Padilla, in 
the cloister of ' the Assumption of the Holy Virgin,' at Almagra. 

The nuns, who, like the Knights, must, before their 



admission, prove their noble descent, pass by the name 
of ' Female Commanders,' and are apparelled like the 
Cistercian nuns, with the addition only of the Cross of the 
Order, which they wear on the left side of the capoch, 
fastened to the Scapulary. They are, or rather were, richly 



The Order of Calatrava was, as we have seen, mainly founded 
with a view to protect Castille against the Moors, and the 
Knights of St. James of Compostella rendered Estramadura 
secure against the same inveterate opponents, by their first set- 
tlement in Carrceres and Alharilla. But when Ferdinand, King 
of Leon and Galizia, compelled them to emigrate to Ucles, 
they turned their arms chiefly against the infidels in La Mancha. 
To fill up the chasm which was created in Estrama- 
dura by their absence, Ferdinand favoured and patronized a 
society of Knights, which had been formed by the brothers 
Don Suero and Don Gomez Barriento, in the small town of St. 
Julian de Pereiro (St. Julian of the pear tree) near Ciudad 
Rodrigo, as a barrier against Moorish inroads. In 1177, Pope 
Alexander III. raised this society to a Knightly Order, and Pope 
Lucius, in 1183, confirmed the Papal decree. Pope Alexander 
framed statutes for it, which were those of St. Benedict 
in a rather modified and milder form, and which were 
followed also by the Knights of Calatrava, while Pope Lucius 
granted, in addition, considerable privileges, at the same time 
that he submitted the Order to the jurisdiction of the 
Holy Chair. 

SPAIN. 307 

The defence of the Christian religion, and continued war 
against the Moors were the principal duties of the Knights. 

The original costume consisted of a white coat-of-mail 
with a black pilgrim hood over it, and of a capoch and black 
scapulary (three inches wide) reaching down to the girdle. 

The Knights were not only continually engaged in war 
with the infidels, in which they fought bravely for the cause 
of religion and the fatherland, but they frequently took part 
(against the express laws in their statutes), in the feuds of 
the Christians amongst themselves, by which means the Order 
acquired great power, authority and wealth. 

Alphonso IX. having wisely availed himself of the des- 
pondency of the Moors, after their defeat in the battle of Las 
Navas de Tolosa, invaded in his turn their own territory, and took 
possession of the town of Alcantara on the Tagus, which he ceded 
in 1213 to the Order of Calatrava. The latter unable to defend 
alone so many places, and so distantly scattered frontiers, 
yielded the new conquest to the Knights of St. Julian, who 
transferred their seat to Alcantara, by which name they were 
thenceforth known. From a sense of gratitude, they sub- 
mitted to the superintending authority of the Calatrava 
Knights, which they soon, however, found irksome to bear, 
and which consequently led to various disputes, until Pope 
Julius II. absolved them from it. Nor was the Order itself 
free from internal dissensions which, at last, assumed so violent 
a character as to lead, at a later period, to bloody feuds amongst 
the various parties who respectively elected Grand Masters 
of their own, &nd even presumed to interfere in the affairs 
of the State, and meddle with the concerns of the various 
Monarchs of the Spanish kingdoms. At last, in 1495, King 
Ferdinand V. obtained the consent of Pope Innocence VIII. to 
vest the Grand Mastership of the Order in the Spanish crown, by 
which means he increased his own revenue by J 50,000 ducats, 

x 2 . 


the Order being at that time in possession of ten thousand 
five hundred large, and thirty- two smaller, Commanderies, 
some of which yielded an annual income averaging from 
6000 to 7000 ducats. By way of compensation, the Grand 
Master, Don Juan de Zuniga was enfeoffed with an Arch- 
bishopric, and received a reversionary patent of a Cardinal's 

The Cross of the Order of Alcantara, which was substituted 
in 1441, for the previous black collar and scapulary, and 
which is worn by a green ribbon, is the same as that of the 
Order of Calatrava, with the exception of the colour, which 
is green (Plate 87, Tab. I. Nos. 5 and 6). The costume is, 
likewise, with the exception of the colour of the lily wreath, 
the same. The crest of the Order is a pear tree. 

In 1540, the Knights obtained permission to marry, though 
they remained still bound to the vows of poverty, conjugal 
chastity and obedience, as also to the defence of the doctrine 
of the Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin. At their 
nomination they are obliged to prove their noble descent 
through four generations. 


The long and protracted wars with the Moors involved 
the Spanish monarchs in difficulties of various kinds, and 
necessitated the creation of new resources, and the adoption of 
extraordinary measures, more especially as the clergy, who 
possessed a great portion of the national property, as well 
as the towns and nobility in the enjoyment of extensive 
privileges and exemptions, did not always show themselves ready 
to lend the necessary support and assistance in cases of emer- 
gency. These peculiar resources, the princes found in the chi- 

51' A KV lame u. 

I' I.A'I i: 8S. 

HurM iin'l Rlackclt . London. lS.iS 

SPAIN. 309 

valrous spirit and religious enthusiasm of the knightly Orders, 
who appeared everywhere as brave, indefatigable, and energetic 
champions, and as strong bulwarks on the Moorish frontiers. 
They were, at that period, almost indispensable institutions for 
the political power of Spain and Portugal, and they proved, 
indeed, the chief promoters of Christianity, and the most effica- 
cious organs to stimulate patriotism and national spirit in those 

The abrogation of the Order of the Templars which was 
pronounced at the Council of Vienne, in 1312, by the contri- 
vances of the designing Philip-le-Bel, could not, therefore, be a 
matter of indifference to those countries whose interests were 
so deeply involved in the existence of that and similar institutions. 
The history of Spain shows, indeed, that warm and well-founded 
demonstrations were made in various quarters against the injus- 
tice of the measure, and more especially so by King James II. of 
Aragon and Valencia, who most urgently pressed Pope 
Clement V. to allow him to employ all the estates of the 
Templars, situated in his dominions, for the foundation of a new 
knightly Order, so indispensably necessary for his kingdom. 
His request was, however, only granted in 1316 by Pope 
John XXIL, who yielded to him all the estates of the Templars, 
and of the Knights of St. John, situated in Valencia. Provided 
with these funds, King James founded, in 1317, a new Order, 
that of our Lady of Montesa, after the Fortress Montesa, 
which he assigned as its head-quarters. 

The Order received the rules of the Benedictines, and the 
statutes of the Knights of Calatrava, who were intrusted with 
the super-inspection of the new institution. 

Pope Benedict XII. united with it, in 1399, the Order of 
St. George of Alfama. 

King Philip II. procured for the Crown the supreme ad- 
ministration of the Order, and after the death of tin; fourteenth 


Grand Master, the dignity was transferred, in 1587, to the 
Kings of Spain. Fifteen years previously, Pope Paul had 
allowed the Knights to marry and make their wills. The 
Order possessed at that time thirteen Commanderies. 

At present, the badge is merely a mark of royal favour, 
though in the distribution, the provisions of the statutes are still 
nominally consulted. 

The insignia are sketched in (Plate 88, Tab. II. No. 8). 
The costume, on gala days, consists of a long white woollen 
mantle, tied at the neek by very long white cords, while a 
cross (No. 7) adorns the left side of the breast. 


The history of this Order is given under Austria. In 
Spain, Princes, Grandees, and other high personages of peculiar 
merit and distinction are alone admissible to it. 

The decoration (Tab. II. No. 9) differs in some points from 
the Austrian, and is worn on a collar (No. 10), or suspended 
round the neck by a red ribbon. 

By a decree of the present Queen of Spain, the decoration 
of the Grand Cross can only be conferred at the recommen- 
dation of the Cabinet Council. 


The Order was founded, in 1771, by King Charles III., on 
the occasion of the birth of his grandson, Charles Clement, and 
was confirmed by a Bull of Pope Clement XIV., dated the 21st 
February, 1772, who also granted to it various spiritual 

SPA 1 N. Table III. 


lliiisl and filarlvPH, l.nnilnn. IS.'iS 

SPAIN. 311 

The statutes now in force date from the 12th January, 
1804, as promulgated by King Charles IV. 

The Order shared the fate of all other Spanish orders, which 
were abolished in 1808 by Joseph Bonaparte, but were restored 
in 1814. It is devoted ' to the pure Conception of the Virgin,' 
and destined to reward marked zeal displayed by the nobility for 
the interests of the Crown. 

The King is Chief and Grand Master: he nominates the 
members and dignitaries, and has also the right to make altera- 
tions in the rules and statutes. 

The members form two classes : Knights of the Grand 
Cross, and simple Knights. The first class is limited to sixty 
members (exclusive of the King and the royal Princes) amono- 
whom are four Prelates. Two hundred members of the second 
class enjoy a pension of 1000 reales (£10) each. Those who 
are without it, pass as supernumeraries, and form as it were a 
separate class of their own. 

The candidates for the first or the second pensioned class, 
must not be less than twenty-five years, and those for the super- 
numerary class not less than fourteen years, of age. The rule 
does not, however, apply to the members of the royal family, or 
to foreign princes. The candidates must, in addition, prove their 
noble descent through four generations by both parents. The 
badge may be worn at the side of the Golden Fleece, but the 
Knights of the Grand Cross are not allowed to wear the ribbon of 
St. Januarius, or the Grand Cross of St. John, nor any foreign 
decoration, without special permission from the Grand Master. 
The simple Knights are forbidden to enter any of the four 
military orders, or the St. John, or any foreign order, though 
the members of all these orders may retain their previous 
decorations on receiving the Grand Cross of the Order of 
Charles III. 

The Knights of the Grand Cross may possess or administer a 


military Commandery without prejudice to their decoration ; 
but, when a simple Knight comes into possession of such a 
Commandery, he must resign the Cross and pension. 

A Knight Grand Cross is styled ' Excellency,' has free 
access to the royal palace, and is saluted with all the honours 
attached to the title. 

The Knights enjoy the same rights and privileges as do the 
members of the four military orders, or of the Order of St. 
John, but are not allowed to marry, without the consent of the 

At the nomination, the Knight must swear to live and die 
in the established religion of the country, to defend the myste- 
rious doctrine of the Immaculate Conception, to be true to the 
throne, to defend the rights of the crown and the nation, to protect 
loyal subjects, and to assist the sick and the poor, especially those 
of the Order. Foreigners only swear to live and die in the 
Catholic religion, to defend the doctrine of the Conception, and 
acknowledge the Sovereign, as the head of the Order. 

The other duties of the members are : to take the sacrament 
on Conception day, or on the following Sunday, to say daily the 
prescribed prayers, and to possess a copy of the statutes. 

The management of the Order is conducted by a committee, 
consisting of a Grand Chancellor, Deputy Chairman (in the 
name of the monarch), four Knights of the Grand Cross, 
Secretary, Treasurer, Master of Ceremonies, Attorney-General 
and four pensioned Knights. The council is to meet at least 
once every month in the royal castle, in the office occu- 
pied by the Grand Chancellor, who is the head manager of the 
affairs of the Order, and is always one of the most eminent 
Prelates of the kingdom. 

The expenses are usually defrayed from a part of the 
revenues derived from the vacant Commanderies of the four 
military Orders, from a portion of the income of the 

SPAIN. 313 

metropolitan churches and cathedrals, and from a few other 
benefices at the disposal of the Crown, and also from the entrance 
fees of 8500 reales paid by the Knights of the Grand Cross, of 
4000 reales paid by the pensioned Knights, and of 3750 reales 
paid by the supernumerary Knights. In passing from a lower 
to a higher class, only the difference of the fees is paid. 

The decoration consists of an octagonal gold cross with 
buttons on the points, and appended to a laurel wreath. The 
arms of the cross are bright blue, edged with white enamel, and 
connected with each other by golden lilies. The middle 
of the obverse is enamelled yellow, partly bright and partly 
dark, and is encircled by a blue ring. It exhibits the figure 
of the Blessed Virgin standing upon a silver crescent, and clad in 
a tunic, and in a bright blue mantle interspersed with silver 
stars. The reverse shows the initials of the founder within a 
laurel wreath, and the legend: ' Virtuti et Merito ' (Plate 88, 
Tab. II. No. 13). The decoration is, with the exception of 
the size, the same for both classes, and is worn, by the first 
class, across the right shoulder by a ribbon, white in the middle 
and blue at the borders, and by the second, suspended at the 

The Knights of the Grand Cross wear, besides, the same 
cross embroidered in silver, (the middle in silk), on the left side 
of the breast. The initials of the founder and the motto 
of the Order, are placed beneath the crescent. (No. 4). On 
gala days this cross may be adorned with brilliants, and the 
collar (Plate 89, No. 19) is added to it. 

Ecclesiastics, when in their official dress, wear the decoration 
round the neck, otherwise they have the cross embroidered on 
the coat or cloak. Since the time of Ferdinand VII. the second 
class Knights are also allowed to wear upon the breast an 
embroidered cross, representing the reverse of the decoration 
(Plate 88, Tab. II. No. 12). 


The costume consists of a blue silk mantle interspersed with 
silver stars, of a blue silk coat with white and blue fringes, of 
a white and blue sash, black silk breeches, blue velvet hat a la 
Henri IV. with white feathers for the Grand Cross Knights, with 
blue feathers for the pensioned Knights, and with a blue plume 
for the supernumerary Knights. The secular officials of the Order 
have the same costume as the first class Knights, but wear the 
decoration like the spiritual Knights round the neck. 

It may not be uninteresting to know that amongst the Knights 
of the Grand Cross, created within the last forty-five years, is 
St. Ignatius Loyola, the founder of the Order of Jesuits. It was 
customary in Spain during the wars with the Moors, to honour 
Saints with such decorations, and even nominate them Field- 
Marshals in some peculiar expeditions. The above worldly 
honour was conferred on St. Ignatius in 1847. 

By a decree of the 26 th July, 1847, the Order of Charles III. 
was divided into four classes: Knights of the Grand Cross, 
Commanders first and second class, and Knights. The Knights 
wear the decoration at the button-hole, and the Commanders 
round the neck. The Commanders, first class, wear besides a 
star upon the coat, the form of which differs with the Knights 
of the Grand Cross, who possess the title ' Excellency.' The 
latter wear on solemn occasions the chain of the Order. 

Exclusive of foreign members, the number of Knights Grand 
Cross is not to exceed one hundred and twenty, and that of 
the Commanders, first class, three hundred, while that of the 
two last classes is unlimited. 

Was founded on the 19th March, 1792, by King Carlos IV. 

SPAIN. 315 

to afford the much beloved Queen, as the Warrant says, aa 
additional opportunity of testifying her gratification and good 
wishes to those noble ladies who distinguish themselves by 
their loyal services, sincere attachment and noble virtues." 

The Order stands under the patronage of St. Ferdinand. 

The Queen nominates the lady members, who are bound 
to visit once a month, one of the hospitals for females or some 
other similar institution, and also order mass to be read in 
their presence once a year, for the deceased souls of departed 

The cross (Plate 89, Tab. III. No. 14) represents on the 
obverse the figure of St. Ferdinand, and on the reverse the 
initials of Maria Louisa, with the legend : ' Rl. Ordo dla, Reina 
Maria Luisa.' It is worn across the right shoulder towards the 
left side, by a broad violet ribbon, with white stripes in the 

This Order, by decree of the present Queen, can 
only be conferred on individuals recommended by the Cabinet 


This Order was founded on the 28th November, 1814, by 
Ferdinand VII., for officers of the Spanish army and navy, as a 
reward for long service. 

The King is Chief and Grand Master of the Order, which is 
divided into three classes. 

To the first class, or Knights of the cross, belong Captain- 
Generals and Generals, who have possessed the rank of officers 
for forty years. With the nomination, they receive the title 
' Excellency.' 

The second class comprises officers of the degree of Brigadier 


and under, who have also occupied the rank of officers for forty 

The claim to the third class, is founded on twenty-five years' 
service, with the rank of officer for at least ten years. 

The King has the right to waive the condition of the number 
of years, in favour of candidates who have specially distinguished 
themselves in a battle or siege. 

Officers who are still on active service, ten years after their 
nomination, are entitled to a pension, amounting, in the first 
class, to 10,000 reales (£100), in the second class to 4800 R. 
(£48), and in the third class to 2400 R. (£24). 

The badge consists of a white enamelled cross, surmounted 
by a gold crown. The round middle is enamelled blue, and 
represents on the obverse the figure of St. Hermengilde on 
horseback, holding in her right hand a palm branch, and the 
legend : ' Premio a la constancia militar ' (Reward for military 
perseverance). The reverse exhibits the initial ' F. VII.' 
(Plate 90, Tab. IV. No. 21). 

The Knights of the Grand Cross wear the decoration across 
the right shoulder towards the left side, by a broad ribbon with 
three stripes, crimson in the middle and white at the sides, and 
are entitled to a star (No. 20) of gold and silver upon the left 
side of the breast. 

The Knights of the second class wear the same star, but 
suspend the cross at the button-hole. 

The Knights of the third class, wear, likewise, the cross at the 
button-hole, but have no star. 

The Chapter meets once a year under the presidency of the 
Monarch or the Captain-General of the province. 

The foundation of this Order took place in 1811. 

S P A I X . Table I V 

I'l.A I E !)(). 

Hursl and ltlurkell. London. 18."i8. 

SPAIN. 317 

Despite the stanch conservative principles adhered to by the 
Cortes, that august assembly thought it advisable to yield in this 
instance, at least, to public opinion. The old monopolies of 
the nobility, their exclusive possession of all the superior 
places in the army, navy and military schools, had already been 
abolished at an early period, while the old knightly orders were 
about to become so, owing to the extreme unpopularity of the 
nobility who were the sole owners of those decorations. The 
creation of new military rewards came then under the serious 
consideration of the Assembly. Government was resolved to 
substitute her new military decorations founded on real merit, 
-love of independence and patriotism, for the old ones, which 
had become mercenary and were an article of traffic in the hands 
of the generals and local authorities. The new military Order of 
Merit was then founded and named after St. Ferdinand; it 
was made accessible to all military persons, whose real distinc- 
tion and merit were testified by a Commission of Enquiry which 
was instituted for the purpose. 

The badge consisted of a Grand Cross for Generals, a gold 
cross for officers, and a silver one for sub-officers and privates, 
the latter exchanging the silver for the gold, on promotion 
to epaulettes. Certain demonstrations of honour were con- 
nected with the Order, as also some pecuniary reward for 
repeated acts of distinction. 

King Ferdinand VII., immediately after his return to his 
kingdom, declared himself head of the Order, and promulgated 
on the 10th July, 1815, the following regulations: The King- 
is Chief and Grand Master of the Order : he alone nominates 
the Knights, who are divided into five classes. The first consists 
of officers up to the rank of Colonel, the second of officers of 
the same grade, who have distinguished themselves by heroic 
deeds; the third comprises Generals; the fourth Generals of 
prominent distinction ; and the fifth, Generals, who, in their 


capacity of Commanders-in-chief, have done their duty with 
peculiar skill and success. These last named bear the titles of 
'Excellency' and Grand Cross Knights. It is prohibited to 
petition for nomination into this class. 

Knights of repeated and new acts of distinction and merit, 
receive pensions, viz. a Division-General 15,000, a Brigadier- 
General 12,000, a Colonel 10,000, a Captain 6000, a subaltern- 
officer 1095, and a private 750 reales. 

For a third exploit or distinction, the pension becomes 
hereditary, and passes after death, to the widow, or (if single) to 
the father of the Knight. 

Every year, on St. Ferdinand's day, a solemn high mass is 
said in the presence of all the Knights, and on the following 
day, for the departed souls of the deceased members. 

Plate 89, Tab. III. No. 17, represents the decoration of the 
first and third classes, and No. 18 of the second and fourth 
classes, which is worn at the button-hole. No. 1 6 exhibits the 
middle of the third, and No. 1 5 that of the fourth class. 

The Knights of the Grand Cross wear besides, a broad 
ribbon in the form of a scarf across the right shoulder towards 
the left side. 

Sub-officers receive the decoration of the first or second class 
in silver. 


This Order was founded by Ferdinand VII. on the 24th 
March, 1815, and placed under the patronage of St. Isabella of 
Portugal. It was originally destined as a reward of loyalty to 
the Royal House, and for the defence of the Spanish possessions 
in America. At present it serves as a distinction of honour for 
all kinds of merit. The King is head of the Order,] which is 

SPAIN. 319 

divided into three classes, Knights of the Grand Cross, Com- 
manders, and Knights. 

Nomination to the Order confers personal nobility, and the 
Grand Cross, the title of ' Excellency.' 

The decoration (Plate 90, Tab. IV. No. 23) is worn by the 
Knights of the first class by a ribbon across the right shoulder 
towards the left side, (if ecclesiastics, round the neck) ; by those 
of the second class round the neck, and by those of the third 
class at the button-hole ; the latter, if ecclesiastics, wear it round 
the neck by a black ribbon. 

The decoration for the Indians is a gold medal with the 
effigy of the King, and is worn on the breast by a violet 

The first class have, besides, fastened to the left side of their 
dress, the star No. 22. 

The costume, on gala days, consists of a mantle of yellow 
velvet, of a tunic of white velvet trimmed with gold embroidery, 
of white shoes with golden bows, and of a Spanish hat with 
white and yellow feathers. The decoration is then appended 
to a collar, and may be adorned with precious stones. 


It was founded by Ferdinand VII., for the army and 
navy, on their having taken the oath of allegiance to the 
Infanta Maria Isabella Louisa, the presumptive heiress to 
the throne. 

It is of gold for officers, and of silver for privates (Plate 90, 
No. 24). 

Their number is very great, as in recent times many have 


been struck and instituted for special events, purposes, and 
even individuals. 

We shall arrange them, to the best of our knowledge, in 
chronological order. 

1. Medal for the Andalusian army under General Castanos 
who, on the 19th July, 1808, compelled the French General, 
Dupont, and his division to surrender at Baylen. It was in- 
stituted, in 1808, by the Junta of Seville in the name of the 

2. Cross for the troops of General La Romana, instituted 
on the 23rd March, 1809. 

3. Cross for the zeal and patriotism displayed by the Junta 
of Catalonia, instituted by the Central Junta on the 15th 
January, 1810, and confirmed by the King on the 12th May, 

4. Medal for the eldest son of Count Casa-Roxas, Don Jose, 
for his distinguished patriotism and exemplary disinterestedness 
in the sacrifices made by him during the French invasion. 
It was founded in 1810. 

5. Cross for the defence of Gerona in 1809, founded on 
the 14th September, 1810. 

6. Cross for the generals and officers who were present at 
the battle of Talavera, on the 28th July, 1809. It was 
founded on the 8 th December, 1810. 

7. Cross for the carabine batallion which defended the 
town of Lerin, on the 25th, 26th and 27th September, 1808. 
It was founded on the 23rd July, 1811. 

8. Cross for the Spaniards who accompanied the King to 
Valencey. It was founded on the 23rd August, 1814. 

9. Cross for the military who distinguished themselves 
at the siege of Saragossa. It was instituted on the 30th 
August, 1814, of gold for generals and officers, and of copper, 
for privates. 

srMN. 321 

10. Cross for the military who were present at the battle 
of St. Marcial, near Bidassoa, on the 30th August, 1813. It 
was founded on the 24th October, 1814, of gold, for generals 
and officers, and of copper, for common soldiers. 

11. Medal for the military who were prisoners in France. 
It was founded on the 6th November, 1814, of gold, for 
superior officers, and of silver, for privates. A decree of the 
26th July, 1815, admits civilians also to this medal. 

12. Cross for the individuals who incurred the disgrace 
and persecution of the Prince of the Peace by their adherence 
and loyalty to the King, at and after his arrest in the Escurial. 
It was founded on the 5th December, 1814. 

13. Cross of gold for the officers, and of silver for the 
privates of the garrison of Ciudad-Rodrigo, who distinguished 
themselves at the sorties on the 10th July, 1810. It was 
instituted on the 6th December, 1819. 

14. Cross of gold, for the guards and officers, and of copper 
for the men, of the Andalusian corps, who distinguished them- 
selves in the campaign of 1813, and more especially at the 
taking of Pancorbo, and the engagements of Soraura in the 
Pyrenees and Nivelle. It was founded on the 28th December, 

15. Cross for the Generals and officers of the 4th army, 
who were present at the battle of Toulouse on the 10th April, 
1814. It was founded on the 30th January, 1815. 

16. Cross for the troops who were present at the battle of 
Chiclana, on the 5th March, 1811. It was founded on the 
13th February, 1815. 

17. Cross for the Generals, officers, and men of the army 
of Estremadura, who distinguished themselves at the battle 
of Albufera, won by the Generals Castanos and Blake, on the 
16th March, 1811. It was founded on the 1st March, 1815. 

18. Cross founded on the 17th March, 1815, in com- 




melioration of the recapture of Seville on the 27th August, 
1812. It is of gold for officers, and of bronze for privates. 

19. Cross for the brave soldiers of the first army who 
distinguished themselves in the war of independence, especially 
in Catalonia. It was founded on the 31st March, 1815. 

20. Cross, founded on the 31st March, 1815, for the troops 
of the second army, who had distinguished themselves in 

21. Cross for the third army, commanded by the Duke 
Albuquerque, in the island of Leon, and at the defence of Cadiz. 
It was also founded on the 31st March, 1815. 

22. Cross, instituted on the 2nd April, 1815, in commemo- 
ration of the Battle of Vittoria, on the 21st June, 1813, won by 
the divisions of the 4th Corps of the Army, under the command of 
the Captain-General, the Duke of Ciudad Rodrigo (Wellington), 
and Field-Marshal, D. Francisco Thomas de Longa. 

23. Cross of merit for the Artillery Corps, for the defence 
of the castle San Lorenzo del Puntal, in the environs of Cadiz, 
in 1814. It was founded on the 10th April, 1815. 

24. Cross founded on the same day in commemoration of 
the defence of Astorza against the Corps-d'armee of Junot. 

25. Cross founded on the 27th April, 1815, in commemo- 
ration of the Battle of Vails, in Catalonia, on the 25th February, 
1809, which was won by General Reding. 

26. Cross conferred on a Grenadier column (second Army 
Corps, third division) for the sanguinary battle near Ordal, in 
Catalonia, on the night of the 12th September, 1813. 

27. Cross founded on the 14th May, 1815, for the troops 
under Don Juan Senen de Contreras, who succeeded in pro- 
longing for two months the defence of Tarragona. 

28. Cross founded on the same day for the soldiers of the 
small Army Corps of Arragon, under the command of Don 
Joachim Blake, who had distinguished themselves at the 

spain. 323 

Battle of Alcaniz, on the 23rd May, 1809, against Marshal 

29. Cross for the Generals, officers and soldiers of the 
Galieian Army (6th army, or left wing), who had distinguished 
themselves in the sanguinary mountain engagements of Rio-Seco, 
Sornaza, Gueces, Espinosa, &c. It was founded on the 14th 
May, and 12th and 25th of June, 1815. 

30. Cross founded on the 29 th May, 181 5, for the troops of the 
7th army, in the War of Independence, in the towns of Castille, 
Astoria, Arragon and Navarre, as also in the Basque provinces, 
under General Don Gabriel de Mendizabal. 

31. Cross founded on the 3rd June, 1815, in gold for 
officers, and in silver for privates, who had distinguished them- 
selves on the 7th June, 1808, near the bridge of Alcolea, against 
General Dupont. 

32. Cross founded on the 4th May, 1815, in gold, for the 
officers, and in silver, for the men of the 4th army, and of the 
navy, who had distinguished themselves at the defence of 
Tariffa, in December, 1811. 

33. Cross founded on the 4th June, 1815, for civilians, who, 
true to the King and the legitimate cause, preferred incarceration 
in the prisons of France, to the recognition of the government 
of Napoleon. 

34. Cross founded on the 4th June, 1815, for the Army 
Corps, which defended Asturia against Marshal Ney, and 
the Generals Kellerman and Bonnet. 

35. Cross founded on the 5th June, 1815, for the Army 
Corps of Estramadura, under the Duke Albuquerque, which 
covered the retreat of the government to the island of Leon, 
in the year 1810. 

36. Medal instituted on the 12th June, 1815, of gold, for 
the officers, of silver, for the sub-officers, and of copper, for the 
men of the van-guard of the centre, commanded by General 

Y 2 


Don Franciscus Xaverus de Venegas, for the engagement of 
Tarancon, on the 25th December, 1808. 

37. Cross founded on the 14th June, 1815, of gold for the 
Generals, officers and soldiers, who were present at the sieges of 
Pampeluna and Bayonne, in 1813 and 1814, under the 
command of General Espafia. 

38. Medal (of the 2nd July), for the troops present at the 
battle of Tamames, on the 18th October, 1809. 

39. Medal (of the same date) for the troops who were engaged 
in the battle of Medina del Campo, on the 23rd November, 1 809. 

40. Cross (of the 9th July, 1815), for the Cabinet-couriers 
employed in active service during the War of Independence. 

41. Cross, founded on the 2nd July, 1815, for the Spanish 
divisions, who forsook the French army in Portugal, in 1808, 
on the War of Independence breaking out, and who joined 
the patriotic levies which were fighting for their King and 

42. Cross founded on the 27th October, 1815, for the 
widows' children and near relations of those who fell at the 
rising of Madrid, against the French, on the 2nd May, 1808. 

43. Cross of gold and enamel for the officers, and of gilt 
silver, for the sub-officers and men of the army and navy, who 
had taken part in the siege of Cartagena de las Indias, in 
America, under the command of Lieutenant- General Morillo. It 
was founded on the 1st of April, 1816. 

44. Cross founded on the 18th April, 1816, for the troops 
of the 1st Division, under General Reding, in the engagement 
of Menjibar, on the 16th July, 1808. 

45—47. Crosses founded on the 30th May, 1816, for the 
officers and men who were present at the Battles of Bubierca 
(29th November, 1808), of Aranjuez (5th August, 1809), and 
of Almonacid (1 1th August, 1809). 

48. Decoration of honour, founded on the 31st May, 1816 

spain. 305 

for the members of the council of the Mesta (a privileged cor- 
poration of the owners of migratory flocks of sheep), who had 
taken part in the sittings of the 26th April, and 3rd May, 
1816, under the presidency of the King. 

49. Cross (of the 27th June, 1816), for all the military who 
formed the division of Majorca, during the War of Independence, 
under Lieutenant-General Wittingham. 

50. Cross (of the above date) for the troops of the division 
of Malloria, who were present at the battle of Castella, against 
Marshal Suchet, on the 13th April, 1813. 

51. Cross founded on the 22nd September, 1816, for the 
Chefs, officers, and other individuals of the royal navy, who 
had contributed to the success of the War of Independence. 
For officers it is of gold and enamel, and for the lower ranks, 
of silver. 

52. Medal purposely struck on the 23rd October, 1816, 
for Don Fernando Ramirez de Luque, Don Antonio Ortiz 
Repiso, Don Francisco Polo Valenzuela, and Don Francisco 
d'Assis de la Carrera, as a reward for their services rendered on 
the 25th September, 1810, in Lucena, at the risk of their 
own lives. 

53. Cross founded on the 13th May, 1807, for the troops 
of the Galician army who took an active part, under the 
command of General Don Nicolas Mahy, at the re-capture of 
Villafranca del Vierzo, as also in the engagements of the 18 th 
and 19th May, 1809, near Lago. It is of gold for officers, 
and of bronze for the lower degrees. 

54. Cross founded at the same date, for the inhabitants of 
Madrid, who so stoutly resisted the entrance of the French 
in the first three days of December, 1808. The claims to this 
decoration were rigidly examined, and refused to those who 
had directly or indirectly purchased, or were engaged in the sale 
of any of the national property at that period ; and none 


were admitted who had accepted places or served in the 
National Guard during the unlawful government of the 

55. Medal bestowed on the 19th October, 1823, on twenty- 
seven inhabitants of Villar de Ciervos, who had distinguished 
themselves on the 27th August of that year, in the engagement 
against the constitutional band of Don Alonzo Martin, Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel of the regiment of Algarbia, and brother of the 
notorious Empecinado. 

56. Scutcheon of loyalty, founded on the 14th December, 
1823, for the Spaniards who, in the years 1820 and 1823, 
quitted their herds and flocks and fought with courage, 
perseverance, and inviolable faith for the cause of their King, 
religion and country. It is worn on the left side of the 
breast, embroidered, for sub-officers, with silk, and for privates, 
with wool, and has the inscription : ' El Rey a la fidelidad ' 
(The King to loyalty). 

57. Cross for Military Loyalty, was founded on the 9th 
August, 1824, as a reward for the royal troops who 
resolutely and bravely defended, in the years 1820 and 1823, 
the sovereignty of the King. It is of gold for the higher 
grades, of silver for subaltern officers, and of copper for privates. 
The obverse bears the inscription : ' El Rey a la Fidelidad 
Militar/ and the reverse, the royal crest with the legend : 
' Fernando VII. a los defensores de la religion y del trono en 
grado heroico y eminente ' (Ferdinand VII. to those who 
defended in a most heroic and eminent manner the religion and 
the throne). For those who merited the reward in the 
time from the 7th March, 1820, to the 30th June, 1822, the 
cross is additionally adorned with a laurel branch The period 
is divided into two parts, from the 7th March, 1820, to the 
30th June, 1822, and again from the latter date to the 
1st March, 1823. Those who have taken part in the 

spain. 327 

campaigns of either of the two periods, wear the decoration at 
the hutton-hole, while those who were engaged in hoth periods 
suspend it round the neck. 

58. Queen Maria Christina founded, in her capacity of 
Regent, on the 10th October, 1832, a decoration of honour 
under the name : ' Constancia Militar ' (Military constancy.) 
It is divided into four classes : the first is conferred for ten 
years' service, and is accompanied by an additional pay of 
4 reales per month, the second for fifteen years' service with 
an addition of 10 R., the third for twenty years' service with 
an addition of 20 R., and the fourth for twenty-five years' service 
with an addition of 30 reales. 



The King is the head and Grand Master of all the Swedish 
Orders, but has not the right to abolish any of them. 

As a mark of special favour, he may confer the decoration 
set in diamonds. . 

The entrance fees paid by foreigners go to the treasury 
of the Hospital at Stockholm. 

He who wears a decoration unlawfully, is liable to a fine 
of 333 rixthalers and 16 skillings (about £23). 

In 1783, King Gustavus III. ordered, that a collection 
of the portraits of all the Knights, in copper-plate engravings, 
should be published, accompanied by a brief biography, written 
by the Court historiographer. The work had actually been 
begun, and a considerable number of the portraits been worked 
off by the celebrated J. F. Martin, when the war put an end to 
the undertaking. 

No Swedish subject can accept a foreign Order without 
special permission from the King. 

The decorations are not hereditary, and must be returned 
after the decease of the owners. 

SWEDEN Ttibli'l. 


Hursl and lilarkiUl, London. 18.'»S. 



There is no doubt whatever of the antiquity of this Order, 
yet it is very difficult to arrive at the exact date of the 
foundation. General opinion, though without positive proof, 
ascribes its origin, about the year 1280, to King Magnus I., 
who is said to have instituted it at the persuasion of the 
Maltese Knights. Another account ascribes the foundation 
to Magnus's grandson, Magnus Erichson. This presumption 
is somewhat supported by the historical fact, that Erichson 
had, at his coronation, in 1336, dubbed several persons 
Knights of the Order of the Seraphim. From this bare fact, 
however, w 7 e would rather be inclined to infer that the Order 
had already been in existence at the time of his accession to 
the throne. 

Quite as uncertain are the form of the insignia, and the 
provisions of the statutes in ancient times. We only know, 
that on grand occasions, a certain number of individuals 
were knighted and created members of the Order, while the 
earliest form of the badge is only known to us historically 
by a description of the time of Charles IX., who abolished 
the Order on the introduction of Lutheranism in Sweden. 
At that time, the decoration consisted of an oval medal, 
enamelled blue, with the name ' Jesus ' in gold, and with 
four small white and black enamelled nails at the narrow 
edges, in allusion to the passion of Christ. This medal was 
then worn appended to a gold neck-chain, composed of red 
enamelled cherubims, and patriarchal crosses without enamel. 

Kino- Frederick I. revived the Order, as also those of the 
Sword and North Star, on the 28th April, 1 748 (his seventy- 


second birthday). He also promulgated new statutes, which King 
Charles XIII. afterwards modified in many points. 

The principal provisions of the new statutes are : 

That the Order is to consist of only one class, comprising 
twenty-four Swedish and eight foreign Knights (the number 
has, however, of late been greatly exceeded), exclusive of the 
King and the royal princes, who are considered born Knights, 
as also of the reigning monarchs and princes abroad, and their 
eldest sons, who may be admitted to the Order. 

The candidates to possess the rank of, at least, Lieutenant- 

The nomination of new members to take place once a-year 
in the Chapter, usually on the Monday after Advent, to remind 
the Knights that faith is due to the King of Zion. The actual 
reception into the Order, however, is fixed at the 28th April, the 
birthday of King Frederick I. of glorious memory. In the interval 
between the nomination and reception, the newly elected member 
can only wear the star, but not the cross with the ribbon. 

The reception takes place at Stockholm in the Knightly 
Holm Church, or in the royal chapel in the Castle, in the 
presence of all the Knights and functionaries of the Order, 
as also of the Commanders of all the other Orders. 

The ceremonies are as follow : 

The King is seated under a canopy to the right of the altar, 
and the Knights assembled occupy benches to the right and 
the left, while the newly elected member is placed in front of 
the altar between two senior members, who act, as it 
were, as sponsors. After the hymn, " Come, Holy Spirit " 
is chanted, the chief preacher of the Court briefly addresses the 
meeting on the duties of the subjects towards God, the King, 
and the country. The Chancellor, who stands to the left of the 
sovereign, then explains in a few words the object of the Order, 
the honour attached to it, and the reasons which have induced 


His Majesty to elect the new Knight. The two sponsors, 
thereupon, conduct the postulant before the King, where he 
kneels down, and replies affirmatively, with a simple "Yes," 
to all the following questions: Does he promise before 
God and the King; : 

1. To honour, defend and preserve the laws and statutes of 
the Order ? 

2. To be ready to shed his blood for the Evangelical 
Lutheran religion, and for the welfare of the country ? 

3. To assist, by his courage, to sustain the ancient glory 
of the Swedish name ? 

4. To contribute, to the best of his power, to a life of peace 
and union amongst the Knights of the Order ? 

5. To watch over the honours and privileges now granted 
to him ? 

6. To do good to the poor, and protect widows and orphans ? 
On these questions being answered, the King hands the 

diploma to the Secretary from whom the Chancellor receives 
the document and reads it aloud to the assembly, after which 
the new Knight swears to defend with his life and property 
the Christian religion, to remain true to the King and the 
State, to protect the poor, widows and orphans, and to 
promote their welfare to the best of his power. 

The Kin<r then takes from the Treasurer the chain of 
the Order, hangs it round the neck of the new Knight, 
and, dubbing him with the coronation sword, says : " We .... 
" King of Sweden, Gothia and Vandalia, receive thee as a 
"brave and honourable Swedish and Gothian Knight of our 
< l Order of the Seraphim. Be worthy of it," and embracing him 
amid the sound of drums and trumpets, he concludes with the 
words : " May the Lord protect thee !" The Knight, thus elected, 
then thanks His Majesty, kisses his hand, and embraces all 
his new colleagues, whereupon each of them repeats the words : 


" May the Lord protect thee !" With this, the ceremony 

The spiritual functions of the Order are managed by the 
chaplain of the Court, who is also an ecclesiastical member 
of the Order, and in that capacity wears a small seraphim 
cross appended to a gold chain. 

No Swede can obtain this Order without already possessing 
either that of the ' Sword ' or the ' North Star.' On receiving 
the ' Order of the Seraphim ' he becomes a Commander of the 
previous Order or Orders. 

The new member pays entrance fees of 200 ducats for the 
treasury of the Order, 25 rixthaler, stamp duties, 5 rixthaler, 
chancery dues, and 1 thaler and 1 6 skillings, for every year 
of his age. The annual subscription is only 8 skillings 
to defray the necessary expenses of the Order. 

The entrance fees of foreigners go — as mentioned above — ■ 
to the treasury of the Hospital of Stockholm. 

No member can accept a foreign decoration without special 
permission from the Chapter. 

In 1784, Gustavus III. appointed a Bishop for the Order, 
to supervise the ecclesiastics placed in the hospitals and schools 
of the Order. 

At festivals, the costume of the Knights consists of 
a garment of white satin, after the national fashion, with 
black cuffs, facings, buttons and cords ; of white shoes, with 
heels of black velvet, and with bows instead of buckles ; of a 
round hat of black velvet, with a white ribbon and five feathers, 
(four white and one black), at the left side; and of a mantle of 
black satin and white lining, and collar, with the star of the 
Order (Plate 91, Tab. I. No. 1) on the left side. This latter is 
also embroidered, in a smaller size, upon the doublet. The 
cross of the Order is appended to the neck-chain, consisting of 
seraphim heads and patriarchal crosses (No. 3). On festival days, 


the Knights dine at the royal table with their hats on their 

The cross (Tab. I. No. 2) is usually worn across the right 
shoulder, towards the left side, by a blue ribbon. The letters 
I. H. S. upon the star and the cross, are the initials of the 
words : ' Jesus hominum salvator.' The reverse of the cross 
contains the initials : ' F. R. S.' (Fredericus Rex Sueciae). 

The high officials of the Order, the Treasurer, the Secretary, 
and the Master of Ceremonies wear the star on the left side of the 
breast, and the cross round the neck, by a ribbon about two and 
a half inches wide. The inferior officers have a small cross at the 
button-hole, suspended by a ribbon about one and a half inches 

Above the seat of each Knight in the Holm church, at 
Stockholm, are engraved on a copper table his arms, name, 
motto, and the day of his nomination. There exists, also, a 
Register office of the Order, in which the armorial bearings 
of the Knights are recorded, and for which registration 
8 rixthalers must be paid in every instance. 



The foundation of this Order is ascribed to King Gustavus 
Vasa, and was originally designed as a reward for military 
courage and useful service in the army. After a long interval 
of desuetude, it was revived by King Frederick I. on the 28th 
April, 1748, together with the Orders of the Seraphim and 
North-Star. The same monarch gave it statutes, which were, 
with a trifling modification, confirmed by his successor, Adolphus 
Frederick. Kins; Gustavus III. added, 1772, a fourth class, now 
marked as the first, to the three former ones. The present statutes 
were promulgated by Gustavus IV., on the 28th Novem- 


ber, 1798, while Charles XIII. added to them, on the 9th 
July, 1814, supplementary bye-laws. 
The Order consists of: 

1. Commanders with the Grand Cross. 

2. Commanders. 

3. Knights of the Grand Cross, first class, and 

4. Knights. 

The first class, that of Commander of the Grand Cross, is 
only conferred in time of war, for some signal victory gained by 
land or sea. Not even the King himself can obtain this cross 
without the unanimous approval of the army — an instance of 
which happened with Gustavus in 1789. 

To be eligible for commanders, the rank of, at least, a general 
is required. To this class belong the royal princes by birth. 

No one below the rank of Major-General is admissible 
to the third class. The candidate must have commanded a 
division or a corps at a siege, or in a battle, or been employed 
against the enemy in the capacity of a Division-General. 

To be admitted to the fourth class, the rank of Captain and 
a service of twenty years are required. 

The reception of the Knights takes place without religious 
ceremonies in the royal apartments, in the presence of the 
Grand Cross members of the Order, of the Knights of the 
Seraphim, and the Commanders of all the other Swedish 
Orders. By the oath, the Knight binds himself " to defend 
with life and property the Evangelico-Lutheran religion, to 
serve faithfully the King and the country, and to combat 
courageously against the foes of the country." When a foreigner 
is elected Knight of the Grand Cross, the insignia are sent to 
him abroad, while he, in his turn, transmits to the Archives 
of the Order a statement of the services rendered by him. 

The revenues of the Order are applied to pensions granted by 
the Chapter to the Commanders and Knights. 


The entrance-fee of a Commander is 12 rixthalers, 12 
shillings, stamp duty, and 2 rixthalers, Chancery dues : that of 
Knight of the Grand Cross, 20 rixthalers banco, or 5 ducats 
in gold, and that of the Knights is 2 rixthalers and 24 skillings 
stamp duty, and 2 rixthalers Chancery dues. 

The badge is a gold octagonal white-enarnelled cross, sur- 
mounted by a gold crown (Plate 91, Tab. I. No 5). 
Between the angles are gold crowns, and above them 
crossed swords, entwined by their appendages. Upon the blue 
middle are exhibited, on the obverse, three gold crowns 
with a gold sword in the centre, and, on the reverse, a 
similar sword, with a laurel wreath upon its point, surrounded 
by the words : ' Pro patria.' The first class wear the badge 
across the left shoulder, towards the right side, by a yellow 
ribbon with blue borders, accompanied by a star (No. 4), em- 
broidered in silver upon the left breast. 

The second class wear it, of a smaller size, round the neck, 
by a somewhat narrower ribbon, accompanied by a sword of 
silver, or embroidered in silver upon, the left breast. Those 
who have entered the second class, from the third, are dis- 
tinguished by two crossed swords on the breast, while those 
who pass from the second class into the Order of the Seraphim, or 
are nominated commander of some other Order, wear the sword 
below the star of the Seraphim or other Order. The third 
class wear the Grand Cross by a still narrower ribbon round the 
neck. The cross of that class has the two crossed swords 
only between the two upper arms. The same cross is also 
worn by the fourth class at the button-hole, suspended by a very 
narrow ribbon. 

The costume of the Order, bright blue and white, is the old 
national colour. When worn with this costume, the decoration 
is appended to a chain (No. 6), consisting of swords and 
appendages, and eleven blue helmets upon golden shields. 


The two heralds wear, by a blue and yellow silken cord, an 
oval shield with the Swedish arras. The centre contains a 
blue sword, and above it the inscription : ' Pro patria. 5 Their 
costume is that of the first two classes, except that they wear, 
instead of the mantle, a camail, trimmed with cords and golden 
fringes. Upon the breast and back of the camail is a sword, 
embroidered in gold, and upon the shoulders the motto of the 
Order (Pro patria). 


The existence of this Order, previous to the 28th April, 
1748, is, like that of the two former, extremely uncertain. It is 
usually conferred for civil virtues, for zeal in the promotion of 
public good and useful institutions ; nor are foreigners excluded 
from it. The symbol of the Order, the Polar Star, is to remind 
the Knights never to allow the glory of the Swedish name to set. 

The Order has three classes, Commanders of the Grand 
Cross, Commanders, and Knights. The Princes of the blood 
royal are, by birth, members of the first class, and the reception 
of a Knight of this Order into the Seraphim creates him a 
Commander of the Polar Star. No one can be admitted 
to the Commander class who does not already possess another 
decoration, and has besides a civil rank, which entitles him 
to the predicate of ' Tro Man ' (Trusty and well beloved), or 
to episcopal dignity in the Church. 

The number of the members is unlimited, though by the 
decree of Gustavus III. the clergy were to have eight crosses of 
Commanders, and twelve of Knights. A Swede cannot 
become a Commander without previously possessing the 
Knight's cross. 

The entrance fee of a Commander is 12 rixthaler*, and 

S\V I' DEN Tnhlr II. 

I'l.A'l F. <J:>. 

Hut si ,ui. I R]m;\dl, London. 1S.V? 


24 skillings stamp, and 2 rix thaler Chancery dues. The 
Knights pay only half of the stamp duty, and 2 rix thaler, 
Chancery dues. 

The decoration is an octagonal gold cross, enamelled white, 
and with gold crowns in the angles. Upon the hluc 
middle is a pentagonal star, with the legend : ' Nescit Occasum' 
(It knows of no setting or going down,) (Plate 92, Tab. II. 
No. 8). 

This cross is worn by the Commanders of the Grand Cross 
across the right shoulder towards the left hip by a large black 
cord, accompanied upon the breast by the silver star (Tab. II. 
No. 7) with the North Star in the middle. 

The Commanders wear it round the neck by a black ribbon, 
without the star upon the breast, while the Knights suspend it, 
in smaller size, at the button-hole. 

On solemn occasions, the cross is worn appended to the 
neck chain (Tab. II. No. 9), the links of which represent 
the North Star, and a blue double 'F' (Frederick), while 
the Commanders then appear in red velvet and white satin 


This Order was founded by Gustavus III. on the 26th May, 
1 776, on the day of his coronation, to reward therewith individuals 
who render important service to the nation, by their writings, 
or by practical improvements in agriculture, mining or commerce. 

It is divided into three classes, Commanders of the Grand 
Cross, Commanders, and Knights. The number is unlimited 
and includes foreigners. 

The right of nomination is vested in the crown; and the 
King himself, if he be not already a Knight of the Order. 




receives the insignia, at his coronation, from the hands of the 
Bishop who performs the ceremony. 

The badge, an oval gold escutcheon, contains the Vasa 
crest, surrounded by a red enamelled stripe with golden 
edges, and with the legend : ' Gustaf den Tredie instiktare 
MDCCLXXIi; (Gustavus III. instituted 1772), (Tab. II. 
No. 11). It is worn by a broad green ribbon, by the Grand 
Cross Commanders across the shoulder, and by the Commanders 
round the neck. Both are accompanied by the star No. 10. 

The Knights who were nominated previous to the 14th 
October, 1844, wear the decoration equally round the neck 
but without the star, while those, elected since, suspend it at 
the button-hole, surnionted by the royal crown. 

On festival days, the decoration is appended to a chain 
(Plate 93, Tab. III. No. 14), the links of which represent 
alternately, gold sheaves, and shields with the Swedish arms, 
surrounded by the attributes of commerce, the arts and 
agriculture, and the arms of Holstein. On such days, also, the 
Commanders appear in the national costume, in green velvet, 
and white satin breeches, and a green velvet mantle with 
white lining. 

The nomination ceremonies are the same as those of the 
Order of the Sword, and so is, in substance, the oath. The fees 
of the Commanders are 18 rix thalers and 36 skillings, stamp 
duty, and 2 rix thalers, Chancery dues. The Knights pay only 
6 rix thalers and 12 skillings, stamp duty while the Chancery 
dues are the same (2 rix thalers). 


This Order was founded by the King, whose name it bears, 
on the 17th May, 1811, as a badge of honour for the Swedish 

SWEDEN. TuNv 111 

P I. A I K !»-> 

Hursl and Blackelt, London. 1S.&. 


Freemasons of the higher degrees. It has only one class. 
The King, the presumptive heir to the throne, and the 
Princes of the royal family, can never divest themselves of the 

The decoration (Tab. III. No. 13) is worn round the neck, 
and the cross (No. 12) of red cloth or enamel, upon the breast. 
The middle of the cross shows on the obverse the number XIII. 
between two C's in monogram, and on the reverse a G within 
a triangle, the mysterious sense of which is only known to 
the fraternity. 


1. Medal for Valour in the Field, is of gold for officers, and 
of silver for sub-officers and privates, with the inscription : * For 
Tapperhet i Fait ' (For valour in the field) ; it is worn upon the 
left side of the breast. There are some with the effigy of 
Gustavus III., others, with that of Gustavus Adolph, and 
again others, with that of Charles John (Tab. III. No. 16.) 

2. Medal of Svenksund, of gold, weighing from five to ten 
ducats. It was instituted in commemoration of the naval 
victory gained in the reign of Gustavus III. over the Russian 
fleet on the 8th July, 1790, which brought about the peace of 
the 14th August, of the same year (Tab. III. No. 15). 

3. The Seraphim Medal, or Medal for Charitable Insti- 
tutions. — It is of gold, weighing five ducats, and is bestowed 
upon those who distinguish themselves by zeal and care for the 
poor. The obverse bears the portrait of the King with the 
inscription : ' Fredericus D. G. Rex Sueciae,' and the reverse 
shows the words : ' Ordo eq. Seraphin. restauratus natali regis 

z 2 


LXXIII ' (The Order of the Seraphim restored on the seventy- 
third birth-day of the King), surrounded by a collar of the same 
Order, with the legend: l Proceres cum rege nectit, 1748.' 
(It unites the Peers with the King). 

4. Medal of 1772, in commemoration of the Revolution. 
It is of gold, weighing eight ducats. 



1. Medal of 1815. — Under the Bourbons, the Republic, 
the Directory and the Consulate of France, a number of Swiss 
troops served as volunteers in the French army, and in 1812 
a Swiss contingency was promised to the French empire by a 
formal convention. After the abdication of Napoleon, the four 
Swiss regiments, which he had retained, remained in France, 
and passed over to the restored monarchy. It was not so, 
however, when Napoleon returned from Elba ; most of the 
Swiss officers and soldiers refused to change masters, and 
preferred going back to their own country, where, moreover, 
a call for their assistance had been made by the Swiss Confe- 
deracy. In acknowledgment of this proof of patriotism, the 
Swiss government resolved, on the 20th April, IS 15, to issue a 
badge of honour for them. It consists of a silver medal, repre- 
senting, on the obverse, the old Confederate banner, with the 
inscription: ' Schweizerische Eidgenossenschaft, 1S15,' (Swiss 
Confederacy, 1815), and on the reverse an oak wreath, with the 
inscription : ' Treue und Ehre' (Faith and Honour), and is worn 
at the button-hole by a red and white ribbon (Plate 94, No 1). 
By a decree of the 24th August of that year, the company of 
one hundred Swiss, who had joined Louis XVIII. at Ghent, 
was allowed to partake of the distinction. The distribution 


took place at Iverdun, on the 15th October, 1815, with great 

2. Medal of the 10th August. — On the 7th August, 1817, 
the Swiss government resolved to confer a medal of cast iron on 
all the survivors of the Swiss Guard, who had defended the 
Tuileries on the 10th August, 1792. The obverse repre- 
sents the Confederacy Cross, and the words : ' Treue und Ehre,' 
and the reverse contains the inscription : ' August, MDCCXCIL' 
It is worn upon the left breast by a red and white ribbon 
(No. 2). A list of those who had died previously, was deposited 
in the Archives of the Confederation. 

S \V I T 7. K R \. A N I) A \ l> II A \ s V. I OWNS 

V I. \ I i: «.» i 


44% ; v ' 



I. v 1 1: ;».'. 



The historical data about this Order (Plate 95, No. 3) are 
imperfect. It is worn round the neck, and its degree seems to 
be estimated by the number and value of the precious stones 
with which it is adorned. 

On the Bey's visit to France in 1846, he distributed several, 
of the value averaging from 10,000 to 30,000 francs. 




The Sultan Selim III., under the impression that radical 
reforms could alone save his tottering empire from utter ruin, 
resolved to introduce into Turkey various useful customs and regu- 
lations prevailing in the civilized states of Europe, and amongst 
others, the creation of decorations. He accordingly founded 
in 1799, the Order of the Crescent; but, owing to national 
prejudices, he was obliged to confine its distribution to 
foreigners. Nelson was the first who received it, for his victory 
of Abukir, and General Sebastiani, the next, for his defence of 
Constantinople against the English fleet, in 1807. The in- 
surrection of the Janissaries suspended all further attempts 
at reform, until the accession of Mahmud, who resumed 
the schemes of progress commenced by his uncle. 

After the annihilation of the Janissaries, Mahmud resolved 
(1827) to re-organize his troops, and introduce, at the same 
time, military distinctions of merit and honour. He instituted, 
accordingly, a gold medal, set in diamonds, bearing his initial, 
and conferred it on several of his officers. He next insti- 
tuted a medal with his portrait, also set in diamonds (Plate 96, 
No. 3), which he presented to many great dignitaries of state, 
and to a few foreign Ambassadors ; still later, on the 19th August, 
1831, he founded the Badge of Glory, or the decoration of 



llur»t and Dlarketl, London. IS.'iS. 

TURKEY. 345 


a gold medal with or without brilliants, and with the tuyhra 
(initial) of the founder. 

This Order has, properly speaking, no particular classes, 
though the difference in the styles of the diplomas, as also in 
the number of the brilliants with which the badge is adorned, 
would almost lead to the belief that there arc higher and lower 
degrees in it. The medal with brilliants is usually bestowed 
on persons of rank and eminence; but, as there are no regula- 
tions concerning the adornment of the decorations, the recipients 
can do with it whatever they like. The badge is meant to be 
worn round the neck, and so it is actually worn by the Sultan, 
the high functionaries, and most of the foreigners. Some, 
however, fasten it to the breast. 

Neither is the colour of the ribbon clearly denned. Most of 
the Turks append the decoration to a chain or cord of various 
colours, or fasten it by a buckle, while Europeans usually suspend 
it by a red ribbon, with or without a green stripe near the 
borders. In recent times, the ribbon, with green borders, seems 
to have become the fashion (No. 1 and 2). 

Since the accession of the present Sultan (Abdul Medjid), 
the badges conferred on foreigners are nearly all of the same 
form, and only differ in the size and number of the diamonds, 
as also in the style and expressions of the diplomas. 


Was founded in 1852, as reward for distinguished services 
in the various departments of the administration. The prin- 
cipal provisions of the statutes are as follow : 



The Order (Plate 96, No. 6) is under the special 
patronage of the Sultan, and has five classes, the number of 
the respective native members being limited to fifty, one 
hundred and fifty, eight hundred, three thousand, and six 

The badge consists of a silver sun with seven rays or points, 
between which are inserted the Turkish arms, star and crescent. 
The middle shield, which rests upon the sun, and is for the 
first four classes, of gold, bears upon red enamelled ground the 
legend, in the vernacular tongue : ' Zeal, decoration, loyalty/ 
and also '1268' (1852) the year of the foundation of the 
Order, and in the centre, the name of the Sultan. The size of 
the decoration, though* it diminishes with every descending 
class, is, nevertheless, rather smaller with the second than 
with the third class, owing no doubt, to the additional star 
which is worn upon the right breast by the latter class, in 
the same way as it is worn by the first class upon the left breast 
in a larger size. This star is almost similar to the badge. 
The first three classes suspend the decoration round the neck 
by a red ribbon with green borders, and the two inferior classes 
wear it upon the left side of the breast by a similar ribbon. 

No one can be proposed as a candidate who has not 
eminently served the state, for at least twenty years, either 
in the army, the law (Ulema), or some civil department. 
Military service in time of war does not require that long term 
of years, nor are very distinguished services bound by it. 
The entrance into the Order begins with the lowest class, and 
the gradual promotion depends on new services, and only after 
an interval of two years in the fifth class, three years in 
the third and fourth classes, and four years in the second class. 

The board or council, which meets once a month for despatch 
of business, consists of a president elected from the first class, 
and six members, (two from each of the three next classes). 

TURKEY. 347 

The entrance fee of the first class is 2500 piasters (£25), or 
the second. 1500 (£15), of the third 750 (£7 10s.), and of the 
fourth and fifth classes 200 (£2). Foreigners and the military 
are exempt from these fees. 

M E D A L . 

In 1833, when Mehemet Ali was rapidly advancing with his 
victorious army under Ibrahim Pasha, upon Constantinople, 
which was only saved from falling into his hands by the arrival 
of a Russian army at Unkiar Silesia, by which a more favourable 
turn was given to the Sultan's prospects in the East, the latter 
distributed, amongst the Czar's troops, medals of gold, set round 
with diamonds to the Generals and Admirals, as also to the 
Ambassador of Russia ; of gold, in different sizes to the officers ; 
and of silver, to the military of inferior degrees. 

All these medals represent, on the obverse, the initial of 
Mahmud between two laurel branches, and below it, the year 
1249 of the Hegira, in Turkish characters and cyphers, while 
the reverse shows the crescent between laurel branches, with 
the year (1833) of the Christian Era. 


We are led to introduce this Christian Order here, from 
the circumstance that it has now no other seat than Jerusalem 
which belongs to Turkey. 

This Order may justly rival in antiquity that of St. Lazarus, 
credible authors dating its origin as early as the year 69, when 
St. James, the first Bishop of Jerusalem, entrusted the guardian- 
ship of the Holy Sepulchre to a number of men, distinguished 


for piety and high birth. Some writers, however, consider 
that it originated with the Canons regular, whom St. 
Helena, mother of Constantine the Great, introduced into her 
new church of Mount Calvary ; while others again assert that 
the Knights of the Holy Sepulchre arose in the time of Godfrey 
de Bouillon, or his successor Baldwin, and that by the latter 
the Patriarch of Jerusalem was nominated first Grand Master. 
But the most probable date may, with some historical truth, 
be fixed at a much later period, in the year 1496, during the 
papacy of Alexander VI. His Holiness sought, in fact, to be 
considered as the founder of the Order — by means of which he 
intended to stimulate zeal for religion and for pilgrimages. 

The Grand Mastership, and the right of nominating Knights 
were originally vested in the Holy See, though the Pope ceded 
subsequently those rights to the Guardian Father of the sacred 
tomb. Noble descent was one of the conditions of the 
reception. The duties of the Knights were to hear mass daily ; 
combat, live and die for the Christian religion ; to procure 
substitutes in the war with the infidels, in case their own 
presence should be prevented by unavoidable circumstances, to 
grant constant protection to the servants of the Church ; to 
prevent all sorts of unjust feuds, quarrels, disputes, and usury ; 
to favour peace amongst Christians ; protect widows and 
orphans ; to abstain from swearing and cursing ; and to guard 
carefully against intemperance, lewdness, &c, &c. These heavy 
and severe duties were amply compensated for, by the ex- 
traordinary privileges granted to the Knights, by the Pope or 
the Guardian ; so extraordinary, indeed, that we can hardly 
conceive how or by what means they could be secured or 
guaranteed to the Knights. Among those privileges was the 
right conceded to members of the Order to legitimatize bastards, 
change their names, grant escutcheons, possess church property 
though married, to be exempt from taxes on salt, wine, 

TURKEY. 349 

beer, &c, and to cut down and bury the bodies of those who 
were executed on the gallows. 

This Order, formerly spread throughout France and the rest 
of Europe, was reconstructed by Louis XVIII. on the 19th 
August, 1814, as a royal institution, and also in Poland. In 
the latter country, it expired at the Revolution of 1830, but 
it is still extant within a very small circle of Knights, elected 
by the Guardian from the most respectable pilgrims who come 
to Jerusalem. 

The badge (No. 2) is worn round the neck, or at the button- 
hole, by a blaek watered ribbon, while the star (No. 1) is only 
allowed to those Knights who have visited Jerusalem. 

The collar consists of small red enamelled crosses joined 
together by gold rings. 

When, in 1847, a Latin Patriarch was once more established 
at Jerusalem, the Roman Propaganda transferred to him the 
right of conferring the Order of the Holy Sepulchre. 



Cosmos of Medicis, first Grand Duke of Tuscany, founded, 
in 1562, this Order at Pisa, in commemoration of the victory 
gained by him on the 2nd August, 1554 (St. Stephen's 
day) over the French, under command of Marshal Strozzi, 
by which his safe possession of Tuscany was secured. 

The Order is subject to the rule of St. Benedict, and had 
its seat originally at Pisa, where the founder erected for 
it two splendid cloisters, one for the Grand Prior and the 
Knights, and the other for the Prior who wore the Grand 
Cross and the episcopal robe in his clerical functions. The 
church service was performed by the chaplains, who took the 
vows of chastity, poverty and obedience. 

The statutes, confirmed by Pope Pius IV., were formed 
after those of the ' Order of St. John,' as were also the insignia 
and costume of the Order. The Knights, however, were 
neither bound by the vow of chastity, nor by that of poverty, 
being allowed to marry, and also to possess private property 
and benefices. 

The object of the institution was the defence of the Catholic 
Church, and the destruction of the pirates who rendered the 
navigation of the Mediterranean unsafe, and threatened the ruin 
of the Tuscan trade and commerce. 

In the year 1563, the Knights commenced their operations, 

T v s i: \ S Y 

P !. UK !>7. 

Ilur»i uid ItlacUM . London. \SoS. 


entcrprizes and victories by which they freed, on the one hand, 
about six thousand Christians from slavery, and altogether more 
than fifteen thousand human beings, while they took, on the 
other hand, an equal number of Turkish prisoners. 

The Order shared, at last, the fate of the feudal system, and 
was suffered to remain in oblivion until 22nd December, 1817, 
when it was resuscitated by the Grand Duke Ferdinand III. 
who, at the same time, promulgated the statutes and decreed 

Every Catholic nobleman, native or foreign, who can show 
noble descent through eight generations, and an annual 
income of 300 scudi, may become a real Knight (Knight by 

The decoration is given under Plate 97, No. 2. The Grand 
Crosses (class 1) wear it over the shoulder; the Priors 
(class 2), and Baillies (class 3), round the neck ; and the 
Knights (class 4), at the button-hole. All classes carry, besides, 
the star (No. 1) on the left breast. 

The costume on procession days, and in the Chapter, 
consists of a long robe of white camlet, lined with red silk, 
and an over garment of the same stuff and lining. 

The military costume is royal blue, with facing and collar 
of scarlet cloth, and with gold embroidery ; the breeches are 
trimmed with gold lace, the epaulettes have thick tassels, and 
the buttons sword-guard, spurs, and hat-cord are of gold. 

The Knights wear besides a military State uniform, the 
same as the above, except that the colour is white instead of 

The Dignitaries of the Order are : the Grand Commander, the 
Great Constable, the Admiral, the Grand Prior, the Treasurer, 
and the Prior of the Church. 



The Grand Duke Ferdinand III. founded this Order on the 
19th March, 1807, being then only Grand Duke of Wiirzburg. 
After Tuscany was restored to him in 1814, he carried the 
Order with him, and renewed it in 1817. It since forms the 
second Order of Knighthood in Tuscany. 

As an Order of Merit, in the fullest acceptation of the term, 
it is conferred indiscriminately on ecclesiastics and laymen, 
military and civil, natives and foreigners, though care is usually 
taken that the recipient should belong to the Catholic Church. 

The number of the first class (Grand Crosses) is, exclusive 
of foreigners, limited to two hundred, who must all belong 
to high families. The second class (Commanders) is fixed 
at thirty; they receive hereditary nobility with the decoration, 
while the third class (Knights) is limited to sixty members, 
who receive personal nobility with the Order. 

The reigning Duke is always Grand Master. 

The badge (No. 4) represents, in the middle of the obverse, 
the figure of St. Joseph, with the legend : ' Ubique similis ' 
(Everywhere the same), and of the reverse the letters : ' S. J. F.' 
(Sancto Josepho Ferdinandus) (dedicated by Ferdinand to Saint 
Joseph), and the year * 1807.' It is worn, by the first class, by 
a broad ribbon across the right shoulder towards the left side, 
accompanied by the star, (No. 3) on the left breast. Eccle- 
siastics of the first class wear it by a narrower ribbon round the 
neck. The second class suspend it also round the neck, while 
the third class wear it by a much narrower ribbon at the 

The Grand Master and the hereditary Prince alone are 
privileged to adorn the decoration with precious stones. 


The affairs of the Order arc managed by a Chancellor elected 
from the first class, a Secretary, taken from the second class, 
and an Archivist, who is not necessarily bound to be a member 
of the Order. 


Was founded by the Grand-Duke Ferdinand III., in 1814, 
after his restoration to Tuscany. This, an exclusively 
military decoration of merit, is named from the colour 
of the cross : it is not infrequently styled the Cross of 


On the 19th of December, 1850, the Grand-Duke Leopold 
instituted, for officers of ail degrees, a long service decoration 
for thirty years' uninterrupted duty, intimating at the same 
time his intention of founding, at some future period, a similar 
badge of distinction for officers who might distinguish them- 
selves by signal acts of merit for the good of their country. 
Three years afterwards (19 December, 1853,), this promise was 
fulfilled by the creation of the Order of military merit. It has 
three classes. The first and second consist usually of officers, 
and the third, of sub-officers and privates. If a commoner be 
honoured with the first class decoration, he receives, with it, 
hereditary nobility designated from some locality near his place 
of nativity or domicile. The sub-officers and privates, who 
obtain the third class decoration, have a right to an increase 
of 100 lire per annum until their promotion to the grade of 
officer. Should they quit the service from bodily infirmities 

A A 


or advanced age, the increased pay is not withdrawn, and they 
retain it, independently of the pensions to which they may have 

The badge is a pentagonal radiating star, the round 
middle of which contains, on the obverse, the initials ' L. II., 5 
and is surrounded by the words ' Merito Militare,' while the 
reverse shows the year '1853.' The star of the first two 
classes has a gold edge, and is surmounted by a gold crown, 
while that of the third class has only a silver crown. It is 
worn suspended by a red and black ribbon, by the first class 
round the neck, and by the two others, upon the left breast. 


Was founded by a decree of the 19th May, 1841, and is to be 
worn by the same ribbon as described in the preceding Order, 
Third Class. 

It bears the inscription ' Fedelta e Valore.' 


1. Medal of Merit, of gold, value 50 ducats, instituted in 
1816, by Ferdinand III., as a reward of virtue, for those who 
distinguish themselves by noble deeds and humane actions. 

2. Military Medal of silver, instituted in 1815, for dis- 
tinguished sub-officers and privates. No. 5 contains the obverse, 
while the reverse exhibits the inscription, ' Ai Prodi e Fedeli 
Toscani, 1815/ (To the brave and faithful Tuscans). 

3. The Long Service Military Medal, of copper, bestowed on 
soldiers after twenty-five years' active duty. It is connected 
with a pension of 3 lire per month. The obverse is represented 


in No. 6, while the reverse shows the inscription : ' Al lungo o 
fedel servizio/ (For long and faithful service). After ten years' 
service, the suh-officers and privates receive a chevron, 
and one lira monthly ; after fifteen years, another chevron and 
an additional half lira; and after twenty years, a third chevron 
and one lira more. 

a a 2 



In 1702, Duke Frederick Charles of Wiirtemberg founded the 
Order of the Golden Eagle, also called the Chase-Horn or 
Bugle, from the circumstance that the Dukes of Wiirtemberg 
bore the title of Imperial Masters of the Hunt. This Order 
which was subsequently renewed by Duke Charles Alexander, 
was, on the 6th March, 1807, entirely remodelled by Frederick L, 
on his assuming the royal dignity, after having already, on 
the 6th November, 1806, founded the Order of Civil Merit. 
These two Orders were, on the 23rd September, 1818, united 
with that of the crown of Wiirtemburg, by King William, 
who promulgated new statutes, and formed three classes : 
Knights of the Grand Cross, Commanders and Knights. The 
number of the Knights of each class is not fixed, though care 
is taken to keep it as much as possible within the limits 
prescribed by the statutes of the Order of Civil Merit. 

In connection with the Order, are gold and silver medals for 
civil merit. 

The badge of the Order is an octagonal gold cross, coated I 
with white enamel, and having in the four angles the royal 
escutcheon with the gold leopard-lions. The round white- 
enamelled centre in the middle of the cross contains, on the 
obverse, the crowned cypher of the King, surrounded by a 
crimson red border, with the legend in golden characters : 


I' I. V I I. !M 

Hurs.1 a:nl Blarkell, London. 18«8 


" Furchtlos und trew ' (Intrepid and true). The reverse shows 
a similar border, with the royal crown of gold upon 
white ground in the centre. Above the cross is the royal 
crown connected by golden wings. (Plate 99, Tab. II. 
No. 6). 

The badge is worn by a crimson red ribbon, three inches wide, 
across the right shoulder, towards the left hip, accompanied by 
an octagonal silver star, which the Knights of the Grand Cross 
wear upon the left breast : the middle of the Star contains the 
obverse of the cross with the royal crown on a white-enamelled 
ground (Plate 98, Tab. I. No. 1). 

The Commanders and Knights wear the cross suspended by 
a narrower ribbon, the former, round the neck, and the latter, at 
the button-hole. 

The gold and silver medals are worn at the button-hole, sus- 
pended by the same ribbon. 

Civilians receive with the Order personal nobility, and access 
to Court, but nothing more. 

The right of nominating Knights is vested solely in the 
crown, even to the exclusion of the Regency, during the 
minority of the King. 

The sons of the King receive the Grand Cross on the 
completion of their seventh year, and the princes of the blood 
royal, at fourteen. The King is, however, empowered to make 
exceptions to the rule. 

The nomination is free from all sorts of fees and charges. 

Neither festivals, oaths nor vows are customary in the 

The Chapter only meets by special convocation of the 

The Chapter now consists under the presidency of the 
Chancellor of the Order, of: 

Two Knights of the Grand Cross, 


Two Commanders, and 
Four Knights. 


This Order was founded by King William, as reward for 
military and civil services. 

The Order has only one class, that of Knights. 

The badge is a gold, white-enamelled cross, with rays of 
bright gold in the angles. The middle of the obverse shows 
a round field of dull gold, and within it, in relief, the effigy of 
King Frederick. Around this middle is a ring, of dull gold and 
enamelled blue, with the legend : ' Friedrich Konig von Wiirtem- 
berg,' in golden letters. The middle of the reverse shows, upon 
white-enamelled ground, the words : ' Dem Verdienste ' (To 
merit), while the blue-enamelled ring round it contains the 
motto of King Frederick : { Gott und mein Recht' (God and 
my right) (Plate 98, Tab. I. No. 4). 

The cross is accompanied by an octagonal star, the four 
main rays being embroidered in silver, and the intervening 
rays, in gold. The middle is of dull gold, with the 
effigy of King Frederick, surrounded by a blue-enamelled 
ring, with the above motto : { Gott und mein Recht.' 

The colour of the ribbon is royal blue. 

The cross is worn by a broad ribbon, across the right 
shoulder, towards the left hip, and the star upon the left 

The Order confers personal nobility, and gives free access to 
Court, but nothing more. 

As in the previous Order, the nomination of Knights rests 
solely with the King. 

WUIlTEMBEltG. '}59 


This Order was founded by Duke Charles Eugene, of Wiirtem- 
berg, on the 1 1th February, 1759, as a reward for officers who had 
distinguished themselves in the seven years' war just then termi- 
nated. He gave it the name of the Military Order of St. Charles. 
It was renewed in November, 1799, by the Elector, afterwards 
King Frederick I. (who died in 1816), and was, by him, entirely 
re-modelled and re-named in 1806, when the electorate was 
raised to a kingdom. By the new statutes, the Order was 
designated as a reward for merit in war, or for twenty-five 
years' faithful service in time of peace. The King nominated 
the Knights at the recommendation of the Chapter, and the 
members were divided into four classes, of unfixed number, several 
of whom were to be in the receipt of considerable pensions, 
viz., twenty of the first class, of 2000 florins each (£200), 
four of the second class, of 1200 florins, twelve of the third 
class, at 1000 florins (£100), and fifty-two of the fourth class, 
of 300 florins each (£30). Until 1817, the pensions, paid 
from the funds of the Maltese commanderies, (amounting 
to 24,000 fl.) were fixed at 1200, 800, 600 and 300 fl. 

In 1818, the Order was once more re-modelled, when it 
received new statutes, by which it was provided : 

1. That henceforth it shall count only three classes: Knights 
of the Grand Cross, Commanders and Knights. 

2. That two more classes shall be added to it, the decora- 
tion of which is to consist of gold and silver medals of military 

merit. . 

3. The badge to consist, for the first and second classes, of 


an octagonal gold cross, enamelled white, the middle to 
contain, on the obverse, a green laurel wreath, within a 
blue border, the latter to show, in golden letters, the motto 
of the Order (' Furchtlos und trew'), and the reverse to 
exhibit the initial of the King, in a white field, surrounded by 
a blue circle with the above legend in it (Tab. I. No. 2). 

The cross is worn by the Knights of the Grand Cross and 
Commanders, round the neck by a dark blue ribbon, accom- 
panied, for the former, by a white octagonal star, embroidered in 
silver, the middle of which shows the contents of the enamelled 
obverse of the cross (No. 1). With both classes, the ribbon is 
appended to the cross by a crown. 

The Knights wear the same cross in smaller size at the 

The gold and silver medals of men: are suspended at the 
button-hole by a similar ribbon (Tab. II. No. 7). The candidates 
of the first class must occupy the rank of at least Major- General ; 
of the second class, that of staff-officer, and of the third class, 
that of officer. 

No one can be received into a higher class without having 
previously belonged to the immediate lower class, nor can 
any one be received into even the lowest — the third class, without 
previously possessing the Military Medal of Merit. 

The gold medal is conferred on officers down to corporals, 
and the silver on those below. 

The King alone has the right to nominate the Knights, 
whose reception into the Order is free of all costs, fees and 

Civilians receive, with the badge, personal nobility, and the 
entree at Court. 

The Chapter consists of the Knights of the Grand Cross, 
the two oldest Commanders, and the four oldest Knights. It 
only meets by the special convocation of the King. 

\\ U HI mi H Ell (J Table II 

i' i. \ 1 1: !ui 

Uursl and l!':ickelt. London. 18.^5*. 

^ I HI K>1 KICKS Table 111. 

I'l \ I I Ini) 



1. Cross of Military Merit. — It was founded by King 
William, on the 9th September, 1833, and remodelled on the 
27th May, 1839, as a reward for twenty-five years loyal service 
for officers, and for twenty years, for sub-officers and privates 
(TalT. II. No. 8). 

The cross for officers is yellow, and for the second class 
white. Both are worn upon the left breast by a red ribbon 
with blue borders. Years of campaign count double. 

2. War Medal for Faithful Service in Campaigns. — This 
medal (Tab. III. No. 9) is cast of gun metal, and bears upon 
the obverse a W, with a crown and laurel wreath. It was 
founded on the 1st January, 1840, by King William. All 
military persons who have participated in a campaign, or crossed 
the enemy's frontier, may lay claim to the medal. Each of the 
years from 1793 to 1815 (except 1797, 1798, and 1810) is 
counted as a campaign. 

3. Military Medal of Merit. — It appertains to the Military 
Order of Merit, described above, and illustrated Tab. II. 
No. 7. 

4. The Civil Medal of Merit.— It belongs to the Order of 
the Crown of Wiirtemberg, and is also described above. 

5 — 7. Decorations of Honour for the Campaign of 1814. 
King Frederick I. founded on the 8th February and 16th 
August, 1814, three medals: 

a. For the victory of Brienne, with the inscription : ' Konig 
und Vaterland dem Tapfern ' (The King and the country to 
the brave), on the obverse, while the reverse shows the words : 
'Fiir den Sieg am Isten Februar, 1814' (For the victory of 
the 1st February 1814), and the crowned initials ' F. R.' 
within a laurel wreath (Plate 100, Tab. III. No. 10). 


b. For the victory of La Fere Champenoise, with the 
inscription: ' Fur den Sieg am 25 Marz, 1814.' All the other 
contents are the same as given in a (Tab. III. No. 1 1). 

c. For Paris, with the inscription : ' Fur Paris, den 30 
Marz, 1814.' The reveree is the same as in a (Tab. III. 
No. 12). 

These three medals were bestowed, in gold, upon the 
officers who participated in the respective campaigns, and in 
silver upon ' sub-officers and men who had distinguished them- 
selves in them. They are worn at the button-hole by a poppy 
coloured ribbon. 

8. The same King instituted also on the 3rd July, 1815, a 
Decoration of Honour for the Campaign of 1815, consisting 
of a gold cross (No. 13), of a silver cross, and of a silver 

The gold cross was distributed as a reward for distinction 
amongst superior officers, the silver cross, similarly formed, 
amongst subaltern officers, and the medal (in the form of 
the Military Medal of Merit) amongst sub-officers and 
privates. All the three classes wear the decoration by a tri- 
coloured ribbon, red, yellow, and black. 



Instituted by King Edward III. about August, 134S. 

(K. G.) 



II. R. H. The Prince Consort 

King of Hanover 

Duke of Cambridge 

King of the Belgians 

King of Wurtemburg 

King of Prussia 

Prince Frederick of Prussia 

Emperor of the French 

King of Sardinia 

The Sultan 

Reigning Duke of Saxe Meiningen 

Reigning Duke of Brunswick 

Reigning Duke of Saxe Coburg and 

Marquess of Exeter 
Duke of Richmond 
Duke of Buccleuch 
Marquess of Lansdowne 

Duke of Sutherland 

Duke of Buckingham and Chandos 

Marquess of Salisbury 

Duke of Cleveland 

Earl De Grey 

Marquess of Abercorn 

Marquess Camden 

Marquess of Hertford 

Duke of Bedford 

Earl of Clarendon 

Marquess of Normanby 

Duke of Northuinberlannd 

Earl of Carlisle 

Earl of Aberdeen 

Earl Fortescue 

Viscount Palmerston 

Earl Granville 

Marquess of Westminster 


Prelate— Bishop of Winchester (Dr. Sumner). 

Chancellor — Bishop of Oxford (Dr. Wilberforce). 

Registrar— Dean of Windsor (The Hon. and Very Rev. Gerald Welleslcy). 

Garter principal King-of-Arms—Six Charles George Young, Knt. 

Usher of the. Black Rod— Sir Augustus W. I. Clifford, Bart., C.B. 


Revived ly King James II. in 1687. Re-established by Queen Anne, 
Slst December, 1703. 


H. R. H. The Prince Consort 
Earl of Aberdeen 
Marquess of Tweeddale 
Marquess of Breadalbane 
Duke of Roxburghe 
Earl of Rosebery 
Earl of Mansfield 
Duke of Montrose 
Earl of Elgin 

Marquess of Dalhousie 
Earl of Camperdown 
Earl of Eglinton and Winton 
Earl of Haddington 
Duke of Athole 
Lord Panmure 
Duke of Argyll 
Lord Kinnaird 


Dean — William Muir, D.D. 

Secretary — Sir John Stewart Richardson, Bart. 

Deputy — Albert William Woods, Esq. 

Lord Lyon King-of-Arms — Earl of Kinnoull. 

Gentleman Usher of the Green Rod — Frederic Peel Round, Esq. 


Instituted hj King George III. February Wi, 17S3. 


Consisting of the Sovereign, a Grand Master, and twenty-two Knights. The Lord- 
Lieutenant of Ireland for the time being is Grand Master. 


His Excellency the Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland. 

H. R. II. The Prince Consort 
Duke of Cambridge 
Earl of Roden 
Marquess of Clanricarde 
Earl of Charlemont 
Marquess Conyngham 
Earl of Howth 
Viscount Southwell 
Marquess of Headfort 
Earl of Milltown 
Earl of Arran 
Earl of Wicklow 

Earl of Rossc 

Marquess of Waterford 

Lord Farnham 

Earl of Fingall 

Viscount Massercne and Ferrard 

Lord Crcmorne 

Earl of Gosford 

Marquess of Londonderry 

Earl of Granard 

Viscount Gough 

Marquess of Donegall 


Prelate — Archbishop of Armagh. 

Chancellor — Archbishop of Dublin. 

Registrar — Deau of St. Patrick's (the Hon. and Very Rev. Henry Pakenham.) 

Secretary — Lowry-Vesey Townley-Balfour, Esq. 

Genealogist — Sir William Edward Leeson, Knt. 

Usher of the Black Rod— Colonel Sir George Morris, Knt. 

Ulster King-of-Arms — Sir Bernard Burke, Knt. 


Instituted in 1399. Revived in 1725. Enlarged in 1815 and 1847. 




The King of the Belgians 

H.R.H. the Duke of Cambridge 

Blakeney, Right Hon. Sir Edward 

Brisbane, Sir T. M. Bart. 

Brown, Sir George 

Burgoyne, Sir John Fox, Bart. 

Caldwell, Sir James L. 

Campbell, Sir Colin 

Combermere, Viscount 

Cotton, Sir Willoughby 

Dundas, Sir James Whitley-Deans 

Dundonald, Earl of 

England, Sir Richard 

Evans, Sir De Lacy 

Gordon, Sir James Alexander 

Gough, Viscount 

Halkett, Sir Colin 

Hamond, Sir Graham Eden, Bart. 

Lushington, Sir James Law 

Lyons, Lord 

Outram, Sir James 

Parker, Sir William, Bart. 

Pollock, Sir George 

Ross, Sir Hugh Dalrymple 

Seaton, Lord 

Simpson, Sir James 

Smith, Sir Henry Geo. Wakelyn, Bart. 

Strafford, Earl of 

Thackwell, Sir Joseph 

Woodford, Sir Alexander 


Aston, Sir Arthur 
Broughton, Lord 
Bulwer, Right Honourable Sir Henry 

Clarendon, Earl of 
Cowley, Earl 

Douglas, Sir Howard, Bart. 
Ellenborough, Earl of 
Graham, Right Hon. Sir James R. G. 

Grey, Right Hon. Sir George, Bart. 
Heytesbury, Lord 
Howard de Walden, Lord 

Lawrence, Sir John Laird Mair 

Lyons, Lord 

MacNeill, Right Hon. Sir John 

Minto, Earl of 

Normanby, Marquess of 

Palmerston, Viscount 

Panmure, Lord 

St. Germans, Earl of 

Seymour, Right Hon. Sir George H. 

Stratford de RedclifFe, Viscouut 

Westmoreland, Earl of 

Wood, Right Hon. Sir Charles, Bart. 


Bosquet, Marshal 

Canrobert, Marshal 

De Salles, General 

De MacMahon, General 

Esterhazy, his Highness Prince 

Hamelin, Admiral 

Hohenlohe, the Prince of 

La Marmora, General 

Morris, General 

Napoleon, H.I.H. the Prince 

Pacha, his Highness Omar Lutfi 

Pelissier, Marshal, Duke de Malakoff 
Prussia, H.R.H. the Prince of 
Regnault de St. Jean d'Angely, General 
Saxe Weimar, Duke Bernard of 
Strelitz, Hereditary Grand Duke of 

Valliant, Count, Marshal 
Victoria (Espartero), Duke de la 
Walmoden, Count 
Wurtembcrg, his Majesty the King of 






Airey, Sir Richard 

Auchmuty, Sir Samuel B. 

Austen, Sir Frances \V. 

Aylmer, Lord 

Bell, Sir John 

Bentinck, Sir Henry J. "W. 

Berkeley, Rt. Hon. Sir Maurice, F. F. 

Bowles, Sir George 

Brotherton, Sir Thomas William 

Buller, Sir George , 

Bunbury, Sir H. Edward, Bart. 

Burnett, Sir William, M.D. 

Cardigan, the Earl of 

Carroll, Sir William F. 

Cathcart, Earl of 

Chads, Sir Henry Ducie 

Cheape, Sir John 

Clifton, Sir Arthur B. 

Cochrane, Sir Thomas 

Codrington, Sir William John 

Coode, Sir John 

Dacres, Sir Richard James 

Douglas, Sir James 

Downes, Lord 

Dundas, Hon. Sir Richard Saunders 

Eyre, Sir William 

Fergusson, Sir James 

Fitzgerald, Sir John F. 

Fremantle, Sir Charles Howe 

Gardiner, Sir Robert William 

Garratt, Sir Robert 

Gomm, Sir William M. 

Grant, Sir Patrick 

Grant, Sir James Hope 

Grey, Hon. Sir Frederick Wm. 

Guise, Sir John W., Bart. 

Hearsey, Sir John Bennett 

Herbert, Sir Thomas 

Hope, Sir Henry 

Hope, Sir James A. 

Hornby, Sir Phipps 

Inglis, Sir John Eardley Wilmot 

Houston, Sir Robert 

Jackson, Sir James 

Jones, Sir Harry D. 

Keppel, Hon. Henry 

Lambert, Sir George Robert 

Leighton, Sir David 

Leith, Sir Alexander 

Love, Sir James Frederick 

Lovell, Sir Lovell B. 

Lucan, Earl of 

Lugard, Sir Edward 

Lushington, Sir Stephen 

Maclaine, Sir Archibald 

Maclean, Sir George 

M'Grigor, Sir James, Bart., M.D. 

M'Mahon, Sir Thomas, Hart. 

Maitland, [Ion. Sir Anthony 

Martin, Sir Henry Uiain 

Melville, Viscount 

Moore, Sir William G. 

Moresby, Sir Fairfax 

Mundy, Sir George 

Napier, Sir William F. P. 

Napier, Sir Charles 

Nicolls, Sir Edward 

Pasley, Sir Charles W. 

Pennefather, Sir John L. 

Peel, Sir William 

Plumridge, Sir James Hanway 

Prescott, Sir Henry 

Reynolds, Sir Harrington 

Richards, Sir William 

Rokeby, Lord 

Rose, Sir Hugh Henry 

Rowan, Sir William 

Russell, Sir James 

Scarlett, lion. Sir James Yorkc 

Schoedde, Sir James H. 

Scott, Sir llopton S. 

Scovell, Sir George 

Seymour, Sir Geo. Francis 

Seymour, Sir Michael 

Sleigh, Sir James W. 

Smith, Sir Charles Felix 

Somerset, Sir Henry 

Steel, Sir Scudamorc Winde 

Stewart, Sir Houston 

Stopford, the Hon. Sir Montagu 

Storks, Sir Henry Knight 

Stovin, Sir Frederick 

Strode, Sir Edward Chctham 

Tucker, Sir Edward 

Vivian, Sir Robert John H. 

Watson, Sir James 

West, Sir John 

Wetherall, Sir George A. 

Williams, Sir William Fenwick, Bart. 

Willshire, Sir Thomas, Bait. 

Wilson, Sir Archdale, b'art. 

Woodford, Sir Johu G. 

Wymer, Sir George Peter 

B B 





Abercromby, Hon. Sir Ralph 

Barkly, Sir Henry 

Beaufort, Sir Francis 

Bligh, Hon. Sir John Duncan 

Blootnfield, Lord 

Bonham, Sir Samuel George, Bart. 

Brooke, Sir James 

Cautley, Sir Proby Thomas 

Clerk, Sir George Russell 

Crampton, Sir John Fiennes 

Cubbon, Sir Mark 

Davis, Sir John Francis, Bart. 

Denison, Sir William Thomas 

Elliot, Sir Charles 

FitzRoy, Sir Charles Augustus 

Grey, Sir George 

Hawes, Sir Benjamin 

Higginson, James M. 

Howden, Lord 

Hudson, Sir James 

Lefevre, Sir John George Shaw 

Light, Sir Henry 

Magenis, Sir Arthur Charles 

M'Gregor, Sir Duncan 

Mayne, Sir Richard 

Melvill, Sir James Cosmo 

Nicholls, Sir George 

Ouseley, Sir William Gore 

Pakenham, Right Hon. Sir Richard 

Phipps, Sir Charles Beaumont 

Rawlinson, Sir Henry C. 

Redington, Sir Thomas N. 

Reid, Sir William 

Routh, Sir Randolph J. 

Shiel, Sir Justin 

Stephen, Right Hon. Sir James 

Trevelyan, Sir Charles Edward 

Tulloch, Sir Alexander Murray 

Wilson, Sir Belford Hinton 

Wyse, Right Hon. Sir Thomas 


Bouat, General 

Bouet-Willaumez, Rear-Admiral 

Camou, General 

Charner, Vice-Admiral 

Dalesme, General 

D'Autemarre, General 

D'Allonville, General 

D'Aurelles de Paladines, General 

De Chabannes-Curton, Rear-Admiral 

De la Graviere, Rear-Admiral 

De Martimprey, General 

Dulac, General 

Duraudo, Lieut. -General 

Herbillon, General 

Hertsberg, Lieut-Colonel Sir F. A. de 

Heyden, Admiral Count de 

Hugel, Lieut.-General Baron de 

Levaillant, General 

Lugeol, Rear-Admiral 

Mellinet, General 

Mensdorf, Count Alexander 

Niel, General 

Nugent, Field-Marshal Count 

Odet Pellion, Rear-Admiral 

Pate, General 

Penaud, Rear-Admiral 

Rigault de Genouilly, Rear-Admiral 

Schriebershofer, Sir Maximilian 

Thiry, General 

Trotti, Lieut.-General 

Walker, Sir Baldwin W., Bart. 




Abbott, Augustus 

Abbott, Sir Frederick 

A'Court-Repington, Charles Ashe 

Adams, Frank 

Adams, George 

Adye, John Miller 

Ainslie, William Bernard 

Airey, James Talbot 
Alexander, James 
Alexander, Thomas 
Alexander, George Gardiner 
Anderson, Joseph 
Anderson, William 
Anderson, John Richard 



Andrews, Augustus 

Anstruther, Philip 

Arbuthnot, Hon. Hugh 

Armstrong, James Wells 

Ashburnham, Hon. Thomas 

Austin, Horatio T. 

Backhouse, J. B. 

Bainbrigge, Philip 

Baker, Sir Henry 

Balders, Charles Wm. Morley 

Barker, George Robert 

Baumgartner, Robert Julian 

Baynes, Robert L. 

Becher, Arthur Mitford 

Beckwith, Charles 

Bent, George 

Belcher, Sir Edward 

Bell, George 

Bell, Thomas 

Benson, Richard 

Bethune, Charles R. D. 

Biddulph, Edward 

Birch, Richard James H. 

Bisshopp, Cecil 

Blair, Charles Devaynes 

Blake, William W. 

Blane, Robert 

Blanshard, Thomas 

Blundell, Frederick 

Booth, William 

Borlase, John 

Borton, Arthur 

Bowles, William 

Bradford, John F. 

Brandling, John James 

Bray, Edward William 

Brereton, William 

Brock, Thomas Saumarez 

Broke, Sir George Nathaniel, Bart. 

Brooke, George 

Brooke, Henry Vaughan 

Brown, Gnstavus 

Browne, Fielding 

Browne, Gore 

Browne, Walter J. 

Browne, James Frankfort M. 

Brownrigg, John Studholme 

Buckle, Henry Mason 

Bunbury, Henry William 

Bunbury, Thomas 

Burghersh, Lord 

Burlton, William 

Burnett, William F. 

Burton, Adolphus W. D. 

Cadogan, Earl 

Cadogan, Hon. George 

Caffin, James Crawford 

Caldwell, Henry 

Cameron, Duncan Alexander 

Cameron, George P. 

Campbell, John 

Campbell, Robert Parker 

Campbell, Hugh Archibald Beaurhamp 
Campbell, George 
Capon, David 
Cannichacl, Charles M. 
Carnegie, lion. Thomas Swynfeii 
Carncgy, Alexander 
Carrnthers, Richard 
Carter, Thomas Wren 
Cator, William 
Chalmers, Sir William 
Chamberlain, Neville Bowles 
Chapman, Frederick Edward 
Church, Sir Richard 
Claremont, Edward Stopford 
Clifford, Sir Augustus, Bart. 
Clifford, William John C. 
Cloete, Sir Abraham J. 
Cochrane, Hon. Arthur A. 
Codringtou, Henry J. 
Coke, John 

Colborne, Hon. Francis 
Cole, Arthur Lowry 
' Collier, Edward 
Collinson, Richard 
Colvin, John 
Congreve, George 
Conway, Thomas S. 
Corbett, Stuart 
Cotton, Henry 
Couper, Sir George, Bart. 
Craigie, P. Edmonstone 
Cuninghame, Arthur A. T. 
Cunliffe, Sir R. II. Bart. 
Curtis, Sir Lucius, Bart. 
Curtis, James G. W. 
Curzon, Edward 
Curzon, Hon. 11. W. Penn 
Custauce, W. N. 
Dacres, Sydney Colpoys 
D'Aguilar, Charles Lawrence 
Dalv, Henrv 

Dalzcll, Hon. Robert A. G. 
Daubeney, H. C. Barnston 
Danbeney, James 
Deacon, Charles Clement 
Deas, David 
Delamaine, Charles A. 
De la Motte, Peter 
Despard, Henry 
Dickson, Colliugwood 
Digby, George Stephen 
Dixon, George 
Doherty, Henry E. 
Douglas, John 
Douglas, John 
Douglas, Robert 
Douglas, Thomas Monteath 
Drummond, lion. James R. 
Drake, W. Henry 
Dumbrcck, David 
Dundas, W. Boldcn 
Dunmore, Thomas 

B B 2 



Dupuis, John Edward 
Dyneley, Thomas 
Eckford, James 
Eden, Charles 
Eden, John 

Edwardes, Herbert Benjamin 
Edwards, Clement Alexander. 
Ellice, Charles Henry 
Ellicombe, Charles G. 
Elliot, Richard Coffin 
Elliot, Hon. C. G. J. B. 
Elliot, Hon. George 
Ellis, Samuel B. 
English, Frederick 
Evans, Thomas 
Evelegh, Frederick Charles 
Eyres, Harry 
Fair, Alexander 
Fanshawe, Arthur 
Fanshawe, Edward 
Farren, Richard T. 
Ferryman, Augustus Halifax 
Festing, Robert W. G. 
Filder, William 
Finch, Hon. John 
Fisher, George 
Fitzgerald, Charles 
Fitzmayer, James William 
Fleming, Edward 
Foley, Hon. St. George 
Forbes, John 
Fordyce, Charles Francis 
Franklyn, John Henry 
Franklin, Charles T. 
Freese; John Noble A. 
Forrest, John 
Forster, Henry 
Franklin, Henry 
Franks, Thomas Harte 
Fraser, James 
Fraser, Hugh 
Frederick, Edward 
French, James, M.D. 
Fuller, Francis 
Gairdner, William 
Gaitskell, Frederick 
Gambier, Gloucester 
Geddes, William 
George, Frederick Darley 
Gibson, James Brown 
Giffard, George 
Glasse, F. H. H. 
Godby, Christopher 
Goldie, George L. 
Goldsmith, George 
Gordon, Hon. Alexander 
Gordon, Charles 
Gordon, John AVilliam 
Gordon, Archibald 
Gore, Hon. Charles 
Gough, John B. 
Gowan, George Edward 

Graham, Charles 

Graham, Fortescue 

Grant, Sir James Robert 

Grant, John Thornton 

Grant, James Hope 

Grant, Charles 

Grattan, John 

Greathed, Edward Harris 

Green, Edward 

Greenwood, William 

Greville, Henry Francis 

Griffith, Henry Darby 

Gunning, John 

Halkett, Hugh 

Halkett-Craigie, John 

Hall, Henry 

Hall, William H. 

Hall, William King 

Haly, William O'Grady 

Hamilton, Walter 

Hamilton, Charles 

Hamilton, Sir Charles J. John, Bart. 

Hamilton, F. William 

Harding, George J. 

Harding, Francis Pym 

llardinge, Hon. Arthur Edward 

Harrington, Earl of 

Harrison, John B. 

Harvey, Sir Robert J. 

Hastings, Hon. G. Fowler 

Hawkins, Francis Spencer 

Hawkins, John P. 

Hay, George James 

Hay, Lord John 

Heath, Leopold George 

Henderson, Robert 

Herbert, Charles 

Herbert, Charles 

Herbert, Robert 

Herbert, Hon. Percy Egerton 

Hervey, Andrew 

Hewlett, Richard Strode 

Heyland, Arthur Thomas 

Hicks, George 

Hill, Sir Robert C. 

Hillyar, Henry Scank 

Hodge, Edward Cooper 

Hoggan, John 

Holditch, Edward Alan 

Homier, Robert W. 

Hope, James 

Hopkins, William Friend 

Hopkinson, Sir Charles 

Horn, Frederick 

Horsford, Alfred Hastings 

Hoste, Dixon Edward 

Huish, George 

Hume, Henry 

Hunt, John P. 

Hurdle, Thomas 

Huthwaite, Edward 

Hutt, George 



Ingall, "William Lenox 
Irving, Alexander 
Jackson, John 
Jacob, John 

Jeffries, Edmund Richard 
Jenyns, Soaine G. 
Jessop, John 
Johnstone, John Douglas 
Jones, John 
Jones, William 
Jones, Lewis Tobias 
Kellett, Henry 
Kemball, Arnold Burrowes 
Kenah, Thomas 
Kennedy, Alexander, K.C. 
Kennedy, James 
Kennedy, James S. 
Kennedy, John Jas. 
Kennedy, John Clark 
Key, Astley Cooper 
King, George St. Vincent 
Kingscote, Robert Nigel F. 
Kuper, Augustus Leopold 
Kynaston, Augustus Frederick 
Lake, Noel Thomas 
■ Lake, Henry Atwell 
Lane, Charles Richard William 
Lane, John Theophilus 
Latour, Peter A. 
Lawrence, Arthur J. 
Leeke, Sir Henry John 
Leslie, John Thomas 
Le Geyt, George 
Lewis, Griffith G. 
Liddell, Sir John, M.D. 
Lightfoot, Thomas 
Lillie, Sir John Scott 
Lindsay, Alexander 
Linton, "William 
Lloyd, George W. Aylmer 
Lloyd, John 
Lluellyn, Richard 
Lockwood, George Henry 
Lockyer, Henry 
Longfield, John 
Loring, William 
Lovell, John William 
Low, John 
Luard, J. Kynaston 
Lugard, Edward 
Lumsden, Thomas 
Lushington, Franklyn 
Lygon, Hon. E. P. 
Lynche, Henry Blosse 
Lysons, Daniel 
Macbeath, George 
M'Cleverty, James J. 
Macdonald, Hon. James 
Macdonald, Robert 
Macdonell, Alexander 
Macdonell, George 
Macdowell, George James Mowatt 

Mackinnon, George II. 
M'Mnrdo, William S. 
Maqdierson, Robert 15. 
Mael'hersnn, Philip 
Maitland, Sir Thomas 
Malcolm, George Alexander 
Manscll, John 
Maude, George Ashley 
Maude, Frederick Francis 
Maulevercr, James Thomas 
Maxwell, George Vaughan 
Maxwell, Alexander 
McGregor, George Hall 
McMahon, Thomas Wcstronp 
Mends, William Robert 
Michel), Frederic Thomas 
Michel), John 
Michel, John 
Miller, Fiennes S. 
Money, Archibald 
Money, Rowlaud 
Montgomery, A. Barry 
Montgomerie, Patrick 
Moore, Henry 
Moore, John 
Moore, R. Cornwalhs 
Moorsom, William 
Morgan, John 
Morris, Charles Henry 
Morris, William 
Morris, Edmund 
Morshead, William II. A. 
Mouat, James 
Mundy, George "V. 
Munro, William 
Murray, Hon. Henry 
Napier, Thomas E. 
Napier, G, Thomas C. 
Nash, Joseph 
Nias, Joseph 
Norcott, William L. R. 
O'Connor, Luke Smyth 
Osborn, Sherard 
Ouvry, Henry Aime 
Owen, Henry C. 
Pack-Reynefi, Arthur 
Paget, Lord George, A. F. 
Paget, Lord Clarence 
Pakenham, Hon. William Lygon 
Parke, Thomas A. 
Parkinson, Edward 
Parlby, Brook 
Parsons, James 
Pattle, William 
Paty, George William 
Paulet, Lord George 
Paulet, Lord William 
Paulet, Lord Frederick 
Paynter, David William 
Pears, Thomas Townshend 
Pelham, Hon. Frederick Thomas 
Pellew, Hon. Sir Fleetwood B. 



Penny, Nicholas 

Perceval, John M. 

Poole, John 

Powell, Richard Ashmore 

Powell, Thomas Sidney 

Power, William G. 

Pratt, Thomas S. 

Proctor, Henry A. 

Purton, John 

Rae, William, M.D. 

Rainey, Henry 

Ramsay, William 

Ramsay, George 

Reed, Thomas 

Reginolds, Thomas Scott 

Reid, Charles 

Reid, Francis A. 

Reilly, William Edmund Moyse 

Rennie, James 

Renny, Charles, M.D. 

Reynardson, Edward Birch 

Richards, Peter 

Richardson, Sir John, M.D. 

Richmond, Archibald F. 

Ridley, C. William 

Roberts, Abraham 

Roberts, Henry T. 

Rogers, Henry Downing 

Rooke, Sir Henry Willoughby 

Rowan, Henry 

Rnssell, Lord Edward 

Ryves, George F. 

Salter, Henry F. 

Sanders, Robert 

Saxe-Weimar, Prince Edward of 

Scott, James 

Scott, John 

Scott, Francis 

Seaton, Thomas 

Seymour, George Henry 

Seymour, Francis 

Sewell, William Henry 

Shadwell, Charles Frederick Alex. 

Sharpe, Alexander R. 

Showers, St. George D. 

Shirley, Horatio 

Simmons, John L. Arabin 

Simmons, Joseph 

Simpson, William Henry 

Smelt, William 

Smith, Henry 

Smith, James Webber 

Smith, Robert 

Smith, Richard Baird 

Smith, John William Sidney 

Smyth, Henry 

Smyth, John Rowland 

Somerset, Poulet H. G. 

Somerset, Edward Arthur 

Sotheby, Frederick Samuel 

Sparks, James Pattoun 

Spence, James . 

Spencer, Hon. Augustus Almeric 

Spencer, Earl 

Spratt, Thomas Abel B. 

Stack, Maurice 

Stanton, Edward 

Staveley, Charles William Dunbar 

Steel, James 

Steele, Thomas Montagu 

Stephenson, John Lionel 

Stepney, Arthur St. George H. 

Sterling, Antbony C. 

Steuart, Charles 

Stevens, Stephen James 

Stewart, James Pattison 

Stisted, Henry W. 

Story, Philip Francis 

Strange, Henry Francis 

Straton, Robert J. 

Street, John Alfred 

Stuart, James 

Stuart, John Ramsay 

Sullivan, Bartholomew James 

Sullivan, William 

Sutherland, William 

Symonds, Thomas M. C. 

Tait, Thomas Forsyth 

Talbot, Earl 

Tarleton, John Walter 

Tapp, Thomas 

Taylor, Joshua N. 

Taylor, John Robert 

Taylor, Henry G. A. 

Taylor, Richard Chambre Hayes 

Thackeray, Frederick R. 

Thomas, Henry 

Thompson, John Armstrong 

Thompson, William J. 

Thomson, George 

Timbrell, Thomas 

Tombs, Henry 

Troubridge, Sir Thomas St. Vincent H. 

C. Bart. 
Trevelyan, Henry W. 
Tritton, Edmund 
Trollope, Charles 
Tucker, Auchnmty 
Tucker, Henry T. 
Tulloch, Alexander 
Tulloch, John 
Turner, George 
Turner, John 
Turner, William West 
Tweeddale, Marquess of 
Tytler, James Macleod Bannatyne Fraser 
Upton, Hon. George F. 
Van Cortlandt, Henry Charles 
Vansittart, Nicholas 
Van Straubenzee, Charles T. 
Vernon, H. C. E. 
Waddington, Charles 
Waddy, Richard 
Wade, Hamlet Coote 



Wade, Sir Claude M. 
Waldegrave, Earl of 
Walker, Edward W. F. 
Ward, John It. 
Warde, Col. Edward Charles 
Warden, Frederick 
Warre, Henry J. 
Warren, Charles 
Warren, William 
Waters, Edmund Frederick 
Watson, Rundle B. 
Watts, George Edward 
Welchman, John 
Wellesley, George G. 
Wemyss, Thomas J. 
Wemyss, John Morris 
West, Lord 
Wetherall, E. Robert 
Whinyates, Edward Charles 
White", Henry D. 
White, Michael 
Whittingham, Ferdinand 
Wilbraham, Richard 
Wilcox, James 
Wilkins, George 
Wilkinson, Christopher Dixon 

Wilkinson, Arthur P. S. 
Williams, Thomas 
Willoughhy, Michael V. 
Wilmot, Arthur 1'. E. 
Wilson, George Davis 
Wilson, Sir John Morillyon 
Wilton, John Lucas 
Windham, Charles Ash 
Wodehousc, Edwin 
Wood, David 
Wood, Henry John 
Wood, John Stewart 
Wood, Robert Bluchcr 
Wood, William 
Woodburn, Alexander 
Woodgate, William 
Wright, Thomas 
Wylde, William 
Wyllie, William 
Wynyard, Edward 
Wynyard, Robert Henry 
Yarborough, Charles Cook 
Yelverton, Hastings Reginald 
Yorke, John 
Young, Charles Wallace 
Young, William Laurieston M. 



Baldwin, Robert 
Balfour, George 
Bromley, Richard Madox 
Browne, George 
Brownrigg, Henry John 
Buchanan, Andrew 
Campbell, Thomas Edmund 
Chadwick, Edwin 
Churchill, Henry Adrian 
Clarke, Sir Robert B. 
Cole, Henry 

Colebrooke, Sir Wm. M. G. 
Crofton, Walter F. 
Dawson, Robert Kearsley 
De Rottenburg, George 
Donnelly, William 
Draper, William Henry 
Fitzgerald, Charles 
Gordon, Henry William 
Hastings, Sir Thomas 
Hay, John H. Drummond 
Hodges, George L. 
Horsford, Sir Robert Marsh 

Jebb, Joshua 

Maearthur, Edward 

Maclean, John 

MacDonnell, Sir Richard G. 

Maxwell, John Hall 

Milne, Alexander 

Murray, Henry Charles A. 

Northcote, Sir Stafford Henry, Bart. 

Oliphaut, Sir Anthony 

Otway, Loftus Charles 

Playfair, Dr. Lyon 

Robe, Frederick Holt 

Robinson, Sir John Beverley, Bart. 

Romaine, William Govett 

Rowe, Sir Joshua 

Sandwith, Humphry 

Scarlett, Hon. P. Campbell 

Scotland, George 

Smith, Peter 

Strzelecki, Paul E. 

Stewart, Alexander 

Young, Sir Henry E. F. 




Abahamson, Major 

Anne-Duportal, Captain 

Augsr. Colonel 

Augot, Military Intendant 

Avinoff, Captain 

Ballard, Lieut-Colonel John Archibald 

Barrel, Lieut. -Colonel 

Baumbacb, Major 

Bazaine, General 

Bertrand, Lieut.-Colonel 

Beuret, General 

Beuret, General 

Bisson, General 

Blancbard, General 

Blanchot, Intendant General 

Bode.nhausen, Baron de 

Bogdanowitch, Captain 

Bondurand, Military Intendant 

Borel de Bretizel, General 

Bouet, Captain 

Bourbaki, General 

Brosin, Major-General 

Cassaignolles, General 

Chevillotte, Chef de Bataillon 

Cler, General 

Coffinieres, General 

Collineau, Colonel 

Comignan, Colonel 

Couston, General 

Craquembourgh, Count de 

Crespin, Colonel 

Danner, Colonel 

Dantin, Colonel 

Darrican, Bon., Captain 

De Bentzmann, Chef d'Escadron 

De Berckheim, Chef d'Escadron 

De Bertier, Colonel 

De Beville, General 

De Champeron, General 

De Castagny, Colonel 

De Cissey, General 

De Comely, Lieut.-Colonel 

De Dompierre d'Hornoy, Captain 

De Failly, General 

De Ferrabouc, Colonel 

De Forton, General 

De la Bretonnier, Captain 

De la Tour and Taxis, Prince 

De la Martiniere, Colonel 

De la Motterouge, General 

De la Rovere, Lieut.-Col. 

De Lorencez, General 

De Monet, Gen. Comte 

De Puibusque, Coionel 

De Itochebouet, Colonel 

Desaint, Chef d'Escadron of Etat Major 

De Saisset, Captain 

De Sorbiers, Colonel 

De Tournemine, General 

De Vernon, Colonel 

De Waubert de Gcnlis, Lieut.-Col. 

Decaen, Colonel 

Desusieau de Malroy, Lieut.-Col. 

Dieu, Colonel 

Di Negro, Captain Marquess 

Douay, Colonel 

Dufour de Montlouis, Captain 

Duhesme, Colonel 

Dupouy, Captain 

Duprat de Larroquette, General 

Dupre, Captain 

Epautchoff, Captain Jean 

Epautchoff, Captain Nicholas 

Espinasse, General 

Faucheux, General 

Feray, General 

Forgeot, Colonel 

Frossard, General 

Gagneur, Lieut.-Colonel 

Garnault, Captain 

Ginoux de la Couche, Captain 

Govone, Major 

Gorkum, Colonel Van 

Goze, Colonel 

Huchet de Centre, Captain 

Hugon, Rear-Admiral 

Jannin, General 

Jarras, Colonel 

Jourjon, Colonel 

Krouschtoff, Captain 

Lescure, Captain 

Larrien, Captain 

Le Francois, Colonel 

Lefebvre, General 

Lefevre, Colonel Auguste Henri 

Lafont Villiers, General 

Lallemand, Chef d'Escadron of Etat 

Larchey, General 
Laterrade, Colonel 
Leboeuf, General 
Lebzeltern, Colonel Wilhelni de 
Lion, Colonel 
Lugeol, Captain 
Maneque, General 
Maussion de Caude, Captain 
Mequet, Captain 
Montaudon, Colonel 
Monteuard, General 
Morice, Captain N. 
Niol, General 
Ohicr, Captain 



Paris de la Bollardiere, Intcndant- 

Paris, Captain 

Pelissier, Lieutenant-Colonel 
Pettite, Colonel Count 
Penhoat, Captain 
Picard, Colonel 

Polhes de Bonnet Maurelhan, Colonel 
Pothuau, Captain 
Raoult, Lieut.- Colonel 
Rebecque, Baron de 
Reille, Lieut.-Colonel 
Renson, Lieut.-Colonel 
Ressayre, Colonel 
Reybaud, Lieut.-Colonel 
Robert, Captain J. B. 
Rose, Colonel 

Saurin, Colonel 

Scrive, Principal Physician 

Sladc, Captain Adolphns, R.N. 

Solcille, General 

Sytin, Captain 

Tecsdale, Lieut-Colonel Christopher 

Touchard, Captain 
Trochu, General 
Turpin, Captain 
Ullrich, General 
Verge, General 
Vinoy, General 
Walsin Esterhary, General 
Warnier de Wailly, Captain 
Wimpffen, General 


Dean of the Order — Richard Chevenix Trench, B.D., Dean of Westminster. 

Genealogist and Blanc Coursier Herald — "Walter Aston Blount, Esq. 

Bath King-of- Arms — Algernon Greville, Esq. 

Registrar and Secretary — Rear-Admiral Sir Michael Seymour, K.C.B. 

Gentleman Usher of the Scarlet Rod, and Brunswick Herald — Albert William Woods, Esq. 

Messenger — William Law, Esq. 





Buckley, Cecil William 
Burgoyne, Hugh Talbot 
Roberts, John 
Cooper, Henry 
Trewavas, Joseph 

Kellaway, Joseph 
Day, George Fiott 
Commerell, John Edmund 
Rickard, William 


Peel, William, K.C.B. 
Daniels, Edward St. John 
Hewett, William Nathan Wright 
Sullivan, John 

Shepherd, John 
Reeves, Thomas 
Raby, Henry James 

Ingouville, George 
Bythesea, John 


Johnstone, William 
Lucas, Charles D. 

Dowell, George Dare 
Prettyjohn, John 

Grieve, John 

Parkes, Samuel 

Dunn, Alexander Robert 

Berryman, John 

Andrew, Henry 

Dixon, Matthew Charles 

Arthur, Thomas 

Graham, Gerald 

Lennox, D. 

Ross, John 

Lendrim, William J. 

Perie, John 

Russell, Sir Charles, Bart. 

Palmer, Anthony 

Ablett, Alfred 

Goodlake, Gerald Littlehales 

Stanlock, William 

Strong, George 

Lindsay, Robert James 



Wilkinson, Thomas 


Reynolds, William 
Prosser, Joseph 
Maude, Frederick Francis 
Connors, John 
Hughes, Mathew 
Norman, William 
Moynihan, Andrew 
Smith, Philip 
Lyons, John 
Bell, Edward W. D. 
O'Connor, Luke 
Shields, Robert 
Coffey, William 
Sims, John J. 
Rowlands, Hugh 
Madden Ambrose 
M'Wheeney, William 
M'Dermond, John 
Walters, George 
Owens, James 



Beach, Thomas 
Elton, Frederick C. 
McCorrie, C. 
Hamilton, T. De Courcy 
Byrne, John 
Park, John 
"Wright, Alex. 
Alexander, John 
Luinley, Charles Henry 
Coleman, John 
Clifford, Hon. Henry H. 
Cuninghame, William James 
Bourchier, Claude Thomas 
Wheatley, F. 
Knox, John 
McGregor, R. 
Humpston, Robert 

Bradshaw, Joseph 

Percy, Hon. Henry Hugh Manvcrs 

Hope, William 

Hale, Thomas Egerton 

Conolly, John Augustus 

Teesdale, Christopher Charles, C.IJ. 

Malouc. Joseph 

Jones, Henry Mitchell 

Esmonde, Thomas 

Farrell, John 

Symons, George 

Craig, James 

Sylvester, William Henry Thomas 

Crowe, Joseph P. H. 

Ilavelock, Sir Henry Marshman, Bart. 

Hancock, Thomas 

Purcell, John 


1. No subject of Her Majesty shall accept a Foreign Order from the Sovereign of any 
foreign country, or wear the insignia thereof, without having previously obtained Her 
Majesty's permission to that effect, signified by a Warrant under Her Royal Sign 

2. Such permission shall not he granted to any subject of Her Majesty, unless the 
Foreign Order shall have been conferred in consequence of active and distinguished 
service before the enemy, either at sea or in the field ; or unless he shall have been 
actually and entirely employed, beyond Her Majesty's dominions, in the service of the 
Foreign Sovereign by whom the Order is conferred. 

3. The intention of a Foreign Sovereign to confer upon a British Subject the Insignia 
of an Order, must be notified to Her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for Foreign 
Affairs, either through the British Minister accredited at the Court of such Foreign 
Sovereign, or through His Minister accredited at the Court of Her Majesty. 

4. If the service for wtiich it is proposed to confer the Order has been performed 
during War, the Notification required by the preceding Clause must be made not later 
than two years after the exchange of the Ratifications of a Treaty of Peace. 

If the service has been performed in time of Peace, the Notification must be made 
within two years after the date of such service. 

5. After such Notification shall have been received, Her Majesty's Principal Secre- 
tary of State for Foreign Affairs shall, if the case comes within the conditions pre. 
scribed by the present Regulations, and arises from naval or military Services before 
the Enemy, refer it to Her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for the War Depart- 
ment, previously to taking Her Majesty's pleasure thereupon, in order to ascertain 
whether there be any objection to Her Majesty's permission being granted. 

A similar reference shall also be made to the Commander-in-Chief, if the application 
relates to an Officer in the Army, or to the Lords of the Admiralty, if it relates to an 
Officer in the Navy. 

6. When Her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs shall have 
taken the Queen's pleasure on such application, and shall have obtained Her Majesty's 
permission for the person in whose favour it has been made to accept the Foreign 
Order, and wear the Insignia thereof, he shall signify the same to Her Majesty's 
Principal Secretary of State for the Home Department, in order that he may cause the 
Warrant required by Clause 1 to be prepared for the Royal Sign Manual. 

When such Warrant shall have been signed by the Queen, a Notification thereof 
shall be inserted in the Gazette, stating the service for which the Foreign Order has 
been conferred. 

7. The Warrant signifying Her Majesty's permission, may, at the request and at the 
expense of the person who has obtained it, be registered in the College of Arms. 

8. Every such Warrant as aforesaid shall contain a Clause providing that Her 


Majesty's licence and permission does not authorize the assumption of any style, 
appellation, rank, precedence, or privilege appertaining to a Knight Bachelor of Her 
Majesty's Kealms. 

9. When a British Subject has received the Royal permission to accept a Foreign 
Order, he will at any future time he allowed to accept the Decoration of a higher 
Class of the same Order, to which he may have become eligible by increase of rank 
in the Foreign Service, or in the Service of his own country ; or any other distinctive 
mark of honour strictly consequent upon the acceptance of the original Order, and 
common to every person upon whom such Order is conferred. 

10. The preceding Clause shall not be taken to apply to Decorations of the Guelphic 
Order which were bestowed on British Subjects by Her Majesty's predecessors, King 
George IV. aud King William IV., on whose heads the Crowns of Great Britain and of 
Hanover were united. 

Decorations so bestowed cannot properly be considered as rewards granted by a 
Foreign Sovereign for services rendered accordiug to the purport of Clause 2 of these 
Regulations. They must be rather considered as personal favours bestowed on British 
Subjects by British Sovereigns, and as having no reference to services rendered to the 
Foreign Crown of Hanover. 


1. Applications for permission to accept and wear Medals which, not being the 
decoration of any Foreign Order, are conferred by a Foreign Sovereign on British sub- 
jects in the Army or in the Navy, for military or for naval services, should be addressed, 
as the case may be, to the Commander-in-Chief, the Master-General of the Ordnance, 
or the Lords of the Admiralty, who, if they see fit, may submit the same to Her 
Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, for Her Majesty's sanction ; 
upon obtaining which, they may grant such permission without any other formality. 

2. Permission to wear a Foreign Medal cannot be granted to a British subject, unless 
such Medal is bestowed for military or naval services performed by the command or 
with the sanction of Her Majesty. But no permission is necessary for accepting a 
Foreign Medal, if such Medal is not to be worn. 

(Signed) CLARENDON. 

Foreign Office, May 10, 1855. 



Simpson, General Sir James | Brown, General Sir George 


Burgoyne, Lieutenant-General Sir John 

Fox", Bart. 
Evans, Lieutenant-General Sir De Lacy 

Pennefather, Lieutenant-General Sir J. 

England, Major-General Sir Richard 




Lucan, Lord 

Bentinck, Sir Henry J. William 

Barnard, Henry William 

Rokeby, Lord 

Codrington, Sir William John 

Scarlett, Hon. Sir James Yorke 

Eyre, Sir William 

Rose, Sir Hugh Henry 

Buller, Sir George 

Dacres, Sir Richard J. 

Windham, Charles Ash 

Dupuis, J. Edward 

Terryman, A. Halifax 
Campbell, H. Parker 
llav, A. S. Lcitb 
Sibthorp, It. F. Waldo 
Ellington F. Robert 
Newdigate, Edward 
Barker, G. Robert 
Biddulph, M. A. Shrapnel 
Devine, John 
Lloyd, E. Thomas 
Ewart, C Brisbane 


Steele, Thomas Montagu 

Pakenham Hon. William L. 

Hall, Dr. J. 

Macmurdo, W. M. Scott 

Paulet, Lord F. 

Gordon, A. 

Cunynghame, A. Augustus Thurloe 

Herbert, P. E. 

Wilbraham, R. 

Brown rigg, S. 

Sterling, Anthony 

Paget, Lord G. A. Frederick 

Shewell, F. G. 

Ridley, C. W. 

Upton, Hon. G. F. 

Walker, E. W. F. 

Paulet, Lord William 

Straubenzee, C. T. Van 

Horn, Frederic 

Sackville, Charles Richard 

West, Lord 

Lyons, Daniel 

Adams, Frank 

Maulevcrer, James Thomas 

Cameron, Duncan Alexander 

Spencer, Hon. A. Almeric 
Garrett, Robert 
Farren, R. Thomas 
Warren, Charles 
Trollope, Charles 
Shirley, Horatio 
Lawrence, A. Johnstone 
Seymour, Francis 
Fitzmaycr, James William 
St. George, John 
Warde, Edwarde Charles 
Wood, David Edward 
Adye, John Miller 
Gordon, Alexander 
Chapman, Frederick Edward 
Hamilton, F. William 
Grant, J. Thornton 
Smyth, Henry 
Dickson, Collingwood 
Hodge, E. Cooper 
Haly, W. O'Grady 
Sparks, James P. 
Lockyer, Henry Frederick 
Norcott, W. S. Ramsay 
Lake, N. Thomas 


Saxe-Weimar, Prince Edward of 
Maitland, C. L. Brownlow 
Colville, Hon. William 
Harding, Francis Pym 
Shadwell, Lawrence 
Hume, Gustavus 
Mackenzie, Kenneth Douglas 
Hallewell, E. Gilling 

Wetherall, Edward Robert 
Colborne, Hon. Francis 
Airey, James Talbot 
Mayow, George W. 
Hardinge, Hon. Arthur E. 
Thackwell, J. E. 
Smith, Hugh 
Sullivan, William 



Blane, Robert 
Wood, John Stewart 
Dickson, Collingwood 
Thompson, George Latham 
"Woodford, Charles John 
Morris, William 
Willis, Harry Smith 
Vacker, F. Smith 
Bellairs, William 
Glyn, Julius Richard 
Earle, A. Maxwell 
Armstrong, James Wells 
Maxwell, George Vaughan 
Ellison, C. George 
Daniell, C. F. Torrens 
Barnston, Robert 
Gordon, Archibald 
Mouatt, James 
Matthew, T. Patrick 
Eliot, Richard Coffin 
Alexander, Thomas 
Brady, Thomas Clarke 
Ligertwood, Thomas v 

Sylvester, Henry Thomas 
Fair, George 
O'Callaghan, Charles 
Drake, William Henry 
Smith, John William 
Turner, Philip 
Carpenter, F. Stanley 
Darling, M. William 
Osborne, Kean 
Conolly, James 
Elliot, James Hardy 
MacCreagh, Michael 
Percy, William 
Herbert, Henry 
Babbington, Charles 
Elmsall, W. De Cardonnel 
Keyle, William 
Clarke. George Calvert 
Rant, William 
Low, Alexander 
Gillam, David 
Shute, Charles Cameron 
Jeffreys, Richard 
De Salis, Rodolph 
Gray, William 
Guttridge, George 
Bambrick, John Thomas 
Tremayne, Arthur 
Johnson, T. G. John 
Gordon, Sir William, Bart. 
Brown, John 
Hamilton, F. William 
Percy, Hon. Hugh Manvers 
Higginson, G. W. Alexander 
Russell, Sir Charles 
Balgownie, Viscount 
Dawkins, W. Gregory 
Strong, Clement W. 
Armytage, Henry 

Goodlake, G. Littlehales 

Tower, Harvy 

Stephenson, F. C. Arthur 

Jocelyn, Hon. John Strange 

Gipps, Reginald 

Baring, Francis 

Lindsay, R. James 

Wells, Frederick 

Todd, J. A. Rnddell 

Brown, J. Martin 

Hurt, Charles 

Gillies, William 

M'Kenna, Theobald 

Crisell, Henry 

Maude, F. Francis 

Lewes, John 

Roe. G. Noble 

Williams, Thomas 

Robertson, Patrick 

Paton, James 

Watt, Thomas 

Turney, W. West 

Pack, A. John 

Hibbert, H. John 

Appleyard, Ernest 

Jones. H. Mitchell 

Walter, G. Henry 

Bell, Joseph 

Raines, James 

Brown, Henry Ralph 

Scott, H. Bassett 

Ryder, William 

Cook, William 

King, George 

Tyler, G. Henry 

Dwyer, John 

Macdonald, John 

Travers, J. Oates 

Thompson, W. Dalryraple 

Plant, John 

Armstrong, A. W. S. Freeman 

Hay man, M. Jones 

Grant, John 

Dowbiggin, Montagu Hamilton 

Massey, W. G. Dunham 

Rooke, J. Ii. Richard 

Warden, Robert 

Bright, R. Onesephorus 

Chippindale, Edward 

Lvons, John 

Evelegh, E. F. Charles 

Butler, C. R. 

Rule, Arthur 

Brown, Joseph 

Kileen, Roger 

Carlton, William Henry 

Image, John George 

Templeman, Arthur 

Line, James 

Banbury, H. William 

Herbert, A. James 

Bell, E. W. Deddington 



Drewe, F. Edward 
Stait, William 
Shiels, Robert 
Butler, P. Archer 
Aplin, J. G. Rogers 
Roberts, William 
Orlebar, 0. R. Hamond 
Smith, Charles 
Atcherley, F. Topping 
Green, C. Mingaye 
Gubbins, Stamer 
Nagle, Richard 
M'Cormick, John 
Spence, Frederick 
Eagar, Robert John 
Mundy, G. Valentine 
Collings, John Elias 
Donovan, Edward Westby 
Quayle, J. E. Taubman 
Pretyman, William 
MacCay, William 
Goodenough, A. Cyril 
Simpson, John 
Guilt, John 
Mortimer, John 
Smith, W. Sidney 
Dickins, C. A. Scrace 
Ellis, W. Kidston 
Jeeves, William Younge 
Scott, John 
Munro, William 
Leckie, William 
Carr, R. Edward 
Jobberns, Joseph 
Skipwith, George 
Goodwyn, J. Edmund 
Rowlands, Hugh 
Graham, Lumley 
Allan, William 
O'Neil, James 
Stockey, Peter 
M'Leod, J. Chetham 
Drysdale, John 
M'Kinnon, W. Alexander 
Wood, William 
Christie, Charles 
M'Mahon, William 
Robinson, John 
Preston, Richard 
Gibbons, John 
Thimbleby, Robert 
Maxwell, Alexander 
Dallas, George 
Bond, William 
Simpson, William 
Lowndes, J. Henry 
Villiers, James 
VilUers, C. Courtney 
Stevenson, C. Aldersey 
Wilson, John 
West, Frederick 
Kelly, Thomas 

Grant, J. Thornton 

King, J. Ilynde 

Dewar, J. William 

Adams, Cadwalladcr 

Armstrong, T. P. St. George 

Butler, James 

Waddy, Richard 

Wilton, John Lucas 

Frampton, II. J. 

Lock, A. C. Knox 

Macpherson, Angus 

Daubeney, 11. C. Barnston 

Hume, Robert 

Elton, Frederick Cockayne 

Hume, J. Richard 

Barnston, William 

Doyle, Joseph 

Anderson, Richard 

Butler, Henry 

Forsyth, G. John 

Cumming, George 

Griffith, William 

Burgess, Joseph 

Daubeney, James 

Gooch, Charles 

Hunter, E. Henry 

Newman, Joseph 

Harris, Thomas 

Elliot, H. Christopher 

Smyth, Henry 

Hamilton, Thomas de Courcy 

Tucker, A. Harvey 

Stadden, Henry 


Ogden, John 

Ready, Charles 

Hope, William 

Parke, William 

Thellusson, Dalton 

Rickman, William 

Carden, Robert H. 

Chawner, E. Henry 

Borritt, Henry 

Coonin, Thomas 

M'Call, William 

Hodgson, W. Chanval 

Campbell, Henry Wotton 

Young, James 

Davie, William 

Maxwell, E. Herbert 

Stevens, Nathaniel 

Browne, George Richard 

Beresford, G. Robert 

Goggins, Thomas 

Grennan, Joseph 

Aylmer, F. Charles 

Boyle, W. 

Cuppage, J. Macdonald 

Fisher, John 

Grove, Robert 

Smith, Thomas 

Wolsely, G. Joseph 



Smaller, Joseph 

Ewart, J. Alexander 

Cr6we, Robert 

Cornwall, George 

Knox, Alexander 

Hume, Henry 

Sargent, John Neptune 

Massey, Hon. E. C. Henry 

Carmichael, G. Lynedoch 

Sexton, John 

Abbott, Timothy 

Ingram, Thomas 

Legh, E. Cornwall 

Lumley, C. Henry 

Lawless, Peter 

Stone, Peter John 

Somerset, E. Arthur 

Clifford, Hon. Henry 

Brett, John 

Murphy, Timothy 

Wheatley, Francis 

Macdonell, Alexander 

Fyers, W. Augustus 

Blackett, E. William 

Knox, J. Simpson 

Andrews, John 

Bourchier, Claud Thomas 

Wodehouse, Edwin 

Dixon, W. M. Hall 

Strange, H. Francis 

Hamley, E. Bruce 

Field, G. Thomas 

Baddeley, J. F. Lodington 

Boothby, J George 

Singleton, John 

Carthew, E. John 

Hope, J. Edward 

Bolton, "William John 

Owen, C. Henry 

Broughton, S. Delves 

Branding, J. James 

Turner, John 

Moubray, Edward 

Reilly, W. E. Moyses 

Lukin, W. W. Augustus 

Miller, Frederick 

Grant, W. J. Esten 

Dickson, Philip 

Mackenzie, Roderick 

Campbell, Hugh A. Beauchamp 

Richards, W. Powell 

Spurway, John 

Simpson, W. H. Randolph 

King, A. Henry 

Lyons, Joseph 

Longley, R. Cytherus 

Alderson, H. James 

Keene, J E. Ruck 

Arbuthnot, Henry 

Maxwell, Stuart 

Ridout, Arthur 

Conolly, H. Hamilton 

Price, J. Andrew 
Brown, J. Henry 
Strangways, W. A. Fox 
Markham, Edwin 
Torriano, Charles Edward 
Stirling, William 
Vaughan, E. Courtenay 
Tillard, H. Percy 
Broughton, L. Delves 
Walter de Winton, Francis 
Hickes, H. J. F. Ellis 
Harris, Noel Hamly 
Hall, W. James 
Elton, F. Coulthurst 
Fasson, S. Hunter 
Ward, W. Pearson 
Park, Thomas 
Taylor, A. Henry 
Stockley, J. Surtees 
Young, William 
Lilley, J. Isaac 
Hant, Arthur 
Norton, William 
Mervin, Geoige 
Mitchell, Joseph 
Mitchell, Thomas 
Devine, John 
Kerr, George 
Bruce, Robert 
Hargreaves, John 
Stevenson, John 
Wheatlev, Hugh 
Todd, William 
Hendry, William 
Burke, Robert 
Gibbs, John 
MacVeight, John 
Bent, George 
Bourchier, Eustace Fane 
Stanton, Edward 
Browne, J. F. Manners 
Montagu, Horace William 
De Vere, Francis Horatio 
Fisher, A. A'Court 
Graham, Gerald 
Cowell, J Clayton 
Donelly, J. F. Dykes 
Elphinstone, H. Crauford 
Neville, Glastonbury 
Anderson, W. Christian 
Martin, C. Nassau 
Drake, J. M. Cutliffe 
Gordon, C. George 
Landry, John 
Macdonald, Henry 
Stanton, Joseph 
Jarvis, George 
Leitch, Peter 
Cole, Samuel 
Paul, John 
Collins, Joseph 
Burgbersh, Lord 



Fielding, Hon. Percy 

Bingham, Lord 

Campbell, Hon. H. W. 

Neville, Edward 

Torrens, 11. D'Oley 

Whitrnore, E. A. 

Curzon, lion. Leicester 

Calthorpe, Hod. S. J. Gough 

Clifton, T. H. 

Gubbins, James 

Carcur de Morel, Charles 

Anderson, Arthur 

Brush, J. Ramsay 

Wyatt, John 

Bostock, J. Ashton 

Valpy de Lisle, R. F. 

Lock wood, A. P. 

Longmore, Thomas 

Mackiunon, D. R. 

Barlow, D. G. 

Muir, G. M. 

Fraser, John 

St. Croix Crosse, J. B. 

Gloag, J. G. 

Wardlaw, R. 

Sulivan, G. A. F. 

Brown, G. J. 

White, G. D. 

Douglas, John 

Evans, W. E. 

Cooke, E. A. 

Tipping, A. 

Cameron, W. Gordon 

Halkett, J. 

Baring, C. 

Shuckburgh, G. T. F. 

Bell, George 

Plunkett, Hon. C. D. 

llucy, R. W. 
Hunt, Joseph 
Troubridge, Sir T. St. 

Cochrane, Hart. 
Borton, Arthur 
Klmhiirst, C. 
Barlow, Maurice 
M'Pherson, Philip 
Gordon, William 
Clement, A. Edwards 
M'Gee, Edward 
Massey, G. W. II. 
Stevens, George 
Crofton, Hugh Dennis 
Campbell, Joseph 
Bayly, Paget 
Staunton, George 
Foscland, George 
Kelley, R. Denis 
Finley, R. Newport 
Rollo, Hon. Robert 
Saver, Frederick 
Browne, Andrew 
Campbell, C. Frederick 
Hunter, F. Frederick 
Riky, Benjamin 
Lamb, G. Henry 
Regan, Thomas 
Wergc, H. Reynolds 
Margesson, W. George 
lnglis, William 
Ingall, Lennox W. 
Carter, W. Frederick 
M'Gowan, John 
Blount, Herbert 
Straton, Robert Jocelyn 
Dixon, George 

Vincent Hope 



Dundas, Vice-Admiral Sir James Whitley Deans. 
Lvons, Rear- Admiral, Lord. 

Stewart, Rear-Admiral Sir Houston 
Stopford, Rear-Admiral the Hon. Sir 


Lushington, Rear-Admiral Sir Stephen 
Keppel, Capt. the Hon. Henry 


Lushington, Sir Stephen 
Michell, T. Frederick 
Graham, Charles 
Carter, Thomas Wren 
Keppel, Henry 
Jones, Lewis Tobias 
Peel, Sir William, K.C.B. 
Moorsom, William 
Mends, William Robert 
Spratt, Thomas Abel B. 

Osborne, Sherard 
Hurdle, Thomas 
Holloway, Thomas 
Grevdle, H. Francis 
Paulet, Lord George 
Russell, Lord Edward 
Dacres, Sidney Colpoys 
King, G. St. Vincent 
Drummond, Hon. James Robert 
Deas, David 

C C 




Tatham, Edward 
Ewart, C. J. Frederick 
Cumberland, Octavius 
Bowyear, George Le Geyt 
"Wiles, G. Gomraanney 
Bickford, J. Grant 
Gordon, W. E. Alphonse 
Derriman, S. H. 
Porteus, F. Pender 
Dench, C. Thomas 
Anesley, C. Murray 
Joliffe, W. Kynaston 
Ross, J. Francis 
Comber, H. "Wandesford 
Pym, W. Henry 
Fairholme, Charles 
Thompson, S. W. Heniker 
Hudson, J. Samuel 
Evered, J. G. C. 
Paul, Henry 
Bower, G. H. K. 
Forbes, C. R. Pecco 
Bullock, T. Thelwall 
Sanctuary, W. Melancthon 
Hunter, J. Edward 
Hayward, C. Augustus 
Carmichael, James 
Mason, R. Denton 
Reynolds, Vernon Eliakim 
Irwin, Ahmutz 
Thorne, Edward 
Hamilton, William 
Hewbz, Matthew 
Cooper, Henry 
Hayman, William 
Rowe, George 
Major, William 
Barry, David 
Henderson, Edward 
Hewett, Henry 
Roberts, H. Bradley 
Joliffe, Charles 
Festing, Francis Worgan 
Pitman, William 
Brookes, J. Rowland 
Frere, J. J. B. Edward 
Burnett, W. Farquharson 
Heath, L. George 
Hillyar, H. Schenk 
Randolph, G. Granville 
Hay, Lord John 
Kynaston, A. Frederic 
Powell, R. Ashmore 
Borlase, John 
Lambert, Rowley 
Kennedy, J. James 
Coles, C. Phipps 
Rogers, Henry Downing 
Dowell, W. Montague 
Commerill, J. Edmund 

Rolland, W. Rae 
Lloyd, Henry 
Bowden, William 
Luce, J. Proctor 
Jones, W. Gore 
Armytage, William 
M'Killop, H. Frederick 
M'Kenzie, J. F. C. 
Horton, William 
Crang, J. Hay 
Bull, James 
Pritchard, Samuel 
Whvte, J. William 
Oldfield, R. Bryce 
Urmston, W. Brabazon 
Raby, H. James 1 
Cavo, J. Halliday 
Marryat, J. Henry 
Day, G. Fiott 
Campion, Hubert 
Buckley, C. William 
Gough, F. William 
Byng, J. Clark 
Grylls, C. Gerveys 
Hardinge, Edward 
Burgoyne, H. T. 
Mitchell, Alfred 
Noddal, C. T. Augustus 
Mainprise, W. Thomas 
Roberts, R. Wilson 
Williams, George 
Potter, Thomas 
Arguimbeau, Narcissus 
Ball, E. Codrington 
Brooker, E. Wolfe 
Llewellyn, F. R. Glyndsor 
Parker, W. Henessey 
Campbell, C. Andrew 
Palmer, C. Frederic 
Dalyell, 0. W. 
Hewett, W. N. Wright 
Maitland, H. L. R. Lennox 
Selby, W. D. D. 
Kennedy, Andrew James 
Parsons, George 
Leet, II. Knox 
Creagh, J. Brazier 
Barnett, J. Barber 
Pearson, T. Livingston 
Lillingston, N. D. Foveran 
Cooper, J. R. Dene 
Armstrong, R. Ramsay 
Hallowes, F. W. 
Sinclair, G. C. 
Wood, H. E. 
Daniel, E. St. John 
Simpson, D. James 
Cleeve, Frederick 
Rees, John 
Walsh, James 



Smart, W. E. Richard 
Jenkins, James 
Baker, Thomas 
Murdoch, George 
Langlev, J. Ilciiry 
Rumble, W. 
Ilarger, Frank 
Beal, John 
Muir, G. W. 
Roberts, John 
Hayles, John 
Verey, Richard 
Dunlop, G. Greenirk 
Rowe, Richard 
Spilsbury, Robert 
Kellaway, Joseph 
Shepherd, John 
Rickards, W. 
Cleverly, John 
Taylor, John 
Sullivan, John 
Willis, C. 
Allen, W. 

JIanlon, Peter 
Milestone, George 
Trewavas, Joseph 
Alexander, G. Gardiner 
Hopkins, W. F. 
March, W. 11. 
Digbv, G. S. 
Blyth, David 
Brydgcs, George 
Pyui, F. George 
Steele, A. Charles 
Douglas, A. Alexander 
Jull, 11. John 
Horner, Charles 
Yule, George 
Richards, Edwin 
Jordan, John 
Chappel, W. 
Wilkinson, Thomas 
Bull, John 
Kerr, Thomas 
Bunten, John 
Osborn, John 


Teevan, Rourke 
Bond, Seth 
Harrison, Thomas 
Teehan, Cornelius 
Kempton, W. 
Scott, W. 
Smeaton, Robert 
Wood, Henry 
Botfield, Robert 
Gibson, George 
Burrows, W. J. 
lies, Frederick 
Douglas, John 
Hewitt, W. 
Cannell, James 
M'Ardle, John 
Hay, John 
Perkins, Richard 
Davis, George 
Powell, John 
Fitzsimons, C. 
Adams, John 
Ackland, John 
Hamilton, James 
Milligan, Joseph 
Bower, John 
O'Donohue, Michael 
Malowney, M. 
Fairfax, John 
Magee, James 
Hagan, John 
Henderson, Charles 

Jenkins, David 
M'Garrity, James 
Conway, Patrick 
Bines, George 
M'Grath, James 
Flockhart, Walter 
Browne, James 
Sutherland, Angus 
Norton, John 
M'Claren, John 
Vance, John 
Knight, Patrick 
Fenton, Matthew 
Smith, Job 
Buchanan, Joseph 
Boggie, James 
Smith, Joseph 
M'Pherson, John 
Bacchus, Henry 
Woodbridge, Richard 
Knight, Kester 
Ross, John 
Hanson, Robert 
Conning, Walter 
Perie, John 
Sargeant, Charles 
Archer, Isaac 
Elger, Thomas 
Hale, Aaron 
King, James 
Myers, William 
"Williams, William 

C C 2 



Carter, Sheppard 
Burnett, John 
Reed, W. 
Walden, George 
Winter, John 
Tutt, Charles 
M'Gregor, W. 
Badenoch, James 
Lennox, James 
Manson, David 
Judd, John 
Coulter, Joseph 
Drummond, John 
Sparks, W. 
Moran, Daniel 
Horsfall, John 
Colver, James 
Campbell, Andrew 
Stewart, A. J. 
Sullivan, W. J. 
Hunter, Stephen 
Mulvany, James 
Pulfer, Charles 
Lock, Frederick 
O'Grady, W. 
Fleming, Alexander 
Marshall, Robert 
Clarkson, John 
Fitzgerald, John 
Murray, Teddy 
Murphy, James 
Bell, Joseph 
Watts, John 
Laws, John 
Poulton, Thomas 
Hanlon, Patrick 
Marshall, W. 
Edwards, Michael 
Godwin, James 
Corry, Valentine 
Tallman, Edward 
Coopen, Thomas 
Cooper, Thomas 
Macdonald, John 
Harrison, Robert 
Caby, Thomas 
Canty, Patrick 
Dunne, Edward 
Harvey, John 
O'Donnell, Neil 
Cox, John 
Gleeson, John 
Langton, Edward 
Britts, John W. 
Murphy, W. 
Murphy, Thomas 
Smith, W. 
Strick, Henry 
Higgins, Hugh B. 
Duffy, James 
Moss, Joseph 
Boxall, George 

Brown, John 
Brown, Joseph 
Kirkham, George 
Hennessy, W. 
Gray, Henry 
Higdon, John 
Sim, James 
Driscoll, Timothy 
Kelly, Patrick 
M'Phely, Michael 
Russell, John 
Crowley, Peter 
Handley, W. 
Collins, James 
Hodden, Charles 
Andrews, Robert 
Boyse, James 
Brown, John 
Coviton, Charles 
Cook, W. 
Dunnery, George 
Carson, James 
Connell, Michael 
Dunn, W. 
Blake, John 
Tobin, John 
Richardson, John 
Curran, Owen 
M'Donough, Thomas 
Byrne, Michael 
Nicoll, W. 
Quigley, C. 
Smith, John 
Foley, James 
Stapleton, Richard 
Ruth, James 
Ryan, Lucky 
Barwell, W. 
Whelan, Patrick 
Bacon, James 
Crotty, Francis 
Douglass, W. 
Crane, W. 
Menaing, W. 
Quirk, W. 
Haydon, John 
Carney, W. 
Loft, Thomas 
Coffer, W. 
Gill, W. 

M'Fadden, Patrick 
Walsh, John 
Longheed, Robert 
Brennan, Thomas 
Clarke, Andrew 
Murphy, Michael 
Newball, Benjamin 
Davies, W. 
Kelly, James 
Garvey, Patrick 
Kenuelly, John 
M'Quade, Thomas 



Nelson, Charles 
Rogcrson, Martin 
Ridley, Thomas 
Strathearn, W. 
M'Nair, Robert 
M'Kenzie, Donald 
Bennett, W. 
Carmichael, Neil 
Reddin, Denis 
Brown, Thomas 
Canty, Denis 
Drenon, John 
Edlow, James 
Bnrnside, John 
M'Carthy, Thomas 
Harbour, Stephen 
Blagdon, George 
Watt, William 
Hunt, James 
Condon, Jeremiah 
M'Donald, George. 
O'Loghlin, Connor 
Gill " 
Bowler, W. 
Flanagan, Daniel 
Dillon, John 
Dinneen, John 
Francis, S. 
Kelly, T. 
Downey, J. 
Vayng, G. 
M'Coy, John 
Pendridge, A. 
Owens, Peter 
Rooney, Michael 
Thompson, John 
M'Kenna, Robert 
Foley, Robert 
Ward, Lawrence 
Hannan, Michael 
Brennan, John 
Cooney, W. 
Turner, W. 

Newcombe, Richard W. 
Hendrick, Henry 
Spencer, W. 
M'Lachlan, W. 
Wilson, Joseph 
Toohey, James 
M'Gill, Thomas 
Wright, Alexander 
Charleston, Murdock 
Wilson, W. 
M Guire, W. 
Quinlan, John 
Spence, James 
Goodbrand, A. 
Campbell, C. 
Bruce, Robert 
Davie, W. 
Wilkie, James 
Conyngham, Stephen 

Kelley, Hubert 
Canty, Maurice 
Ryan, Michael 
M'Namara, llcrnard 
Ilandley, Thomas 
Spellacy, Henry 
Grant, John 
Tremwith, John 
Kinncally, Patrick 
Lenaghan, Derby 
Ileffernan, W. 
Campion, \V. 
"Whelan, Jeremiah 
Johnstone, Thomas 
Dibbs, W. 
Whittaker, Joseph 
Lord, John 
Hogan, Lewis 
M'Cardle, John 
Coughlan, John 
Andrews, J. F. 
Connell, Thomas 
Kinnarney, W. 
Murray, John 
Gibbons, John 
Delany, Peter 
Finns, Patrick 
Sims, James 
Ferris, Wm. 
Watson, Thomas 
Ross, Charles 
Duncan, Archibald 
Alison, Thomas 
Harper, John 
M'Neish, Samuel 
Sanderson, Charles 
Alexander, John 
Flaxman, Edward 
Lawless, John 
Bayley, Thomas 
Goldsmith, John 
Knox, Alexander 
Crabtree, Archibald 
M'Kenzie, William 
Leslie, John 
M'Kay, Peter 
Forbes, John 
Davidson, James 
Cody, James 
Dooley, Patrick 
Linn, James 
Webb, Samuel 
English, James 
Gallagher, Peter 
Jacques, John 
Donnellan, Patrick 
Curran, Andrew 
Jackson, Henry 
Cotterill, John 
M'Milty, Patrick 
Newman, W. 
Hicks, John 



M'Mahon, Bernard 
King, John 
M'Cann, Patrick 
Bailey, Henry 
Davis, Thomas 
Green, John 
"Waller, John 
Fisher, Daniel 
Harrywood, James 
Burge, Thomas 
Bradshaw, Joseph 
Feough, Charles 
M'Cormick, Michael 
Joice, William 
Cooke, Richard 
Hogan, Patrick 
Russell, J. 
Griffith, S. 
Stewart, "W. 
Lyons, W. 
Edwards, T. 
Norris, John 
Bailey, Matthew 
Savage, John 
Greene, John 
Tisley, George 
Wilson, Andrew 
Kelly, J. W. 
Andrews, John 
Guthrie, Thomas 
M'Gregor, George 
"Wakefield, T. J. 
Morton, Andrew 
Monkes, Thomas 
Pickworth, John 
Macauley, Charles 
Donaghue, James 
Martin, John 
Finch, W. 
Cannings, J. W. 
Earson, John 
Johnson, Thomas G. 
Davis, Richard 
Dearlove, George 
Fenton, John 
"Wooden, Charles 
Shearingham. John 
Nunnerly, James 
"Watson, Charles 
Heves, "W. 
Brown, W. 
Connors, John 
Eagan, John 
Hall, John 
Walsh, John 
Ripton, George 
Firmin, Ezekiel 
M'Mahon, D. 
Farrell, Christopher 
Redmond, John 
Smith, Philip 
Davis, John 

Hogan, Richard 

Lawless, Thomas 

Vaughan, Benjamin 

Boyle, Michael 

Garrett, James 

Lind, Lawrence 

Pegram, George 

Ryan, Michael 

Reilly, W. 

Brophy, Michael 

M'Kee, James 

Carney, Thomas 

M'Carthy, John 

Finnigan, Thomas 

Hughes, Robert 

"Ward, James 

Morris, "W. 

Ahern, "W. 

M'Gowan, John 

Snllivan, Daniel 

Hughes, James 

Don, W. 

Martin, Roger 

Rattray, Alexander 

Drake, Joseph 

Davidson, M. 

Borthwick, James 

Polkinghorn, Humphrey 

Smith, G. L. 

Powley, Robert 

Nurton, W. 

Vile, Frederick 

Bott, Johu 

Attrill, George 

Sharp, George 

Clarke, Henry 
Newth, James 
Fitzpatrick, John 

Bacon, W. 
White, "W. 
Rielly, Andrew 
Monagan, Michael 

Stokes, Frederick 
Brown, Thomas 
Collins, Charles 
Byrne, John 
Rolins, George 
Evans, Samuel 
Callaghan, Patrick 
Lowe, John 
Ellis, Richard 
Marshman, Edward 
O'Neill, James 
Parkinson, William 
Gerraghty, Thomas 
Hill, Jonathan 
Tulley, Patrick 
M'Allister, Hastings 
M'Donald, Thomas 
Spelman, John 
Reid, Philip 
M'Guire, Patrick 



Smith, W. 
Brophy, Clement 
Moore, \V. 
Blackmore, James 
Omealy, Thomas 
Madden, Ambrose 
Smith, John 
Fox, George 
Cromtie, Andrew 
Donelan, James 
Murray, Robert 
Brommell, W. 
Gooding, Leonard 
Court, Robert 
M'Dermond, John 
Barnes, Charles 
Reilly, W. 
Hope, Peter 
Dunn, James 
Butler, James 
Jones, John 
Anderson, Thomas 
AVarren, James 
M'Sharry, John 
Brophy, John 
Roberts, Arthur 
Mitchell, Joseph 
Cousins, John 
Laughlan, James 
Gunn, Wm. 

Sloan, James 
Myers, John 
Grannon, Richard 
M'lveen, Henry 
Hill, Henry 
Whelan, Michael 
Kiddie, James 
Cobb, James 
Ormond, Nathan 
Harris, W. 
Wcdgworth, Francis 
Fitzgerald, W. 
Cornelius, R. 
Eagle, W. 
Munro, C. F. 
Benu, Mark 
Denccr, Charles 
Walsh, Thomas 
Trotter, John 
Betts. Thomas 
Margee, Thomas 
Bower, J. 
O'Brien, E. 
Davis, Hugh 
Ewing, Samuel 
llovendon, W. 
Reynolds, T. 
Ramsey, W. 
M'Kown, J, 
M'Murphy, John 
Lendrim, W. James 


Brown, Sir George 
England, Sir Richard 
Bentinck, Sir H. J. W. 
Rokeby, Lord 
Scarlett, Sir J. Y. 
Jones, Sir H. D. 
Eyre, Sir W. 
Dupuis, J. E. 
Mayow, Wynell 
Hope, Hon. Adrian 
Curzon, Hon. L. 
Mackenzie, K. D. 
Smith, Hugh 
Thackwell, J. Edwin 
Ross, R. L. 
Shadwell, Lawrence 
Hamley, E. B. 
Cathcart, Hon. A. M. 
Kirkland, J. A. V. 
Wing, V. 
Fellowes, Edward 
Hackett, John 
Wortley, A. H. P. S. 

Elliot, Hon. Gilbert 
Faussett, W. 
Snodgrass, A. C. 
Colville, Hon. W. J. 
Garrett, Algernon R. 
Thcsiger, F. A. 
Pitcairn, Andrew 
Luard, Richard G. A. 
Pearson, Richard L. 0. 
Hammersley, Frederick 
St. Clair, Charles W. 
Ponsonby, Arthur E. V. 
Jervoise, G. Clarke 
Keith, Hon. C. J. 
Swire, Roger 
Mansfield, C. E. 
Ellison, R. G. 
Earle, W. 
Day, H. Hooper 
Stopford, G. Montague 
Forrest, W. C. 
Forster, F. R. 
Evans, J. 



M'Mahon, T. W. 

Cattell, W. 

Gamble, J. 

Yorke, John 

Campbell, George 

Hill, John 

Griffith, H. D. 

Buchanan, George 

Wilson, J. 

Paget, Lord G. A. F. 

Lowe, A. 

Portal, R. 

Waterson, W. 

Hunt, E. D, 

Hardy, J. 

De Salis, R. 

Tomkinson, C. 

Wilson, W. 

Parlby, W. 

Yates, John 
Davies, Robert 

Oakes, T. G. A. 

Smith, Percy Shawe 

Gardiner, W. 

Lawrenson, J. 

Duncan, J. 

Ranson, A. 

Ridley, C. W. 

Hay, Lord A. 

Sturt, C. Napier 

Verschoyle, H. W. 

Hamilton, R. W. 

Minor, R. 

Sharpe, T. 

Strong, C. W. 

Fitzroy, Lord A. C. Lennox 

Crawley, P. S. 

Dunlop, Sir J. Bart. 

Conolly, J. A. 

Haynes, G. 

File, F. 

Walker, E. W. F. 

Coke, Hon. W. C. W. 

Frazer, Hon. A. E. 

Blane, S. J. 

Scott, J. 

M'Blain, John 

Stewart, J. 

Montgomery, A. B. 

Plunkett, Hon. C. D. 

Rudd, W. F. J. 

Cooksworthy, W. S. 

Hope, F. H. 

Henshall, R. 

M'Dowell, W. 

Urquhart, F. H. 

Gillum, W. J. 

Woodhouse, G. 

Van Straubenzee, C. T. 

Ambrose, G. J. 

Fahey, J. 

Hort, J. J. 

Hamilton, F. F. 
Sykes, A. J. 
Howley, J. 
M'Ardell, J. 
Scannells, T. 
Shipley, R. Y. 
Heyland, J. R. 
Hibbert, H. R. 
Hope, W. 
Barrack, W. 
M'Guire, J. 
Lister, Frederick D„ 
Nugent, W. 
Donohue, P. 
Barlow, Maurice 
Alexander, Sir J. E. 
Maycock, J. G. 
Hopkins, W. 
M'Kinstrey, A. 
Gibson, H. 
Kennedy, J. C. 
Call, H. F. S. 
Baker, T. D. 
Weir, J. 
Warden, R. 
Uniacke, H. T. 
Warburton, G. A. 
Thompson, T. 
Sherlock, J. 
Halloran, J. 
Horn, F. 
Radcliffe, W. B. 
Parkinson, C. E. 
Vaughan, H. B. 
Whybrow, J. 
Rowe, P. 
Sackville, C. R. 
West, Lord 
Boldero, G. N. 
King, H. 
Stephens, R. 
Fowler, W. 
Lysons, D. 
Drewe, F. E. 
Millett, S. C. 
O'Connor, L. 
Luby, E. 
Symonds, T. 
Adams, F. 
Baumgartner, R. J. 
Hallewell, E. G. 
Maunsell, T. 
Messiter, S. L. A. M. 
Bell, T. L. 
M'Loughlin, J. 
Gleeson, W. 
Mauleverer, J. T. 
Pakenham, T. H. 
Dillon, R. 
Sanders, G. H. 
Shaw, T. 
Andrews, J. 



Staunton, G. 
Mundy, G. V. E. 
Collings, J. E. 
Wallis, A. B. 
De Montmorency, E. II. 
Clark, T. 
Leary, P. 
Bond, J. 
Simpson, J. 
Jordan, J. 
Boyce, A. W. 
Peel, F. 
Pratt, J. 
Coughlan, D. 
Sparks, J. P. 
Loftus, W. J. 
Gaynor, C. W. S. 
Ewen, A. J. A. 
M'Guire, P. 
Eeynolds, T. 
Hudson, T. W. 
Bennett, T. W. 
M'Cluskey, J. 
Pratt, E. 
Skipwith, G. 
Bush, Stratton H. 
Peddie, G. 
Crawford, W. 
Collins, P. 
Cameron, D. A. 
Cameron, A. 
Montgomery, H. 
Halkett, Sir P. A. Bart. 
Dalgleish, D. 
M'Millan, E. 
Spencer, Hon. A. A. 
Staveley, C. W. D. 
M'Mahon, W. 
Fletcher, W. 
Baillie, E. 
Wood, W. A. 
Doole, W. 
Woodgate, W. 
Garrett, Sir. E. 
Campbell, C. F. 
Dunscombe, N. 
Knapp, G. H. 
Cullen, P. 
Flinn, P. 
Farren, E. T. 
VilUers, J. 
Lowndes, J. H. 
Ward, Hon. B. M. 
Buchanan, H. J. 
Grant W. 
M'Mahon, E. 
Cairnes, W. H. 
Gatlin, E. 
Brant, J. T. 
King J. H. 
Chatfield, G. K. 
Young, W. 

Davis, J. 

Iloldcn, R. 

Gibbons, J. 

"Waddy, It. 

Wilton, J. L. 

Wcarc, 11. E. 

Ilibbcrt, E. G. 

Clarke, M. Dc S. M'K. G. A. 

Lamb, J. 

Leary. A. 

Eeghan, T. 

Warren, C. 

Cure, A. C. 

Johnson, W. B. 

Scott, J. 

Mcara, J. 

O'Donnell, J. 

Street, J. A. 

Forsyth, G. J. 

Slade, A. F. A. 

Norton, M. 

Healy, J. 

Trollope, C. 

Ingall, W. 

Cooch, C. 

Wilkieson, G. H. 

Warren, J. 

Farrell, J. 

Dalzell, Hon. E. A. G. 

Fairtlough, E. 

Paterson, T. 

Ceaton, P. 

Smyth, H. 

Macbeath, G. 

Grace, S. 

Saunderson, F. De Luttrell 

Burrows, S. 

Magner, J. 

Hackett, F. J. 

Wemyss, J. 0. 

Gourley, H. 

Cathcart, J. 

Willis, G. H. S. 

Willington, E. B. 

Burton, E. G. 

Humphrey, A. 

Bushell, E. 

Brown, G. 

Douglas, J. 

Tavlor, E. H. 

Clephane, R. D. 

Stevenson, H. H. 

Jameson, E. 

Anderson, J. 

Campbell, W. 

Shirley, II. 

Maxwell, G. V. 

Brown, E. J. V. 

Maynard, E. G. 

Gore, T. 

Riley, Edward 

Priestly, G. 



Sullivan, J. 
Durwoode, W. 
Egerton, C. R. 
Hawley, E. B. 
Skynner, L. 
Scott, P. 
Smith, Thomas 
Perrin, J. 
"Wade, Heme J. 
Kirkland, A. 
Smith, W. 
Ainslie, \V. Bernard 
Ewart, J. A. 
Dalzell, J. 
Cooper, E. A. 
Allan, C. 
Robertson, J. 
Reyland, A. T. 
Eaines, J. A. R. 
Macdonald, A. J. J. 
Boothby, B. 
Anney, F. 
Keenan, J. 
Burton, F. 
Ware, G. H. H. 
Browne, C. H. 
Kemmy, M. 
Moore, W. 
Norcott, W. S. E. 
Horsford, A. H. 
Macdonnell, A. 
Woodford, C. J. 
Eussell, Lord A. G. 
Stuart, Hon. J. 
Saunders, G. E. 
Hudling, J. 
Farrant, J. 

Fremantle, Fitzroy W. 
Moore, J. 
Cherry, J. 
Tarvish, E. 
Ward, F, B. 
Fortescue, J. W. 
Morris, C. H. 
Gordon, S. Enderhy 
Gage, Hon. E.T. 
Henry, C. S. 
Thomas, H. J. 
Eippon, P. G. 
Tupper, G. Le Marchant 
Ingilby, C. H. 
Yates, II. P. 

Pennyquick, J. F. 

Hawkins, A. C. 

Shaw, G. 

Moubray, E. 

Barry, W. W. 

Michell, J. E. 

Sinclair, G. Henry 

Penn, L. W. 

Taddy, E. 

L'Estrange, P. W. 

Champion, E. H. 

Andrews, W. G. 

Le Mesurier, W. G. 

Humfrey, B. G. 

Camphell, Sir J. W. Bart. 

Ward, E. J. 

Anley, F. A. 

Browne, C. 0. 

Mauley, H. B. 

Roberts, C. F. 

Perry, W. 

Bowen, E. 

Troop, A. 

Beardsley, J. 

Hamilton, J. 

Hamilton, J. 

Dowling, D. 

Symons, G. 

Hunter, M. 

Ewing, S. 

Cambridge, D. 

Eamsay, W. 

Collier, H. 

O'Brien, E. 

M' Garry, J. 

Arthur, T. 

Death, J. 

Barrett, J. 

Gordon, J. W. 

Chapman, F. E. 

Stanton, E. 

Browne, J. F. M. 

Montagu, H. W. 

Hassard, F. C. 


De Vere, F. H. 

Lennox, W. 0. 

Leahy, A. 

Pratt, F. E. 

Baker, W. 

M'Caughey, A. 

Tumble, W. 






[Campbell, Sir Colin 

Codrington, Sir William J. 
Lucaa, Earl of 


Bentinck, Sir Henry J. W. 
Pennefatber, Sir John L. 
Cardigan, Earl of 
Jones, Sir Harry D. 
Airey, Sir Richard 

Scarlett, Hon. Sir James Yorkc 
Buller, Sir George 
Eyre, Sir William 
Dacres, Sir Richard J. 
Windham, Charles Ash 


Rokeby, Lord Henry 

Rose, Sir Hugh Henry 

Dupuis, John Edward 

Hodge, Edward Cooper 

Paget, Lord George Augustus Frederick 

Ridley, Charles William 

Hamilton, Frederick W. 

Cadogan, Hon. George 

Gordon, Hon. Alexander 

Uptou, Hon. George F. 

Paulet, Lord Frederick 

Steele, Thomas Montagu 

Walker, Edward W. F. 

Straubenzee, Charles Thomas Van 

Borton, Arthur 

Barlow, Maurice 

Edwards, Clement 

Horn, Frederick 

West, Lord Charles Richard 

Lysons, Daniel 

Adams, Frank 

Cameron, Duncan Alexander 
Spencer, Hon. Augustus A. 
Garrett, Sir Robert 
Haly, William O'Grady 
Warren, Charles 
Trollope, Charles 
Shirley, Horatio 
Lockyer, Henry F. 
Lawrence, Arthur J. 
Norcott, William S. R. 
Paulet, Lord William 
Herbert, Hon. Percy E. 
Wilbraham, Richard 
Pakenham, Hon. W. L. 
Dickson, Colliugwood 
Gordon, John William 
Chapman, Frederick E. 
Hall, Sir John 
Filder, William 


Yorke, John 

Griffith, Henry Darby 

Parlby, William 

Lawrenson, John 

Percy, Hon. Henry H. M. 

Brownrigg, John Studholme 

Saxe Weimar, His Serene Highness 

Prince William Augustus Edward ot 
Seymour, Francis 

Berkeley, Charles A. F. 
Wetherall, Edward R. 
Somerset, Poulctt G. H. 
Bell, George 
Huey, Richard William 
Troiibridge, Sir Thomas 

Hope Cochrane, Bart. 
McPherson, Philip 
Staunton, George 

St. Vincent 



Smyth, Henry 
Ferryman, Augustus H. 
Sullivan, William 
Cunynghame, Arthur A. T. 
McMurdo, William M. S. 
Lake, Noel Thomas 
St. George, John 
Warde, Edward Charles 
Wood, David Edward 
Fitzmayer, James William 
Barker, George Rohert 
Low, Alexander 
White, Henry Dalrymple 
Douglas, John 
Airey, James Talbot 
Stephenson, Frederick C. A. 
Montgomery, Alexander B. 
Williams, Thomas 
Wood, John Stewart 
Evelegh, Frederick Charles 
Baumgartner, Robert J. 
Mauleverer, James T. 
Sparks, James Pattoun 
Smith, John William S. 
Munro, William 
Farren, Richard Thomas 
Grant, John Thornton 

Armstrong, James Wells 
Waddy, Richard 
Wilton, John Lucas 
Daubeney, Henry C. B. 
Street, John Alfred 
Straton, Robert Jocelyn 
Dixon, George 
Douglas, John 
Maxwell, George Vaughan 
Ainslie, William Bernard 
Hume, Henry 
Heyland, Alfred Thomas 
Sterling, Anthony Coningham 
Mayow, George Wynell 
Morris, William 
Adye, John Miller 
Stopford, George Montague 
Linton, William 
Cumming, Alexander 
Dumbreck, David 
Forrest, John 
Lawson, Robert 
Macdonnel, Alexander S. 
Maclean, Sir George 
Adams, George 
Drake, William Henry 
Carpenter, Frederick S. 


Cadell, Robert 

Morgan, George Augustus 

O'Reilly, Eugene 

Green, William H. R. 
Farquhar, Alexander 



Spottiswoode, Andrew 

Jones, Henry Richmond 

Pole, Edward 

Doherty, Charles Edmund 

Lewis, Charles Algernon 

Newton, William Samuel 

Ridley, William John 

Tyrwhitt, Charles 

Murray, Lord James Charles Plantagenet 

Haines, Frederick Paul 

Riky, Benjamin 

Denny, William 

Smith, James Webber 

McMahon, Thomas Westropp 

Wardlaw, Robert 

De Salis, Rodolph 

Wilkie, John 

Benson, Henry Roxby 

Bradford, Ralph 

Maitland, Charles L. Brownlow 

Hay, Lord Arthur 

Montresor, Henry Edward 

Ponsonby, Henry Frederick 

Ellison, Cuthbert George 

Wood, William Mark 

Cocks, Charles Lygon 

Halkett, James 

Carleton, Dudley Wilmot 

Fitzroy, Lord Augustus Charles Lennox 

Stepney, Arthur St. George Herbert 

Burdett, Charles Sedley 

Canning Ulick, Lord Dunkellin 

Dawkins, William Gregory 

Strong, Clement William 

Burghersh, Lord Francis W. II. 

Hardinge, Hon. Arthur E. 

Fielding, Hon. Percy R. B. 

Baring, Charles 



Le Couteur, John llalkett 

Dalrymple, John Hamilton E. 

De Bathe, Henry Percival 

Buchan, George W. F. 

Moorsom, Robert 

Hepburn, Henry Poole 

Haygarth, Francis 

Jocelyn, Hon. Jobn Strange 

Vane-Tempest, Lord Ad. F. C. W. 

Scarlett, Hon. William F. 

Meyrick, Augustus \V. H. 

Holder, Charles 

Neville, Edward 

Haythorn, Edmund 

Going, Richard 

Paterson, James 

Hort, John Josiah 

Reynell-Pack, Arthur J. 

Shipley, Reginald Y. 

Elmhirst, Charles 

Lister, Frederick D. 

Kerr, Lord Mark 

Holcombe, Alexander E. F. 

Cole, Arthur Lowry 

Bourke, Oliver Paget 

Kennedy, John Clark 

Sanders, Robert 

McGee, Henry E. 

Crofton, Hugh D. 

Stuart, John R. 

Browne, lion. James L, 

Bunbury Henry William 

Herbert, Arthur James 

Whitmore, Edmund A. 

Kelly, Thomas C. 

Johnstone, John D. 

Mundy, George V. E. 

Erskine, George 

Kelly, Richard D. 

Goodenough, Arthur C. 

Tinley, Robert N. 

Goodwyn, Julius E. 

Pratt, Robert 

Tulloch, Thomas 

Rollo, Hon. Robert 

Cameron, Alexander 

Staveley, Charles W. D. 

Fielden, Robert 

Maxwell, Alexander 

Fordyce, Charles F. 

Lys, George M. 

Whimper, Frederick A. 

Cure, Alfred C. 

Warre, Henry J. 

Ingall, William L. 

Dalzell, Hon. Robert A. G. 

Fairtlough, Charles E. 

Macbeath, George 

Ready, Charles 

Sharp, Richard P. 

Parke, William 

Taylor, Richard C. H. 

Jcfl'rcys, Edmund U. 
Brown, Edward J. V. 
Egcrton, Calcdou R. 
Aylnicr, Frederick C. 
Purncll, William l\ 
Hay, Alexander S. L. 
Hope, Hon. Adrian 
Ingram, Thomas O. W. 
Bradford, Wihnot 11. 
Horsford, Alfred II. 
Somerset, Edward A. 
Foley, Hon. St. George G. 
Clareiuont, Edward S. 
Walker, Charles P. B. 
Nedham, William R. 
Morris, Ilcnry J. 
Taylor, Arthur J. 
Maclean, George 
Francklyn, John II. 

Gambier, Gloucester 

Irving, Alexander 

Rowan, Henry S. 

Freese, John N. A. 

Paynter, David W 

Ph'illpotts, Arthur T. 

Wodehouse, Edwin 

Maude, George A. 

Thomas, Henry J. 

Forrest, William C. 

Custance, William N. 

Sulivan, George A. F. 

Clarke, George C. 

Shute, Charles C. 

Peel, Edmund 

Fyler, Lawrence 

Higginson, George W. A. 

Daveney, Burton 

Plunkett, Hon. Charles D. 

Urquhart, Francis G. 

Hawkins, Thomas S. 

Byrne, Tyrrell M. 

Maude, Frederick F. 

Smith, Hugh 

Thomson, George L. 

Turner, William W. 

Heyland, John R. 

Alexander, Sir James E. 

Gordon, William 

Call, George Frederick S. 

Warden, Robert 

Bright, Robert 0. 

Kirkland, John A V. 

Harding, Francis Pym 

Bell, Edward W. D. 

Hallewell, Edmund G. 

Liudsell, Robert H. 

Butler, Percy A. 

Pakenham, Thomas II. 

Speuce, Frederick 

Collings, John E. 

Donovan, Edward W. 

Simpson, John 



Gwilt, John 
Loftus, William J. 
Strachan, Henry A. 
Graham, Lumley 
MacMahon, William 
Browne, Andrew 
Campbell, Colin F. 
Villiers, James 
Lowry, Robert W. 
Hamilton, Henry M. 
Lowndes, John H. 
Sankey, William 
King, John H. 
Adams, Cadwallader 
Weare, Henry E. 
Maxwell, Hon. James P. 
Inglis, William 
Lea, Frederick P. 
Daubeney, James 
Harries, Thomas 
Blount, Herbert 
Patton, Walter D. P. 
Willis, George H. S. 
Carden, Henry R. 
McCall, William 
Clephane, Robert D. 
Maxwell, Edward H. 
Grove, Robert 
Smith, Thomas 
Mackenzie, Kenneth D. 
Gordon, Charles H. 
Ewart, John A. 
Legh, Edmund C. 
Macdonnell, Alexander 
Elrington, Frederick R. 
Russell, Lord Alexander G. 
Glyn, Julius R. 
Fyers, William A. 
Curzon, Hon. Leicester 
Macdonald, Hon. James W. B. 
Blane, Robert 
Colborne, Hon. Franeis 
Thackwell, Joseph E. 
Conolly James 
Clifton, Thomas H. 
Napier, William C. E. 
Broughton, Spencer D. 
Campbell, Hugh A. B. 
Dixon, Matthew C. 
Turner, John 
Strange, Henry F. 
Fortescue, John C. W. 
Morris, Charles H. 
Henry, Charles S. 
Hamley, Edward B. 
Biddulph, Michael A. S. 
Gordon, Samuel Enderby 
Gage, Hon. Edward T. 
Owen, Henry C. C. 
Bonrchier, Eustace F. 
Browne, James F. M. 
Stanton, Edward 

Briggs, George 
Thompson, Richard 
Harrison, Broadley 
Greville, Arthur C. 
Hood, Charles 
Lewis, John 
Bartley, John C. 
Rutherford Archibald 
Dowbiggin, Montagu H. 
Watson, Charles E. 
Fitzgerald, William H. D. 
Bethune, Duncan M. 
Leslie, Charles II. 
Browne, Henry Ralph 
King, George 
Cox, John W. 
Budd, Ralph 
Ruttledge, Thomas 0. 
Armstrong, William A. 
Lawrie, John 
Shadwell, Lawrence 
Radcliffe, William P. 
Butler, Charles R. 
Hobbs, Thomas F. 
Dalyell, John T. 
Rose, James 

Dickson, Graham Le Fevre 
Bayley, Paget 
Pocock, George F. C. 
Eagar, Robert J. 
Ellis, Henry Disney 
Pretyman, William 
Peel, John 
Farrer, James S. H. 
Hackett, Samuel 
Wolfe, William Clarges 
Hudson, Thomas W. 
Meredith, Henry Warter 
Skipwith, George 
Steward, Richard 0. F. 
Murray, Charles 
Wilkinson, Frederick Green 
Pitcairn, Andrew 
Vesey, Arthur G. 
Hardy, William 
West, Frederick 
Nason, John 
Hibbert, Edward G. 
Brown, Thomas S. 
Rynd, M'Kay 
Carter, William F. 
Somerville, Thomas H. 
Campbell, R. D. 
Hope, William 
Mackenzie, James 
Thellusson, A. D. 
Hackett, John 
Rickman, William 
Hunt, Andrew 
O'Brien, Bartholomew 
Burke, John Hardman 
Bourke, Hon. J. J. 



Skynner, Leslie 

Hawley, Robert B. 

White, Hans E. 

Ross, Robert L. 

Cathcart, lion. A. M. 

Dennis, John F. T. 

Saigent, John N. 

Burton, Fowler 

Woods, Henry George 

Hardinge, Henrv 

Erroll, William H. Earl of 

Clifford, Hon. H. H. 

Evans, William E. 

Morel, Charles C. de 

Gubbins, James 

McDonald, A. Mclan 

Kane, F. A. C. 

Wortley, A. H. P. S. 

Forster, Francis R. 

Burton, A. W. D. 

Inglis, William 

Elliot, A. J. H. 

Elmsall, William de Cardonelly 

Brown, George J. 

Hutton, Thomas 

Portal, Robert 

Manley, Robert G. 

Tomkinson, Edward 

Chetwode, George 

Calthorpe, Hon. S. J. G. 

Thompson, John W. 

Cook, Edwin A. 

Fellowes, Edward 

Jenyns, Soame G. 

Tremayne, Arthur 

White, Robert 

Tipping, Alfred 

Horsey, William H. B. de 

Fox, Augustus H. L. 

Thesiger, Frederick A. 

Burnaby, Edward S. 

Cameron, William G. 

Russell, Sir Charles, Bart. 

Pearson, Richard Lyons Otway 

Armytage, Henry 

Thellusson, Arthur J. B. 

Crawley, Philip Sambrook 

Goodlake, Gerald L. 

Bingham, Lord George 

Boyle, Hon. W. G. 

Conolly, John Augustus 

Maxse, Henry F. B. 

Shuekburgh, George T. F. 

Astley, John Dugdale 

Coke, Hon. Wenman C. W. 

Fraser, Hon. Alexander E. 

Gipps, Reginald 

Baring, Francis 

Lindsay, Robert James 

Stewart, William Little 

Neville, Henry Draper 

Mein, Frederick R. 

Whitinore, Francis Locker 

Wells, Frederick 

Ambrose, George James 

M'alkcr, Mark 

Robertson, Patrick 

Ilibhcrt, Robert Hugh 

Appleyard, Krcdcrick E. 

Bayncs, Robert Stuart 

llawcs, George Harrington 

Dwyer, John 

Douglas, William 

llamiuersley, Frederick 

McKinstrv, Alexander 

O'Connor, Richard John Ross 

Brice, George Tito 

Connick, John 

Armstrong, Anthony W. S. F. 

Hayman, Jonei Matthew 

Chippindall, Edward 

Hay, James George 

Boldero, George Neeld 

Torrens, Henry D'Oyley 

Aplin, John Guise Rogers 

Maunsell, Thomas 

Roberts, William 

Godley, Henry Robert Crewe 

Campbell, Archibald 

Atcherley, Franeis Topping 

Green, Charles Mingaye 

Fitzgerald, Henry Charles 

Vaeher, Frederic Smith 

Quayle, John Edward T. 

Maxwell, James 

Warry, William 

Jordan, Joseph 

Brown- Westhead, George Edward 

Harman, George Byng 

Hume, Gustavus 

Daniell, Charles Frederick T. 

Daniel, Ludford Harvey 

Snodgrass, Archibald Campbell 

Currie, Robert Hamilton 

Rowlands, Hugh 

Graham, Charles Campbell 

Faussett, William 

Robinson, John 

Preston, Richard 

Fletcher, William 

Wombwell, Arthur 

Garrett, Algernon Robert 

Sherrington, Charles Robert 

Dallas, George Frederick 

Villiers, Charles Courteney 

Elgee, Charles 

Hunter, Fitzwilliam Frederick 

Sykes, Cam 

Deshon, Frederick G. T. 

Bellairs, William 

Dewar, James William 

Lock, Andrew Campbell Knox 

Tupper, Daniel William 

Werge, Henry Reynolds 



Hume, Robert 
Elton, Frederick Cockayne 
Hassard, Jason 
Earle, Arthur Maxwell 
Cooch, Charles 
Lewis, John Edward 
Finch, Hon. Daniel Greville 
Savage, Frederick Stukely 
Luard, Richard George A. 
Hodgson, William Chauval 
Maynard, Edmund Gilling 
Steevens, Nathaniel 
Boyle, William 
Cuppage, John Macdonald 
Crealock, Henry Hope 
Raines, Julius Augustus Robert 
Massey, Hon. Eyre Challoner H. 
Sibthorp, Richard Francis W. 
Lumley, Charles Henry 
Walker, Hercules 
Newdigate, Edward 
Elliot, Hon. Gilbert 
Colville, Hon. William James 
Churchill, Charles Henry S. 
Stuart, Hon. James 
Warren, Arthur Frederick 
Bourchier, Claude Thomas 
D'Aguilar, Charles Lawrence 
Ward, Francis Beckford 
Brandling, John James 
Rogers, Henry 
Anderson, John Richard 
Clifford, Miller 
Adye, Mortimer 
Franklin, Charles Trigance 
Hawkins, Alexander Caesar 
Grant, William James Esten 
Shaw, George 

Lennox, Augustus Frederick F. 
Pipon, Philip Gosset 
Shakespear, John Davenport 
Field, George Thomas 
Fraser, Hon. David M'Dowell 
Strange, Charles John 
Newton, Horace Parker 
Yelverton, Hon. William C. 
Milman, Gustavus Hamilton L. 
Baddeley, John Fraser Lodington 
Arbuthnot, Charles George 
Hastings, Francis William 
Moubray, Edward 
Chermside, Henry Lowther 
Boothby, John George 
Barstow, George 
Craufurd, Robert Emilius F. 
Tupper, Gaspard Le Marchant 
Hoste, Dixon Edward 
Singleton, John 

Reilly, William Edmund Moyses 
Fitz-Hugh, Henry Terrick 
Soady, France James 
Barry, William Wigram 

Carthew, Edmund John 
Michel!, John Edward 
Henry, George Cecil 
Ingilby, Charles Henry 
Yates, Henry Peel 
Williams, William John 
Pennycuick, James Farrell 
Oldershaw, Charles Edward 
Turner, Nathaniel Octavius S. 
Dickson, Philip 
Hope, John Edward 
Brendon, Algernon 
Lukin, William Windham A. 
Walcott, Charles Edmund 
Bredin, Edward Grantham 
Bolton, William John 
Sinclair, James 
Penn, Lewis William 
Taddy, Edward 
Miller, Frederick 
Owen, Charles Henry 
Milman, George Alderson 
L'Estrange, Paget Walter 
Burt, Charles Edward 
Irvine, Hazlitt 
Champion, Reginald Henry 
Andrews, William Gilly 
Mackenzie, Roderick 
Le Mesurier, William George 
Keane, Hon. Hussey Fane 
Gibb, Charles John 
Hassard, Fairfax Charles 
Lovell, John Williamson 
Montagu, Horace William 
Cooke, Anthony Charles 
Armit, Louis John Amedee 
Ewart, Charles Brisbane 
Porter, Whitworth 
Ravenhill, Philip 
Nicholson, Lothian 
Sedley, Charles Herbert 
Vere, Francis Horatio de 
Fisher, Arthur A'Court 
Elphinstone, Howard Craufurd 
M'Creagh, Michael 
Halford, Charles Augustus D. 
Stocks, Michael 
Hunter, Robert Scott 
Keith, Hon. Charles James 
Hunt, Edmund D'Arcy 
Seagar, Edward 

Fitclarence, Hon. Frederick C. G. 
Rosser, Charles Potts 
Trevelyan, Harrington Astley 
Oakes, Thomas George Alexander 
Smith, Percy Shawe 
Gordon, Sir William, Bart. 
Barnard, William Andrew M. 
Alexander, Claud 
Ponsonby, Arthur Edward V. 
Sturt, Charles Napier 
Verschoyle, Henry William 



Bathurst, Frederick Thomas A. II. 

Hamilton, Robert William 

Tower, Harvey 

Dangan, Viscount "William Henry 

Hencage, Michael Walker 

Blackett, Christopher Edward 

Jervoisc, Henry Clarke 

Campbell, Hon. Henry W. 

Wigram Godfrey James 

Rose, George Ernest 

Blane, Seymour John 

Gordon, George Grant 

Farquharson, James Ross 

Tottenham, Charles George 

Sharp, John Edward 

Chrystie, John Alexander 

Rudd, "William Frederick J. 

Gregory, Thomas John 

O'Connell, Morgan James 

Burningham, Henry George C. 

Hamilton, Francis Fisher 

Sheppard, Thomas 

Eccles, Cuthbert 

Mure, Charles Reginald 

Cooper, Joshua Harry 

Browne, Lord Richard Howe 

Jones, Lewis John Fillis 

Wilkinson, Henry John 

Daunt, William 

Straubenzee, Frederick Van 

Montgomery, Robert Blackall 

Jones, Hugh Maurice 

Newman, Charles Cecil 

Maycock, John Gittens 

Smyth, Ralph 

Dyer, Swinnerton Halliday 

Swire, Roger 

Taylor, William O'Brien 

Barrett, Richard Doyle 

Clay, George 

Uniacke, Henry Turner 

Bayley, Edward Robert Warde 

Parkinson, Charles Edward 

Dickins, William Drummond S. 

Warren, Augustus Riversdale 

Dowglasse, George 

Hawker, Samuel William Henry 

Sheffield, John Charles 

Saver, Frederick 

Duff, James 

Vane, Frederick Fletcher 

Millett, Sydney Crohan 

Bigge, Thomas Scovell 

Messiter, Sussex L. A. B. 

Hackett, Simpson 

Morgan, Hill Faulconer 

O'Brien, John 

Williamson, Augustus Henry 

Macpherson, Lachlan 

Swaffield, Charles James 0. 

Schreiber, Arthur John 

Barrett, Charles Carter 

Nugent, Walter George 
Carr, John Ralph 
Scott, Arthur 

Addington, Hon. Charles J. 
Brooksbank, Arthur 
Quicke, Sidney Godolphin 
Pocklington, Frederick 
Milligan, Charles 
Macdonald, Norman 
Lowry, Annar Graham 
Kingscote, Fitzhardinge 
Fitzroy, Charles Vane 
Montgomery, Henry 
Ward, William Crofton 
Grove, Joseph Charles Uoss 
Scott, Francis Cunningham 
Gregory, Frederick William 
Thoroton, Levctt 
llandcock, Hon. Henry 
Piper, Robert William 
Nicholas, Albert 
McAlester, Charles Somerville 
Forde, Thomas Douglas 
Lowry, James Armar 
Buchanan, Henry James 
Lucas, Jasper 
Ellison, Richard George 
Lovett, John Richard 
Knight, William Henry 
Trent, Francis Constantino 
Lamb, George Henry 
Marchant, Edward Le 
Hopkins, John 
Earle, William 
Fitzgerald, Charles 
Antrobus, Edward Crawfurd 
Thompson, John 
England, Richard 
Richards, William Hamilton 
Morgan, George Anthony 
llarkness, John Granville 
Brown, William Edward 
Venables, Cavendish 
Ingham, Joshua Cunliffe 
Wilkieson, George Hampden 
Hay, Graham 
Hunter, Edward Henry 
Cubitt, Charles Campbell 
Paterson, Falkland L. T. 
Magnay, Christopher J. 
Bowles, Vere H. 
Wybergh, Archibald 
Shuttleworth, Charles U. 
Fitzroy, Cavendish C. 
Vaughan, Herbert 
Battiscorabe, Henry L. 
Loftus, Henry 
Parker, Arthur C. 
Stuart, Robert C. W. 
Kirkwall. Viscount George W. H. 
Rocke, Richard 
Buchanan, Richard D. 

D D 



Kent, Henry 
Acton, William M. C. 
Wellington, Richard B. 
Butts, Frederick J. 
M'Barnet, Alexander C. 
Cuming, Edward W. 
Stevenson, Henry H. 
v Sbeehy, William 
Pearson, William C. 
Heycock, Charles 
Pery, William C. G. 
Hall, Savage 
Wade, James Heme 
Magenis, Richard H. 
Wolseley, Garnet J. 
Burroughs, Frederick W. 
Stewart, William G. D. 
Macdonald, William D. 
Prohart, Francis G. C. 
Carmichael, George L. 
Brinkley, Matthew 
Whitehead, Rohert C. 
Nixon, Arthur James 
Pellew, Hon. Barrington R. 
Bramston, Thomas H. 
Legge, Hon. George B. 
Thynne, William F. 
Cuninghame, William J. M. 
Anson, Hon. Augustus H. A. 
Morgan, Frederick C. 
Thompson, Arnold 
Johnson, George V. 
Pigou, Arthur Comyn 
Anson, Archibald, E. H. 
Wilson, Willoughby J. 
Morris, William 
Jones, Dashwood 
Whinyate, Frederick T. 
Heyman, Henry 
Davis, Gronow 
Wilkinson, Bathurst E. 
Hampton, Thomas L. 
Glyn, Richard George 
Moodie, Daniel 
Hunt, George W. 
Weir, Archibald 
Mussenden, William 
Jameson, Robert O'Brien 
Gardner, George 
Hope, Frederick H. 
Stuart, Edward A. 
Manners, Richard A. 
Willis, Sherlock V. 
Freeborn, William 
Cox, Talbot Ashley 
Laurie, John W. 
Maule, Henry B. 
Grinlinton, John J. 
Bennet, Adrian 
McQueen, John 
Cobham, George H. 
Wilson, Charles M. 

Gordon, Alexander 

Coote, Charles J. 

Kemp, William 

Hotham Charles 

Goren, Ames 

Vaughan, Hector B. 

Lee, Vaughan H. 

Clair, Stanislas Graham Bower-St. 

O'Connor, Luke 

Waldy, Edward G. 

Campbell, John P. 

Austin, Alfred J. 

Leeson, Ralph 

Owens, John 

Boyce, Abel W. 

Wyse, John Francis 

Cochrane, Rupert I. 

Thackwell, William de Wilton R. 

Smyth, James G. 

Hill, Henry Seymour 

Lowry, Edward L. B. 

Wilson, John 

Cobham, Alexander W. 

Knapp, George H. 

Townshend, Edward 

Jones, Percy M. 

Palmer, Thomas 

Stokes, Henry B. G. 

Home, Edmund G. 

Clarke, Montague de Salis McKenzie 

Gordon Augustus 
Lee, Thomas Denote 
Lamb, James 
Burke, Henry 
Williams, Francis 

Slade, Alfred F. A. 
Shute, Henry D. M. 
Palmer, Herrick A. 
Davenport, William B. 
Bonham, Francis 
Campbell, George 
Stewart, John C. 
Vesey, Charles C. W. 
Currie, Francis G. 
Leith, John M. 
Budgen, Edward H. 
Vernor, Robert 
Perceval, Ernest 
Robinson, Barnes S. 
Cooper, Richard A. 
McBean, William 
Benison, Jonathan 
Wield, Robert 
Stockwell, John W. I. 
Robertson, George 
Aylmer, Fenton J. 
Browne, Charles H. 
Saunders, George Robert 
Singer, James 
Harward, George S. 
Browne, John T. B. 
Ogilvie, Alexander, W. A. 



Taylor, Markham Le Fer 
Pearse, Arthur T. G 
Treadcroft, Charles L. 
Doyne, Ileury A. 
Biddulph, Robert 
Hill, Peter E. 
Cuthbert, Edmund C 
Lloyd, M. Ernest A. 
Griffiths, Leonard 
Briscoe, Henry W. 
Ward, Edward J. 
Southhonse, Charles E. 
Geary, Henry Le Guay 
King, Augustus H. 
Neville, Glastonbury 
Lennox, Wilbraham 0. 
Graham, Gerald 
Philips, George 
Martin, Charles N. 
Pratt, Francis E. 
Drake, John M. C. 
James, Edward R. 
Newsome, William 
Leahy, Arthur 
Cowell, John C. 
Wilkin, Henry J. 
Duncan, James 
Phelps, John S. 
Slack, James 
Scott, William F. 
Allen, George 
McGill, William 
Moore, Thomas 
Hume, Thomas D. 
Logan, Thomas G. 
Williams, James E. 
Jameson, Thomas R. 
O'Flaherty, Richard J. 
Tice, John Charles G. 
Prendergast, Joseph S. 
Hunter, Thomas 
Anderson George 
Moore, James G. P 
Roberts, Frederic 
Hadley, Henry 
Paynter, Joshua 
Wood, John G. 
Home, William 
Downes, Henry 
Davies, John 
Smith, Henry F. 

Combe, Matthew 

Hyde, George 

Jeplison, William II. 

Baxter, Francis 11. 

Massy, Ilampdcu II. 

Blcnkins, George F. 

Meani, Charles B. 

Thornton, Robert 

Howard, Edward 

Mackinnon, David R. 

Watt, William G. 

Dowse, Richard R. 

Scott, James E. 

Furlong, John S. 

O'Leary, T. Connor 

Franklvn, E. James 

Scot, f. G oldie 

Munro, William 

Elliot, R. Coffin 

Burt, John 

Perry, William 

Walshe, II. Crawford 

Fitzgerald, Thomas G. 

Robinson, Frederick 

Elkington, A. Guy 

Greer, Arthur J. 

Milroy, David 

Lawlor, Digby W. 

Hannan, James 

Burton, R. Graves 

Miller, Ormsby B. 

Harris, William 

Pollard, W. Henry 

Porter, W. Henry 

Longheed, Joseph F. 

Fogo, A. Scott 

Haughton, William 

Chappie, Robert A. 

Gloag, John W. 

Morse, Henry B. 

Routh, Leonce 

M'Mahon, E. John 

Darling, Montague W. 

Osborn, Kean 

Power, W. J. Tyrone 

De Fonblanque, E. Barrington 

Crookshank, A. Crowder 

Rolleston, Philip 

Romaine, W. Govett 

Fitzgerald, David 


Macintyre, J. M'Kenzie 
Holmes, John W. 
Le Mesurier, Frederick 
Bird, S. Dougan 

Buzzard, Thomas 
Edwards, Charles F. 
Turner, Charles 

D D 2 




Stewart, Vice-Admiral Sir Houston. 


Slade, Adolphus Borlase, John 


Vivian, Lieutenant-General Sir Robert John Hussey. 


Michel, John 

Cunynghame, A. A. Thurlow 

Shirley, Arthur 
Dickson, Collingwood 


Stevens, S. James 
Graham, J. John 
Wetherall, E. Robert 
Morris, "William 
Forbes, Francis 

Holmes, John 
Abbott, John R. 
Crewe, Richard 
Hall, George 


Grant, "W. Colquhoun 
Westmacott, R. Marsh 
Carey, Robert 

Carruthers, G. Travers Sayer 
Coates, William 
Boudier, Edward W. 
Mayne, James E. 
Stephen, J. Grant 
Brett, R. Best 
Wray, Edward 
Plowden, E. W. Chricheley 
Stokes, John 
De Courcy, John 
Richardson, Roland 
Gordon, C. A. Boswell 
Gore, Frederick W. 
Elkington, J. H. Ford 
Hartman, Gustavus A. 
Miller, Frederick 
Austen, Albert G. 
Sutton, W. Griffin 
Payn, William 

Hill, James M. 
Melville, G. J, Whyte 
Goldsmid, F. John 
Vaughan, J. Luther 
Whitmore, G. Stoddart 
Mercer, E. Smyth 
Pasley, G. Malcolm 
Greene, Dawson Cornelius 
Plasket, Thomas H. 
Pattinson, Richard 
Gosling, William C. F. 
Stack, Frederick R. 
Warde, George 
McDonald, William C. R. 
Grant, Ewin 
Swaby, George 
Hughes, Robert J. 
Robeson, George H. 
Garstin, Marcus A. 
Campbell, Archibald H. 
Owen, Edward H. M. 
Rishton, Alfred Louis 



Cuming, William II. 
Francis, Henry- 
McNeill, Donald 
Smyth, Edmund 
Broome, Arthur 
Robison, Hugh G. 
Walker, William 
Lucas, Charles P. 
Desborough, Charles 
McDowell, James V. V. 
Wyndham, Charles 
Sullivan, George 
Bogle, Andrew H. 

Grierson, William M. 
Hcathorn, Thomas H. 
Holder, Frederick 
Thornton, Charles McLcod J. 
Whitmore, Montagu S. 
Hearn, Charles S. 
Philips, Henry 
Brown, David P. 
M'Phcrson, Duncan 
Vaughan, James 
Aingcr, Major 
Paton, Robert 
Ilynde, Lawrence 


Johnson, Charles H. 
Keeling, James H. 
M'Dowall, Alexander A. 
M'Dowall, Cameron 
Irvine, Alexander 

Sutherland, George S. 
Williamson, J. 
Edwards, Ernest 
Gunn, Francis L. 
Coleman, William W. 



Watt, Edward 
Havelock, Charles F. 
Brett, De Kenzie J. 


Smith, Major-General Michael William. 


Crofton, Edward W. 
Skene, James II. 


Ring, William F. 
Green, Malcolm S. 
Pittman, Eichard 
Sankey, Francis 
Brenan, Edward FitzGerald 
Heyman, Henry 
Ling, John T. 
Wemyss, Charles T. 

Rumbold, Sir Carlo A. II., Bart. 
Williams, James 
Stuart, W. Edington 
Villiers, William G. V. 
Walmsley, Hugh M. 
Jones, Humphrey S. 
Cockburn, Archibald W. 


Mundy, E. Miller 
Bent, Hugh 

Plunkett, Hon. E. Sidney 
Colclough, George 

Bredin, E. Grantham 
Murray, A. Henry 
Carleton, George 
Murray, Augustus 




Barnard, Major-General Sir Henry William. 


Campbell, Eobert P. Rooke, J. L. Eichard 

Tottenham, W. H. 
Powell, Thomas S. 
Steevens, George 
Woodford, Charles J. 
Balgonie, Viscount 
Dunlop, Sir J. Bart. 
Barnston, Eoger 


Perrin, James 
Dashwood, H. W. John 
Day, Henry Hooper 
Dalzell, James 
Jeffcock, Charles E. 
Grahame, Nicol 
Anderson, W. Christian 



Neill, James George Evans, Dacres Fitzherbert 

Young, James Moore, John Quin, Charles W. 


Agriculture, Medal of, 221, Prussia. 
Albert the Bear, 1, Anhalt Koethen, 

Dessau and Bernberg, Plate 2, No. 2. 
Albert, 270, Saxony, Plate 79, No. 10. 
Alcantara, 306, Spain, Plate 87, Nos. 

5, 6. 
Alexander Newsky, 230, Russia, Plate 

70, No. 8. 
Annunciation, 250, Sardinia, Plate 76, 

Nos. 1, 2. 
Apostolic Order of St. Stephen, 10, 

Hungary, Plate 4, Nos. 5, 6, 7, and 

Plate 5, No. 14. 
Aviz, St. Benedict of, 187, Portugal, 

61, Nos. 3, 4, 5. 


Bath, 104, England, Plate 30. 
Bavarian Crown, 54, Bavaria, Plate 12, 

Nos. 12, 13, 14. 
Belgian Lion, 145, Holland, Plate 46, 

Nos. 7, 8, 9. 
Black Eagle, 198, Prussia, Plate 65, Nos. 

1, 2, 3. 

Calatrava, 301, Spain, Plate 87, Nos. 

3, 4. 
Charles III, 310, Spain, Plate 88. Nos. 

12, 13, and Plate 89, No. 19. 
Charles XIII. 338, Sweden and Norway, 

Plate 93, Nos. 12, 13. 
Charles Frederick, 42, Baden, Plate 9, 

Nos. 3, 4. 
Christ, 172, Papal States, Plate 55, Nos. 

Christ, 189, Portugal, Plate 62, Nos. 8, 

9', and Plate 63, No. 12. 
Civil Cross of Merit, 40, Austria, Plate 

8, Nos. 3, 4. 
Civil Merit, Medal of, 55, Bavaria, Plate 

15, No. 32. 

Civil Cross of Honour, 35, Austria, Plate 

7, Nos. 25, 29. 
Civil Medal of Honour, 36, Austria, 

Plate 7, No. 31. 
Constantine, 291, the Two Sicilies. 
Crimean Campaign, 111, England, Plate 

Crescent, 344, Turkey, Plate 96, No. 3. 
Cross of the Bohemian Nobility, 37, 

Cross of Honour for the Campaigns of 

1814 and 1815, 223, Principalities. 
Cross of Honour, 120, Greece, Plate 34, 

Nos. 3, 4. 
Cross of Honour for Military Chaplains, 

36, Austria, Plate 7, No. 21. 
Cross of Merit, 134, Hesse (Electorate), 

No. 9. 
Cross of Merit, 76, Brunswick, No. 6. 
Cross of Military Distinction for sub- 
officers and soldiers, 135, Hesse (Elec- 
torate), No. 11. 
Cross of the South, 71, Belgium, Plate 

17, Nos. 3, 4. 
Crown of Wurtemberg, 356, "Wurtem- 

berg, Plate 98, No. 1, and Plate 

99, No. 6. 


Danneborg, 83, Denmark, Plate 25, 

Nos. 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10. 
Decoration for Civil and other Merits, 

128, Hanover. 
Decoration for Field Service, 45, Baden, 

Plate 10, Nos. 11, 12. 
Decoration for Field Service, 139, Hesse 

(Grand-Duchy), No. 9. 
Decoration for eight .and sixteen years 

Loyal Service, 88, Denmark, Nos. 11, 

Decoration of Honour, 78, Brunswick, 

No. 9. 
Decoration of Honour, 87, Denmark. 
Decoration of Honour, 152, Lippe-Deti- 

nol (Principality), Plate 48, Nos. 1—4- 



Decoration of Honour, 154, Lucca, 

Plate 49. 
Decoration of Honour, 156, Luxembourg 

(Grand-Duchy), Plate 50, Nos. 1, 2. 
Decoration of Honour, 175, Papal States, 

Plate 57. 
Decoration of Honour, 140, Hohenzol- 

lern.Hechingen, and Hohenzollern- 

Signtaringen, Plate 44. 
Decoration of Honour, 148, Holland, 

Plate 47. 
Decoration of Honour, 161, Modena. 
Distinction and Badge of Confidence, 

38, Austria, Plate 6, No. 18. 
Distinction of Merit, 44, Baden, Plate 

10, No. 10, and Plate 9, Nos. 5, 6, 7. 
Ducal House of Peter Frederick Louis, 

167, Oldenburg, Plate 54, Nos. 1—6. 


Elephant, 81, Denmark, Plate 24, Nos. 

1, 2, 3. 
Elizabeth, Theresa, 17, Austria, Plate 

5, No. 15. 
Ernest Augustus, 128, Hanover. 


Family Order of the Golden Lion, 132, 

Hesse (Electorate), Plate 40, Nos. 

Family Order of Loyalty, 41, Baden, 

Plate 9, Nos. 1, 2. 
Female Order and Institution of St. Ann 

of Munich, 59, Bavaria, Plate 13, Nos. 

18, 19. 
Female Order of the St. Ann Institution 

at Warzburg, 61, Bavaria, No. 20. 
Francis I, 294, the Two Sicilies, Plate 

86, Nos. 11,12, 13. 
Francis Joseph, 38, Austria, Plate 8, 

Nos. 32, 33, and Plate 16, A, B, C. 
Frederick, 358, Wurtemberg, Plate 98, 

No. 4. 


Garter, 97, England, Plate 28, Nos. 

General Decoration of Merit, 128, 

Golden Fleece, 6, Austria, Plate 4, Nos. 

Golden Fleece, 3.10, Spain, Plate 88, 

Nos. 9, 10. 
Golden Spurs, 173, Papal States, Plate 

57, No. 12. 
Guelphic Order, 123, Hanover, Plate 36, 

Nos. 1, 2, 5. 
Guelphic Medal, 125, Hanover, Plate 

36, No. 6. 


Hamburg, Distinction of Military Ser- 
vice, 131, Hanse Towns. 

Henry the Lion, 75, Brunswick, 22, 
Nos. 1—5. 

Holy Sepulchre, 347, Turkey, Plate 96, 
Nos. 1, 2. 

House of Hohenzollern, 208, Prussia, 
Plate 66, No. 9. 


India, Medal for distinguished service 

in, 112, England, Plate 33, Nos. 24, 25. 
Initials in Diamonds, 128, Hanover. 
Iron Crown, 18, Austria, Plate 5, Nos. 

12, 13, and Plate 6, No. 16. 
Iron Cross and Medal, 67, Belgium, 

Plate 18, Nos. 7, 8, 9. 
Iron Cross, 204, Prussia, Plate 66, Nos. 

10, 11. 
Iron Cross of Honour, 130, Hanse 

Towns, Plate 94, No. 5. 
Iron Helmet, 134, Hesse (Electorate), 

Nos. 7, 8. 
Isabella the Catholic, 318, Spain, 90, 

Nos. 22, 23. 

July, the Cross of, 94, France, No. 7. 
July, the Medal of, 95, France. 


Legion of Honour, 90, France, Plate 26, 

Nos. 1, 2, and Plate 27, Nos. 5, 6. 
Leopold, 14, Austria, Plate 11, Nos. 10, 

11, and Plate 5, No. 9. 
Leopold, 66, Belgium, Plate 17, Nos. 

Lion and the Sun, 184, Persia, 60. 
Lion of Zachringen, 43, Baden, Nos. 8, 

9, 13. 
Louis, 136, Hesse (Grand Duchy), Plate 

42, Nos. 1, 2, 3. 
Louisa, 210, Prussia, 67, No. 14. 


Madonna of Guadaloupe, Order of the, 

160, Mexico, (Republic). 
Malta, (St. John), 29, Austria, Plate 7, 

Nos. 23, 24. 
Maria Theresa, 8, Austria, Plate 4, Nos. 

2, 3, 4. 
Maria Louisa, 314, Spain, Plate 89, No. 

Maria Isabella Louisa, 319, Spain, Plate 

90, No. 24. 



Maximilian Joseph, Military Order of, 

52, Bavaria, Plate 12, Nos. 8, 9, 10. 
Maximilian, Order of, for Art and 
Science, G5, Bavaria, Plate 10, No. 
Medal of Civil Service, 45, Baden. 
Medal of Deeds of Self Devotion or 
Sacrifice, 67, Belgium, Plate 19, 
Nos. II, 12, and Plate 20, Nos. 14, 
15, 16. 
Medal for Artizans, Mechanics, and the 
Working Classes, 69, Belgium, Plate 
19, No. 13. 
Medal for Vaccination, 68, Belgium, 

Plate 18, No. 10. 
Medal of Honour for the Spanish-Portu- 
guese Campaign, 78, Brunswick, Plate 
23, No. 10. 
Medal of Honour, 88, Denmark. 
Medal for Saving from Drowning, 88, 

Medal for Noble Deeds, 88, Den- 

Medal of Merit for Saving from Danger, 

129, Hanover. 
Medal of Remembrance and Honour, 

135, Hesse (Electorate), No. 10. 
Medals of Merit in Gold and in Silver, 
and general Decorations of Honour, 
127, Hanover. 
Medals and Decorations of Honour, 163, 
Nassau, (Duchy), Plate 52, Nos. 
1, 5. 
Medals and Decorations of Honour, 162, 

Montenegro (Principality). 
Medals and Decorations of Honour, 
157, Mecklenburg-Schwerin (Grand 
Duchy), Plate 51. 
Medals and Decorations of Honour, 169, 
Oldenburg (Grand Duchy), Plate 
Medals and Decorations of Honour, 195, 

Medals and Decorations of Honour, 

218, Prussia, Plate 68. 
Medals and Decorations of Honour, 245, 

Russia, Plate 73, 74, 75. 
Medals and Decorations of Honour, 262, 

Sardinia, Plate 77, Nos. 10, 11. 
Medals and Decorations of Honour, 282, 

Medals and Decorations of Honour, 275, 

Saxe (Grand Duchies), Plate 81. 
Medals and Decorations of Honour, 286, 
Schwarzburg-Sonderhausen, Plate 83, 
Nos. 2, 3, 4. 
Medals and Decorations of Honour, 319, 

Medals and Badges of Honour, 339, 

Sweden and Norway. 
Medal of the Tenth August, 342, Swit- 
zerland, Plate 94, No. 2. 

Medal of 1815, 341, Switzerland, Plate 

91, No. 1. 
Medal, 317, Turkey. 
Medals anil Decorations of Honour, 35 1, 

Medals and Decorations of Honour, 361, 

Mcdjidic, 345, Turkey, Plate 96, No. 6. 
Memento for the Bavarian Auxiliary 

Corps, 119, Greece, Plate 31, No. C. 
Memento for the Bavarian Volunteers, 

119, Plate 31, No. 5. 
Merciful Brethren of the Holy Ghost, 

178, Papal States. 
Merit, Order of, 268, Saxony, Plate 79, 

Nos. 6, 7, 8. 
Merit, Medal of, of 1771, 88, Denmark. 
Merit, and of the House of Philippc-lc- 

Bon, Order of, 43, Plate 11, Nos. 

Merit, Order of, 202, Prussia, Plate 66, 

No. 9. 
Merit, Medal of, of 1793, 88, Denmark. 
Merit, Military Order of, 359, Wurteiu- 

berg, Plate 98, Nos. 1,2, and Plate 

99, No. 7. 
Merit of the Dockyards, Medal of, 87, 

Denmark, Plate 25, No. 7. 
Military Decoration of 1814, 37, Aus- 
tria, Plate 7, No. 30. 
Military Merit, 353, Tuscany. 
Military Medal, 95, France', Plate 27, 

Nos. 7, 8. 
Military Service, 138, Hesse (Grand 

Duchy), Plate 43, No. 5. 
Military Decoration of Honour, 285, 

Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt, Plate 83, 

No. 1. 
Military Order of Merit, 133, Hesse 

(Electorate), No. 6. 
Military Distinction and Decorations of 

Honour, 63, Bavaria, Plate 15, Nos. 

31, 33, 34, and Plate 13, No. 21. 
Military Merit, 244, Russia, Plate 73, 

Nos. 22, 23. 
Military Medal, 151, Lippe-Schaumburg, 

(Principality), Plate 48, Nos. 5, 6. 
Militarv Medal of Honour, 3C, Austria, 
Nos."27, 28. 


Naval Actions, Medals for, 110, Eng- 

Nichani-Iftchar, 345, Turkey, Plate 96, 
Nos. 1, 2. 

Nichan.the, 343, Tunis, Plate 95, No. 3. 

National Guard, Decoration of Honour 
for the, 150, Holland, Plate 47, 
No. 7. 




Oaken Crown, 155, Luxembourg (Grand 
Duchy), Plate 50, Nos. 4, 5. 

Our Lady of the Conception of Villa 
Vicosa, 193, Plate 64, Nos. 14, 15. 

Our Lady of Montesa, 308, Spain, Plate 
88, Nos. 7, 8. 

Pedro, 70, Brazil, Plate 20, Nos. 1, 2. 
Peninsula, Medal for Actions in the, 

110, England, Plate 32. 
Pius, Order of, 175, Papal States, Plate 

57, No. 18. 
Polar Star, or "The Black Ribbon," 

336, Sweden and Norway, Plate 92, 

Nos. 7, 8, 9. 


Redeemer, 118, Greece, Plate 34, Nos. 

1, 2. 
Red Eagle, 200, Prussia, Plate 65, Nos. 

4, 5, 6, 7, 8. 
Rose, 72, Brazil, Nos. 5, 6. 
Royal Louis Order, 56, Bavaria, Plate 

14, Nos. 27, 28; Plate 15, No. 30. 
Rue Crown, Order of the, 264, Saxony, 

78, Nos. 1, 2. 

Saving Medal, 80, Brunswick, Tab. II. 

No. 12. 
Savoy, Royal Military Order of, 257, 

Sardinia, 77, Nos. 6, 7. 
Savoy, Civil Order of, 259, Sardinia, 

77, Nos. 8, 9. 
Star Cross, 22, Austria, Plate 6, No. 

Saxe-Ernest, Family Order of, 272, 

Grand Duchies of the Saxe-Gotha 

Branch of the Ernestine Line, Plate 

Seraphine, or the " Blue Ribbon," 329, 

Sweden and Norway, 91, Nos. 1, 2, 3. 
St. Ann, Order of, 231, Russia, Plate 

70, Nos. 9, 10, 11. 
St. Andrew, Order of, 226, Russia, Plate 

69, Nos. 1, 2, 6. 
St. Benedict of Aviz and St. Jacob of 

the Sword and the Order of Christ, 

73, Brazil, Plate 21, No. 6, 7, 8. 
St. Catherine, 228, Russia, Plate 69, 

Nos. 3, 4, 5. 

St. Constantine, Order of, 179, Parma, 

(Grand Duchv), Plate 59. 
St. Elizabeth, 58, Bavaria, Tab. IV. Nos. 

25, 26. 
St. Faustin and of the Legion of Honour, 

the Orders of, 121, Haiti, Plate 35, 

Nos. 1, 2. 
St. Ferdinand and of Merit, 288, the 

Two Sicilies, Plate 84, Nos. 3, 4, 

Plate 85, No. 10, and Plate 86, No. 

St. Ferdinand, Military Order of, 316, 

Spain, Plate 89, Nos. 15, 16, 17, 

St. Gregory the Great, 171, Papal States, 

Plate 55, Nos. 1, 2, 3. 
St. George, Military Order of, 153, 

Lucca, Plate 49, Nos. 1, 2. 
St. George, 122, Hanover, Plate 37, 

No. 11, Plate 36, No. 10. 
St. George of the Reunion, 293, the Two 

Sicilies, Plate 85, Nos. 6, 7, 8, 9, 

St. George, Military Order of, 234, 

Russia, Plate 71, Nos. 12, 13, 14. 
St. Hubert, 47, Bavaria, Plate 11, Nos. 

1, 2,3. 
St. Hermingilde, Military Order of, 

315, Spain, 90, Nos. 20, 21. 
St. Henry, Military Order of, 265, 

Saxony, Plate 78, Nos. 3, 4, 5. 
St. James of Compostella, Military Or- 
der of, 297, Spain, Plate 87, Nos. 

St. James, Order of, 188, Portugal, 62, 

Nos. 6, 7. 
St. Januarius, 287, the Two Sicilies, 

84, Nos. 1, 2. 
St. Helena, Medal, 96, France, Plate 27, 

No. 9. 
St. John of Jerusalem, 176, Papal 

St. John, 238, Russia. 
St. John, 205, Prussia, Plate 66, Nos. 

12, 13. 
St. John, 296, Spain, Plate 56, Nos. 7, 

8, 9. 
St. Joseph, 352, Tuscany, Plate 97, Nos. 

3, 4. 
St. Isabella, 194, Portugal, Plate 64, 

No. 16. 
St. Louis, Order of, for Civil Merit, 154, 

Lucca, Plate 49, No. 3. 
St. Louis, 182, Parma (Grand Duchy), 

St. Maurice and Lazarus, 253, Sardinia, 

Plate 76, Nos. 3, 4, 5. 
St. Michael, Order of Merit, 56, Bava- 
ria, Plate 13, Nos. 15, 16, 17, and 

Plate 14, No. 29. 
St. Michael and St. George, 107, 
England, Plate 31. 



St. Olaf, Order of, 165, Norway, Plate 

53, Nos. 1, 2, 3. 
St. Patrick, Order of, 102, England, 

Plate 29, Nos. 5, 9. 
St. Patrick, 50, Bavaria, Plate '2, No. 

5, 6, 7, Plate 3, No. 11. 
St. Stanislaus, 242, Russia, Plate 72, 

Nos. 19, 20. 
St. Stephen, 351, Tuscany, Plate 97, 

Nos. 1,2. 
St. Wladimir, 238, Russia, Plate 71, Nos. 

15, 16. 
Swan, Order of the, 211, Prussia, Plate 

67, No. 16. 
Sword, or of the " Yellow Ribbon," 

Order of the, 333, Sweden and Nor- 
way, Plate 91, Nos. 4, 5, 6. 


Teutonic Order, r 24," Austria, Plate 6, 

Nos. 19, 20. 
Teutonic Order, 146, Holland. 
Theresa, Order of, 62, Bavaria, Plate 14, 

No. 23. 
Thistle, 100. England, Plate 29, Nos. 

6, 8. 
Tower and Sword, 192, Portugal, Plate 

63, Nos. 10, 11. 


Victoria Cross, 112, England, Plate 33, 
No. 28. 

Vasa, 337, Sweden and Norway, Plate 
92, No. 11, and Plate 93, No.' 14. 


War Medal, 130, llansc Towns, Plate 

94, No. 3. 
"War Medal for the Volunteers in the 

British German Legion, until the 

conclusion of the Peace at Paris, 

Plate 36, No. 13. 
War Medal for the Volunteers in the 

Hanoverian Army in the Year 1813. 

126, Hanover, Plate 36, No. 12. 
Waterloo Medal, 77, Brunswick, Plate 

36, No. 11. 
Waterloo Medal, 125, Hanover, Plate 

23, No. 9. 
Waterloo Medal, 111, England, Plate 

32, No. 22. 
White Cross, 353, Tuscany. 
White Eagle, 239, Russia, Plate 72, 

Nos. 17, 18. 
AVhite Falcon, or, Vigilance, 279, Grand 

Duchy of Saxe-Weimar, Plate 82, 

Nos. 1 — 5. 
William Cross and William Medal, 126, 

Plate 36, Nos. 8, 14. 
William, Military Order of, 144, Hol- 
land, Plate 45, Nos. 1, 2, 3. 



Printed by A. Schulze, 13, Poland Street. 



F. & c. OSLER, 



ifanufacturers of Glass Chandeliers, Glass Lustres, Table Glass, &c. 



Made from " Registered" Designs, with Glass Branches, &c. 

The more extensive use of Gas in Private Dwellings has induced Messrs. OSLKU to direct 
their particular attention to the manufacture of this class of articles, which, with a view to their 
general adoption, are offered at very moderate prices. Purchasers can select from a great variety 
of patterns, to which additions are being constantly made. 



Including Wine-glasses, Decanters, Jugs, Goblets, Dessert-Services, &c. ftc, at exceedingly 

Moderate Prices. 


A large Stock of ORIfAMENTAL GX.ASS, English and Foreign (the latter 
Imported by Messrs. OSIER) always on View. 





Visitors admitted from 9 a.m. to G^.nz., except Saturday, 9 to 2 p.m. 












Sh A 




Shipping Orders Promptly Executed, and Samples Forwarded 

on application. 



Established in 183G. — Empowered nr SVeciai. Acts or Parliament. 

OFFICES— 1, Dale Street, Livorpool ; 20 and 21, Poultry, London ; 

61, King Street, Manchester; 128, Ingram Stroet, Glasgow; 5G, Wall Street, New York; 

Place d'Armes, Montreal ; "Wynward Square, Sydney ; and Elizabeth Street South, Melbourne. 

CONSTITUTION.— Liability of the entire body of Shareholders unliinitod. All Directors mus 
[be Proprietors in the Company. 

The Capital is £2,000,000, divided into 100,000 Shares at £"20 each, 91,211 of which are in the 
hands of the Proprietors at £2 per Share— £188,422. 

BUSINESS. — Insurance against Loss by Fire of Property of every description, both at lmnin 
land abroad. Life Insurance in all its branches, including the endowment of Children iiml Adults ; 
(and the Sale and Purchase of Annuities, Inversions, and contingent Interests. 
J FIRE DEPARTMENT. — The Premiums nre moderate ; the Settlement of Claims liberal and 

LIFE DEPARTMENT.— The Bonuses of the Company are guaranteed when the Policies are 
issned. Residence in the Australian Colonies, British America, and the Northern part of the 
United States, without extra charge. Policies are issued Free of Stamp Duty. 

The following Table will show the position of the Company' s Funds now as compared with 1850: — 

1S56. 2857. 

The Capital £175,008 ...£188,422 

The Bcscrvcd Fund 180,202 10 ... 214,010 1111 

The Life Fund 339,450 5 10 ... 531,'20'J 13 10 

The Fire Tie-insurance Fund 125,053 G 5 ... 153,710 8 

820,37-1 2 3 ... 1,088,018 13 9 
Prospectuses and further Information may be obtained from any of tho Ofliccs as above, or 
through the various Agencies. 

Active and Influential Agents required throughout the Country. 

SWINTON BOULT, Secretary to the Company. 
February, 1858. BENJAMIN HENDERSON, llesident. Sec. in London. 

validity of the Policy will not be impaired. 


14, Waterloo Place, London, and 42, John Dalton Street, Manchester. 

The Chisiiolm, Chairman 
Maj.-Gcn. Michael E. Bagxold. 
Francis Bropigan, Esq. 
Alexander Robert Irvine, Esq. 
John Ixglis Jerdein, Esq 

James John KislOcti, Esq. 
William Mohley, Esq. 
Robert Fraxcis Power, Esq., M.D. 
Rev. F. W. J. Vickeuy. 

1 annual Premiums. , ,, , . , elaborately detailed 

I The Annual General Meeting was held on the 28t h May last w lien a a ciaoo j . 

Report of tbc aflairs of the Institution was pre ^f.^^^i" ££ S M$EL» ! 
Bit was satisfactorily ascertained that the state of tho . tnntlb -^ ™? " ,.,1 „_ cent Whilst it 

allowances might be safely increased, during ^J^J^^^^^^^^ 

was clearly sboVn that, from the extreme care and cauti ^^ d ™ a ™ ' ^ b c considerably 
I priation of the surplus, such allowances would, hereJ « te '; ^™ S™ s , cte a durin- the pas. and 

augmented. It was 'also el early shown, that ^XttS^i^S^^ its footing, 
i preceding years was such as to prove incontestable tlia. tlio n t ° c > e ^ - 

and enjoys, to the fullest extent the , confidence and ■^^^^\ ho Bepwt , and resolved 
The Members present at the Meeting we re MJ ^^^ tho ^ y ' e ar's Premium 

unanimously that a reduction of 32? per cent ;. s f 10 "' a . fl r ,. ofits 

payable by all Policy-holders now entitled to participate n the l^fats. 

1 ^Credit is allowed for half the Annual Premiums foi the first ^Sg^ Mana „ ing Dirccior. 
14, Waterloo Place, London. * * 

E w 




Head Office— 14, St. Andrew Square, Edinburgh. 
London Branch— 66, Gracechurch Street, City. 


THE DIRECTORS invite attention to the terms and provisions of this Society — 
which combine immediate economy with the utmost eventual advantages — in the belief that 
they are peculiarly suited to the circumstances of persons whose means of providing for their families 
depend mainly on professional income. ■ 

It is the only Office in which the advantages of Mutual Assurance can be obtained at 
Moderate Premiums. The Assured are at the same time specially exempt from personal liability. 

In many Offices (including even some of the older Mutual Offices), Assurers are offered the choice 
of a moderate scale for Premiums, without any claim to share in the Profits — or of a right to par- 
ticipate in these, at an excessive rate of Premium. Assurers with the Scottish Provident Insti- 
tution are the sole recipients of the Profits, and at rates of Premium equally moderate with those 
of the Non-Participating Scale of other Offices. 

The principle on which the Profits are divided will commend itself as not only safe and equitable, 
but as the most satisfactory method on which the Profits arising from moderate Premiums could be 
allocated. Instead of being frittered away among all Policies indiscriminately — including those 
which have subsisted only a few years, and on which there may eventually be a heavy loss to the 
Common Fund — they are reserved for those members who alone can have made surplus payments : 
in other words, for those whose Premiums, with accumulated interest, amount to the sums in theii 

The administration has uniformly been conducted with liberality towards the members (there 
being, in fact, no opposing interests), and with readiness to initiate and adopt every available im- 
provement, such as relaxation of restrictions on travel, provision for the indefeasibility of Policies,, 
and facility of settlement of claims. 

Annual Premium to Assure £100 at Death. 

Age— -25 ... 30 ... 35 ... 40 ... 45 ... 50 

£1 18 ... £2 1 6 ... £2 6 10 ... £2 14 9 ... £3 5 9 ... £4 1 7 

Thus an Assurance of £100 can be attained, at age 30, for a yearly Premium of £2 Is. 6d., or 
for £1000, of £20 15s. This latter Premium, if paid to any other of the Scottish Mutual Offices 
would Assure £800 only, instead of £1000. 

Copies of the Annual Reports, Forms of Proposal, and every information, may be had on appli 
cation to the Head Office in Edinburgh, or to the London Branch, 66, Gracechurch-street, City. 


GEORGE GRANT, London Agent and Secretary. 




Vernon Abbott, Esq. 
George Asiilin, Esq. 
George F. Harris, Esq. 

John James, Esq. 
John Ledger, Esq. 
William Phelps, Esq. 
H. T. Prinsep, Esq. 

C. H. Smith, Esq. 
James Traill, Esq. 
George Whitmore, Esq. | 

Advantages presented by this Society. 
Life Assurances may be effected upon Equal, Half Premium, Increasing or Decreasing Scales i 
also by Single Payments, or Payments for limited periods. Tables have been specially constructed 
for the Army, Navy, East India Company, and Merchant Services ; also for persons voyaging 
to, or residing in, any part of the world. 

Endowments for Widows and Children, Pensions for Retired Officers and Civilians, Immediati 
or Deferred Annuities, and Survivorships. 

E. OSBORNE SMITH, Actuary and Secretary. , 



ESTABLISHED a.d. 1844. 

Parties desirous of Investing Money avc requested to cxamino tlio IMau of 
The Bank op Deposit, by which a high rate of Interest may .bo obtained with 
perfect security. 

The Interest is payable in January and July. 

Peter Morrison, Manaying Director. 
Forms for Opening Accounts sent Free on Application. 





MARTIN TUCKER SMITH, Esq., M.P.,' Cliairman. 

GEORGE WILLIAM COTTAM, Esq., Deputy- Chairman 

Thomas George Barclay, Esq. Samuel Hiiibekt, Esq 

James C. C. Bell, Esq. 

Charles Cave, Esq. 

George Hexky Cutler, Esq. 

Hexry Davidson, Esq. 

George Field, Esq. 

George Hibbert, Esq. 

Daniel Mildred, Esq. 
James Gordon Murdoch, Esq. 
John IIorsley Palmer, Esq. 
Frederick Pattison, Esq. 
William R. Bohinso.n, Esq. 
Newman Smith, Esq. 

SECURITY.— The existing liabilities of the Company do not exceed £3,000,000. The 
Investments are nearly £1,000,000, in addition to upwards of £ G00,000 for which the Shareholders 
are responsible, and the income is about £120,000 per annum. 

PROFITS— Four-fifths, or Eighty per cent, of the Profits, are assigned to Policies every fifth 
year. The next appropriation will be made in 18G1, and persons who now effect insurances 
will participate rateably. 

BONUS.— The additions to Policies have been from £1 10s. to £G3 16s. percent, on tlie 
original sums insured. 

CLAIMS.— Upwards of £1,250,000 has been paid to claimants under Policies. 

Proposals for Insurances may be made at the Chief Office, as above ; at tho Branch Ol 
1G, Tall Mall, London; or to any of the Agents throughout the Kingdom. 



T SPARKES HALL begs to offer his improved OVERSHOES as the most 
J . perfect for the present season everinvented, and at the same time the most economical. J hey 
protect the feet from wet and cold-are not dangerous to walk in during frosty weather, or when 
pavements are slippery or greasy-tbey are easily put on and off, and arc so soft and flexible (luring 
cold weather, that they readily adapt themselves to any boot or shoe the wearer ma. select nrr 
Majcstv uses the Enamelled Overshoes daily, in preference to every other kind, and thej arc pro- 
frounced by all persons who take much walking exercise to be the most convenient, the nente , and 
the least fatiguing of all goloshes. Ladies', 7s. 6d. per pair; Gentlemen ■, with box heel, 
plush counters, 12s. ; Ladies' British, 3s. Gd.; Gentlemen s, 4s. 1*1. 


| N.B;-An Illustrated Price List scut free to any part of the United Kingdom, on « 
two postage stamps. 






40, Mark Lane Chambers, London, E.G. 

Respectfully solicit the continued patronage and support of the numerous body of Agriculturists, Shippers, Merchants , 
and others, whom they have had the honour of supplying with Agricultural Machines and Implements for the last 
thirty years. With their extensively-increased facilities for manufacturing, R. Garrett and Sons are now enabled to 
supply with despatch, and at the lowest cost consistent with sound workmanship and thorough efficiency, combined 
with practical utility — 

FIXED AND PORTABLE STEAM ENGINES, for Agricultural Purposes, Contractors' Work, &c. 
CHAFF AND STRAW CUTTERS, for Steam, Horse, and Hand-power, 
SAWING MACHINERY, from Four to Twenty Horse-power, 

BARN AND FIELD IMPLEMENTS of the most approved construction, &c. &c. &c, full parti- 
culars of which, will be found in 


For the above Machines R. GARRETT & SONS have received 161 Money Prizes, 31 Gold and Silver Medals, 
besides the Great Council Medals and Gold Medals of Honour of the Exhibition of All Nations, held in Hyde Parkin 
1S5I, in Ireland in 1853, in Paris in 1855, and in "Vienna in 1857. 

Complete Sets of the most improved Farm Machinery are erected by GARRETT & SONS, adapted to the nature 
and size of the occupations, and with the arrangements best suited to the buildings. Plans and estimates will be 
furnished, with references, on application ; also Catalogues, in either English, French, or German, sent (postage 
free) on application as above. 


The competition by R. GARRETT & SONS, at this Meeting, was confined to the class of HORSE HOES and 
DRILLS, and after a most patient and searching trial, the FIRST PRIZE in HORSE HOES was again awarded to 
R. GARRETT & SONS' well-known Implement, which has now been before the public upwards of fourteen years, 
taking the First Peize at eveey Meeting at which it has competed, distancing all competitors, .and has earned 
for itself a reputation such as no other implement ever has done. This result is the more important when it is 
borne in mind that no further competition will take place in Horse Hoes until the year 1860. No less than 61 
Horse Hoes were exhibited at Salisbury, all of which, by the awards, are pronounced more or less inferior to — 


The following statement shows the result of the competition : — 


(Making TniETT-EiGHT Fikst Peizes and Ten Medals awarded for this excellent Implement.) 





THE CORN AND SEED DRILL..; Highly Commended. 



R. GARRETT & SONS received for their 







N.B, Early Orders are respectfully solicited, and will ensure prompt attention. 

gricrlfi yili gpn Sinks 



Inventors and Sole Manufacturer of 
the Premium 

Continuous Iron Fencing, lion 
jlffl Hurdles, Invisible Strained Wire 
m f Fences, Iron Gates, &c, Agricul- 
tural Implements, and a variety 
of other articles applicable to the 
Improvement or Embellishment 
of Landed Property, 



n ARDEN ENGINES, SYRINGES, &c.— CAUTION.— The well-known 
yj reputation of BEAD'S ENGINES, MACHINES, and SYRINGES, lias led to the nefarious 
practice of placing cards in shop windows with the words " Read's Patent" upon Syringes of the 
very commonest description. R. READ hcgs to caution the Public against being deceived by such 
false representations, as many of these instruments, upon trial, will be found defective and useless. 
Eead's Instruments have the Royal Arms and Address, " 35, Eegent Cirous, London." 


J- ELECTRO-SILVER PLATES prevents the Ink spreading, and never Washes out, By means 
ot this novel invention aU kinds of Linen can be marked with Initials, Name, Crest, &c. Any 
person can use them. Initial Plate, Is.; Name, 2s.; Set of Moveable Numbers, 2s.; Crest, 5s; 
.LSook 1 late with Arms, 10s. Sent post-free to any part on receipt of stamps. Family Arms found, 
correct sketch, 2s. Stamps with shifting dates, and moveable alphabets of every kind 

Caution!— Several persons are travelling from door to door selling common plates, which are 
useless, and committing robberies at the houses. This is to give notice that I employ no travellers 
whatever. r J 

T. Culleton, Patentee, 2, Long Acre, Corner of St. Martin's Lane, Heraldic Engraver to the 

Queen and Eoyal Family. 



J-' .bElEND, is confidently recommended to the public as an unfailing remedy for wounds of 
every description, a certain cure for ulcerated sore legs, if of twenty years' standing, cuts, burns, 
scalds, bruises, chilblains, scorbutic eruptions, and pimples on the face, sore and inflamed eyes, sore 
heads, sore breasts, piles, fistula, and cancerous humours, &c. Sold in Pots, at Is. lid' 2s. 9d., 
lis., and 22s. each. Also Ins ' 2 ' ' 

confirmed by 60 years' successful experience to be, without exception, one of the best alterative 
medicines ever compounded fa* purifying the blood and assisting nature in all her operations ; hence 
they are used in scrofulas, scorbutic Complaints, glandular swellings, particularly those of the neck, 
&c. A hey form a mild and superior family aperient, that may be taken at all times without con- 
finement or change of diet. S ; old in Boxes, at Is. Id, 2s. 9d, 4s. 6d., lis, and 22s. each. 

bold Wholesale by the Proprietors, Beach & Baunicott, at their Dispensary, Bridport, and by the 
Colonies &c S6S; respectable medicine vendors in the United Kingdom and tlie 

Observe.— No Medicines sold under the. above names can possibly be genuine unless "Beach & 
affiLTto^ch adcet ' RT "' BMDPoaT ' is c "S™'cd and printed, on the Government etarap 1 





INVITE attention to the Twenty-third Animal Issue of their 
TABLE, and AGRICULTURAL SEEDS, universally admitted to be the best 
scientifically arranged Catalogue published. It will be forwarded free of charge 
and post' paid to all parts of the world upon application. 


This department of the Catalogue comprises all the novelties of the season, 
many rare and choice Seeds, and a total of nearly 2000 different varieties of 
Flower Seeds, of each of which a complete scientific description is given by means 
of a system of perspicuous tabular arrangement, admirably adapted for referential 


J. C. & Co. have bestowed great attention upon this branch of the business, 
and beg to intimate that all Seeds sent from their establishment they warrant to 
be unadulterated and of the last season's growth. The Catalogue contains ouly 
those sorts which can be confidently recommended as well deserviug of cultivation, 
to each of which is affixed the time of sowing, &c., forming a concise and complete 
guide for the Kitchen Garden. 


This List will be found to contain all the leading and most approved varieties/ 
J. C. & Co. arc particularly careful that all the Seeds are of growth 1SJ7, and 
they can guarantee their stocks as being genuine and true to name. 


(For Description see Catalogue and Coloured Plate.) 

CLARKIA PULCHELLA MARGINATA, rose white border, Is. per packet. 
LUPINUS HYBRIDUS INSIGNIS, rosy purple, Is. per packet. 
LUPINUS MENZIESI, bright golden yellow, Is. per packet. 
CENOTHERA DRUMMONDI NANA, very dwarf, Is. per packet. 

















In order to manufacture an Artificial Water which shall he a successful imitation of the 
natural Spring, a perfect solution of the chemical ingredients is essential, and this can alone be 
effected by the aid of PUEE WATER. It was the knowledge of this important fact that induced 
J. SCHWEPPE & CO. to establish their Manufacture of 


where they have leased the Spring of the Holy Well, so renowned for its sweetness and purity.- 
From the remarkable efficiency of this Water as a solvent of the CHLORIDES and CARBONATES 
which form the ingredients of the natural Spring at Nassau, J. SCHWEPPE & CO. are enabled 
to produce a SELTZER WATER possessing all those CHEMICAL and MEDICINAL properties 
which have rendered the original Spring so celebrated. It is prepared as an Aerated Water, and 
may be recommended to the Public generally, as at all times a most refreshing and delightful 



Continue their Usual Manufacture of 

feotfa, Jtflapesta, aito potass Matcvs anfcr Hemonatre, 

At their respective Establishments, 

Every Bottle is protected hy a Red Label over the Cork representing' their Signature. 







THIS PORTMANTEAU is admitted by all who have used it 
to be the most perfect and useful of any yet invented, and to combine .ill 
the advantages so long desired by those who travel. 

The peculiar conveniences of this Portmanteau are, that it contains separate 
compartments for each description of clothes, linen, boots, &c. Each division is 
kept entirely distinct, and is immediately accessible on opeuing the Portmanteau, 
without lifting or disturbing anything else; every article is packed perfectly flat, 
and remains so during the whole of the journey. It is also made with a division 
for Bonnets for Ladies' use. 



are manufactured -under his personal inspection, and in the manufacture of which 
the very best Solid Leather is used, and only first-rate skilful workmen employed. 
His Portmanteaus have been extensively known for the last twenty-five years, and 
have obtained the highest character for extreme durability, strength, and wear. 
J. SOUTHGATE invites the attention of Ladies to his improved 


containing Division for Bonnets, Trays for Dresses, and replete with every possible 

The above may be obtained of Mr. Wilkinson, 30, Cockspur Street, and 
Messrs. Moore and Co., 14, St. James's Street, London; of Mr. Hunt, Above liar, 
Southampton; of Mr. Bays, Hatter, Cambridge; of most Outfitters and Saddlers 
hroughout the Kingdom; and of 


Manufacturer of every description of Travelling Equipage for Home or Continental 

Use, Light Knapsacks for Tourists and Pedestrians, and Bullock, 

Overland, and other Trunks for India. 





MINTON and CO.'S ENCAUSTIC and other PATENT TILES for Churches, 
t Entrance Halls, Conservatories, Balconies, &e. ; Antique, Geometrical, and Alhambric 
Mosaics, Manufactures of a highly decorative character and extreme durability ; Slabs and Tiles 
for Fireplaces and Hearths ; Covings for Grates, Door Furniture ; White, Glazed . and Ornamental 
Tiles for Baths, Dairies, and Kitchen Ranges, may be seen in great variety at their "Warehouse, 
9, Albion Place, Blackfiuars Bridge, London ; and obtained at their Manufactory, Stoke- 
upon-Trent, Staffordshire. 





Beg to announce that a New and Enlarged Edition of their 


is now ready, and may be had on application, by post, addressed to the 




HOUSE, 247 and 219, REGENT STREET.— The Proprietors of this Establishment, in respectfully I 
addressing themselves to the attention of the Nobility, the Gentry, and the Public, beg leave to renew their I 
thanks for the extraordinary support they have received. Every article necessary for a complete outfit of I 
Mourning, for either the Family or Household, may be had here, and made up, if required, at the shortest f 
notice; whilst the attendance of competent persons oonnected with the Establishment upon families of rank, 
and of every respectable denomination, enables the Proprietors or their assistants to at once suggest or supply 
everything necessary for the occasion, and suited to any grade or condition of the community. Skirts, &c, I 
for Widowhood, and for Family Mourning, are always kept made up, and a note descriptive of the relation of J 
the parties to the deceased will ensure at any time the proper supply of Mourning being forwarded, both as [ 
to quality and distinction, according to the exigencies of the case, it being needful only to send dresses for 
patterns, when every requisite will be carefully prepared and chosen to render the appointments complete. 


Nos. 247 and 249, Regent Street, two doors from Oxford Street. 

—^ ——— I Willi HUB vnmmmmBK^Hemxampmng amm* 


91, Great Russell Street, Bloomsbury, 

(Three Doors West of the British Museum.) 

A. «c F. PEARS'S 




HPHE skin lias the power of absorbing from any liquid certain 

particles when applied to its surface; this renders it peculiarly liable to be 
injuriously affected by poisonous substances, such as the colouring matter and the 
strong essential oils used in the manufacture of most Toilet Soaps ; hence it often 
happens that persons materially derange the healthy action of the skin without 
suspecting the soap they have been using was the cause. To obviate this, and to 
produce beneficial results, A. & F. Peaks assure their customers that their 
TRANSPARENT SOAP undergoes a second process in its manufacture, which 
entirely removes all the corrosive alkali (so injurious), and introduces an ingre- 
dient of a soothing nature, which renders its cleansing properties most effectual 
— its colour being acquired by age only. Its perfume has also been studied so as 
to make it most agreeable and not in any way injurious. This fact, with the 
peculiar properties of the Soap, and the care we bestow on its manufacture, has 
induced many of the Homoeopathic and other Physicians to recommend it in 
Skin Diseases. 

Another excellence of this Soap is, that it may be used with either hard or 
soft water, a quality which renders it extremely agreeable to gentlemen of the 
Navy and Army, or families travelling to other countries, change of climate 
never in the least diminishing its properties. 

Sold in square Cakes and Tablets, price Is. and Is. 6d. each, and large square 
Cakes and Tablets, perfumed with Otto of Roses. 

To be had of most respectable Perfumers and Chemists in Town and Country, 
or of the Inventors, as above; but be sure to ask for 




THE contemplation of Personal Beauty at all times awakens the liveliest and 
most delightful feelings of our nature," and the willing homage it receives in the splendid 
assemblages of Royalty and Rank, or amidst the no less fascinating displays of our Social Reunions, 
demands that the nicest and most careful attention should -be paid to the cultivation of an object 
so manifestly important. 


Is a delightfully fragrant and transparent preparation for the Hair, and, as an invigorator and 
beautifier, beyond all precedent. In dressing the Hair nothing can equal its effect, rendering it 
so admirably soft that it will lie in any direction, and imparting a transcendent lustre. 


Is unequalled for its rare and inestimable qualities. The radiant bloom it imparts to the Cheek, the 
softness and delicacy which it induces of the Hands and Arms, its capability of soothing irritation, 
and removing cutaneous defects, discolorations, and all unsightly appearances, render it ixms- 



For Preserving and Beautifying the Teeth, imparting to them a Pearl-like whiteness, strengthening 
the Gums, and for rendering the breath sweet and pure. 

Sold by A. ROWLAND & SONS, 20, Hatton Garden, London, 
and by Chemists and Perfumers. 





MESSRS. SOWERBY, TATTON", & Co., in directing attention to their pre- 
sent unequalled and CAREFULLY ASSORTED BTOCK OF MATERIALS adapted 
for the SUMMER SEASON, beg most respectfully to invite general attention to their late 
Extensive Purchases in the LYONS MARKETS. Their Stock of 


Embracing every CLASS OF MANUFACTURE which can either be recommended for STYLE, 
or exhibited as SPECIMENS OF ART. Their 


SUITABLE FOR YOUNG LADIES' WEAR, are deservedly worthy of notice. The prieea 
varying from Is. ll£d. to 3s. 4£d. per yard. Their collection of 


Is undoubtedly one of the largest and best assorted in London. Amongst it will be found Dresses 
suitable for every occasion ; the Prices advancing by regular gradations from 2 J Guineas to 20. 
Bodice in every case included. Their 

Comprises every Leading Novelty, and all the Latest aiid most approved Designs. Their 

Slight Embroidered and Richly Trimmed G-lace Mantlets, 
Intended for WEDDINGS, FETES, the OPERA, &c, are especially deserving of attention. 
In immense varieties, and at unusually moderate prices. 
Org-andi and Jacconet Muslins, French Chintzes, Mousselaine de 

Soies, Bareges, Beges, de Laines, 
Together with every Summer Fabric, at Prices unusually loWi 

An Endless Assortment of Ribbons and Ribbon Trimmings, Parasols, Gloves, Hosiery, 
Foreign and British Laces, &c. &c. 





As used in Her Majesty's Stables, and also on His Royal Higrhnos* 
the Px'ince Consort's Farm, Windsor. 

r rHE First and only Prize ever awarded for Food for Cattle in a Condensed 
_L State was given bv the Cheshire Agricultural Society in 1857, tn JOSEPH THORLEY, Esq., 
the Inventor and Sole Proprietor of THORLEY'S FOOD FOR CATTLE. This Food is now- 
receiving patronage from all parts of the kingdom, including His .Grace the Duke of Richmond, 
his Grace the Duke of Athole, the Earl of Wilton, the Earl of Eldon, the Earl of Essex, the Earl of 
Bessborough, the Earl of Aylesford, the Earl of Lisbnrne, the Earl Rosslyn, Viscount Strathnllnu, 
Viscount Dillon, the Right Hon. Lord Willoughby de Brooke, tho Right Hon. Lord Londsborough, 
Lord Lurgan, Lord Macdonald, Lord Saltoun, Lord Greenock, Lord Hatherton, Lord A. Russell, 
Sir John Cat'hcart, Bart., Sir John Ribton, Bart., Sir William Payne Gnlway, Bart., Sir David 
Cunino-hame, Bart., Sir Montagu Cholmeley, Bart., Sir John Seymour, Part., Sir Charles Payne, 
Bart °Sir Thomas Erskine, the Hon. D. Astley, the Yen. Archdeacon Freer, H. Drummond, 
Esq 'm P. E. Holland. Esq., M P., Gerrart Sturt, Esq., M.P., General Wyndham, Colonel Ames, 
Colonel' Cartwright, Colonel C. Hunter, Lieutenant-Colonel Candley, Lieutenant Williams, 
Lieutenant and Adjutant Holland, and many others too numerous to mention. 

Converts the Commonest of Straw into a Superior Provender. 
It is requisite you should notice the Inventor's Signature on each Package or Feed, as inferior 

sorts are often substituted. 


Class 10.— First Prize.— Fed on Thorley's Food for Cattle. 

Devon Steers. 

See Catalogue, No. 88.— The property of the Right Hon. the Earl of Aylesford. 

Second Prize.— Fed on Thorley's Food for Cattle. 

The Property of his Royal Highness the Prince Consort. 

The above are a few of the many Prizes obtained through the use of this invaluable Compound, 

wlnVh is adanted for all kinds of Stock, and now in use throughout the world. 

Soli in Cases con Lining 448 Packages-each Package One Feed- at the cost of Ms per 
Case also in Casks, containing 443 Feeds, with Measure enclosed, price 50s. per Cask. Car- 
riage Paid to any Railway Station in the United Kingdom. 

None are genuine icithout the Signature ... 

being affixed to each Package or Feed— ' 



Post Office Orders to he made payable to JOSEPH THOHLEY, General Post Office, St. Kartm s 

le Grand, London. 

r £«*3 

BENNETT'S Patent Clocks with Illuminated Hands. 




<» EH 

•a a) 


o 3 

rH eg 

M.-B 1 

*■* a 


»-} SO 

W .S 

P .S 

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Every Watch in the latest Style, and most carefully Finished. 




Horizontal Construction, enamel 

A 1 B 
Gs. Gs. 

io a 





6 ! 

s ; 


Horizontal Construction, sound 

















Ditto, gold dial and strong case... 
Bennett'B superior London-made 

Horizontal Construction, gold 







Superior Lever (Geneva) 10 jewels 
Bennett's London-made Levers... 


Horizontal Construction, neat and 

flat, beautifully engraved cases 

Elegant Silver J)ials, 10s. 6d, extra 

Ditto (English), highly finished... 

Superior Lever, with Chronometer Balance. Bennett's Pocket Chronometer. 

Gold, 27, 23, and 19 Gs. Gold 50 Gs.; Silver, 40 Gs. 

Every Watch skilfully Examined, Timed, and its Performance Guaranteed. 

Post Office Orders, payable as under, will receive prompt attention.